Orderly
- neatly and methodically arranged.
- an attendant in a hospital responsible for the nonmedical care of patients and the maintenance of order and cleanliness
Soul Molester
William D. Campbell (1924-2013)
Cajole
- to persuade by flattery, gentle pleading, or insincere language.
- to elicit or obtain by flattery, gentle pleading, or insincere language: The athlete cajoled a signing bonus out of the team's owner.
Onus
a difficult or disagreeable responsibility or necessity; a burden or obligation
Visiting nurse
- a registered nurse employed by a public health agency or hospital to promote community health and especially to visit and administer treatment to sick people in their homes
- a registered nurse employed by a social service agency to give medical care to the sick in their homes or to implement other public health programs.
Certified Aging-in-Place Specialist (CAPS)
a Certified Aging-in-Place Specialist (CAPS) has been trained in: the unique needs of the older adult population, Aging-in-place home modifications, common remodeling projects and solutions to common barriers.
Naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCS)
are another source of support for older adults wishing to age in place. A NORC, though not built specifically for a certain age demographic, occurs where a congregation of residents 60 and older live cooperatively. Some offer recreational activities, preventative health and social services for the community. This model can be supported by local, state, and federal dollars as well as community businesses, neighborhood associations and private foundations.
"Aging in place" vs. "Nursing home" (In Middle Eastern ; Asian Countries)
for many countries in the Middle and Far East, it is part of the cultural beliefs for older adults to age in place. Many children believe it to be their duty to care for their parents as they age and therefore will move in with their parents when their assistance is needed. In many Middle Eastern countries,
nursing homes are just recently coming into existence due to cultural and generational shifts towards Western values.
Balletic
of, relating to, or characteristic of ballet: "a graceful, balletic movement"
'Settle a score with someone' and 'settle the score (with someone)'
- (Fig.) to clear up a problem with someone; to get even with someone. John wants to settle a score with his neighbor. Tom, it's time you and I settled the score.
Chock-full
- packed full to capacity; "chowder chockablock with pieces of fish"
- containing as much or as many as is possible or normal
Ficture
one that is invariably present in and long associated with a place: a journalist ho became a Washington fixture.
Working girl
a woman who engages in sexual intercourse for money
The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law (AP Stylebook)
- is a style and usage guide used by newspapers and in the news industry in the United States. The book is updated annually by Associated Press editors, usually in June.
- reporters, editors and others use the AP Stylebook as a guide for grammar, punctuation and principles and practices of reporting. Although some publications use a different style guide, the AP Stylebook is considered a newspaper industry standard and is also used by broadcasters, magazines and
public relations firms. It includes an A-to-Z listing of guides to
capitalization, abbreviation, spelling, numerals and usage.
"a rising tide lifts all boats"
is associated with the idea that improvements in the general economy will benefit all participants in that economy, and that economic policy, particularly government economic policy, should therefore focus on the general macroeconomic environment first and foremost. The phrase is commonly attributed to John F Kennedy, who used it in a 1963 speech to combat criticisms that a dam project he was inaugurating was a pork barrel project. However the phrase has been used more commonly to defend tax cuts and other policies where the initial beneficiaries are high income earners.
Aboulia or abulia
in neurology, refers to a lack of will or initiative and can be seen as a disorder of diminished motivation (DDM). Aboulia falls in the middle of the spectrum of diminished motivation, with apathy being less extreme and akinetic mutism being more extreme than aboulia. A patient with aboulia is unable to act or make decisions independently. It may range in severity from subtle to
overwhelming. It is also known as Blocq's disease (which also refers to abasia and astasia-abasia). Abulia was originally considered to be a disorder of the will.
Abreaction
- is a psychoanalytical term for reliving an experience in order to purge it of its emotional excesses; a type of catharsis. Sometimes it is a method of becoming conscious of repressed traumatic events.
- "Abreaction: concept introduced by Sigmund Freud in 1893 to denote the fact that pent-up emotions associated with a trauma can be discharged by talking about it. The release of affect occurred by bringing 'a particular moment or problem into
focus'... and as such formed the cornerstone of Freud's early cathartic method of treating hysterical conversion symptoms."
Absurdism
in philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any. In this context absurd does not mean "logically impossible", but rather "humanly impossible". The universe and the human mind do not each separately cause the Absurd, but rather, the Absurd arises by the contradictory nature of the two existing simultaneously.
Absurdism
is a philosophical school ofthought stating that the efforts of humanity to find inherent meaning will
ultimately fail (and hence are absurd) because the sheer amount of information as well as the vast realm of the unknown make certainty impossible. And yet, some absurdists state that one should embrace the absurd condition of humankind
while conversely continuing to explore and search for meaning. As a philosophy, absurdism thus also explores the fundamental nature of the Absurd and how individuals, once becoming conscious of the Absurd, should respond to it.
Academic Audit
- this technique is often employed by individuals who wish to take a specific course without the risk of under-performance resulting in a poor or failing grade. This can be helpful when reviewing a long-unstudied subject, or when first beginning the study of a discipline where one has little experience or confidence. Some students audit a class merely for enjoyment with no need or desire of academic credit.
- auditing is generally an option at institutions of higher learning (colleges, universities) rather than grammar school (K-12).
Academic Audit
- an audit is an educational term for the completion of a course of study for which no assessment is made or grade awarded. Some institutions may record a grade of "audit" to those who have elected not to receive a letter grade for a course in which they are typically awarded.
Academic Audit
- in this case, 'audit' indicates that the individual has merely received teaching, rather than achieved a given standard. The term 'audit' is Latin, translating as 'he hears'; in other words, the student has experienced the course but has not been assessed.
Academic elitism
is the criticism that academia or academicians are prone to elitism, or that certain experts or intellectuals propose ideas based more on support from academic colleagues than on real world experience. The term "ivory tower" often carries with it an implicit critique of academic elitism.
"Activity theory (implicit theory of aging, normal theory of aging, and lay theory of aging)"
proposes that successful aging occurs when older adults stay active and maintain social interactions. It takes the view that the ageing process is delayed and the quality of life is enhanced when old people remain socially active. The activity theory rose in opposing response to the disengagement theory. The activity theory and the disengagement theory were the two major theories that outlined successful aging in the early 1960s. The theory was developed by Robert J. Havighurst in 1961. In 1964, Bernice Neugarten asserted that satisfaction in old age depended on active maintenance of personal relationships and endeavors.
"Activity theory (implicit theory of aging, normal theory of aging, and lay theory of aging)"
proposes that successful aging occurs when older adults stay active and maintain social interactions. It takes the view that the ageing process is delayed and the quality of life is enhanced when old people remain socially active. The activity theory rose in opposing response to the disengagement theory. The activity theory and the disengagement theory were the two major theories that outlined successful aging in the early 1960s.
"Activity theory (implicit theory of aging, normal theory of aging, and lay theory of aging)"
The theory was developed by Robert J. Havighurst in 1961. In 1964, Bernice Neugarten asserted that satisfaction in old age depended on active maintenance of personal relationships and endeavors.the theory assumes that a positive relationship between activity and life satisfaction. One author suggests that activity enables older adults adjust to retirement and is named "the busy ethic".
"Activity theory (implicit theory of aging, normal theory of aging, and lay theory of aging)"
activity theory reflects the functionalist perspective that the equilibrium that an individual develops in middle age should be maintained in later years. The theory predicts that older adults that face role loss will substitute former roles with other alternatives.
"Activity theory (implicit theory of aging, normal theory of aging, and lay theory of aging)"
the activity theory is one of three major psychosocial theories which describe how people develop in old age.[6] The other two psychosocial theories are the disengagement theory, with which the activity comes to odds, and the continuity theory which modifies and elaborates upon the activity theory.
"Activity theory (implicit theory of aging, normal theory of aging, and lay theory of aging)"
though in recent years the acceptance activity theory has diminished, it is still used as a standard to compare observed activity and life satisfaction patterns.
Ad hoc hypothesis
is a hypothesis added to a theory in order to save it from being falsified. Ad hoc hypothesizing is compensating for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form.
Ad nauseam
is a Latin term for something unpleasurable that has continued "to [the point of] nausea". For example, the sentence, "This topic has been discussed ad nauseam", signifies that the topic in question has been discussed extensively, and that those involved in the discussion have grown tired of it.
Affirmative action (positive discrimination)
refers to policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, sex, or national origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group "in areas of employment, education, and business".
Albatross
is sometimes used metaphorically to mean a psychological burden that feels like a curse. It is an allusion to Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Albatross
In the poem, an albatross starts to follow a ship — being followed by an albatross was generally considered an omen of good luck. However, the titular mariner shoots the albatross with a crossbow, which is regarded as an act that will curse the ship (which indeed suffers terrible mishaps). To punish him, his companions induce him to wear the dead albatross around his neck indefinitely (until they all die from the curse, as it happens). Thus the albatross can be both an omen of good or bad luck, as well as a metaphor for a burden to be carried (as penance).
Aldous Leonard Huxley
was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. Best known for his novels including Brave New World and a wide-ranging output of essays, Huxley also edited the magazine Oxford Poetry, and published short stories, poetry, travel writing, film stories and scripts. He spent the later part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death.
Alexithymia
is a personality construct characterized by the sub-clinical inability to identify and describe emotions in the self. The core characteristics of alexithymia are marked dysfunction in emotional awareness, social attachment, and interpersonal relating. Furthermore, individuals suffering from alexithymia also have difficulty in distinguishing and appreciating the emotions
of others, which is thought to lead to unempathic and ineffective emotional responding. Alexithymia is prevalent in approximately 10% of the general population and is known to be comorbid with a number of psychiatric conditions.The term alexithymia was coined by psychotherapist Peter Sifneos in 1973.
Alogia
- is often considered a form of aphasia, which is a general impairment in linguistic ability. It often occurs with mental retardation and dementia as a result of damage to the left hemisphere of the brain. People can revert to alogia as a way of reverse psychology, or avoiding questions.
Alogia
- in psychology, is a general lack of additional, unprompted content seen in normal speech. As a symptom, it is commonly seen in patients suffering from schizophrenia, and is considered as a negative symptom. It can complicate psychotherapy severely because of the considerable difficulty in holding a
fluent conversation.
Anarcho-capitalism (free-market anarchism, market anarchism, private-property anarchism, libertarian anarchism)
is a libertarian political philosophy that advocates anarchy in the sense of the elimination of the state in favor of individual sovereignty in a free market. In an anarcho-capitalist society, law enforcement, courts, and all other security services would be provided by privately funded competitors rather than through taxation, and money would be privately and competitively provided in an open market. Therefore, personal and economic activities under anarcho-capitalism would be regulated by privately run law rather than through politics.
Anarcho-capitalism (free-market anarchism, market anarchism, private-property anarchism, libertarian anarchism)
various theorists have differing, though similar, legal philosophies which are considered to fall under "anarcho-capitalism." However, the first person to coin the term, and its most well-known version, was formulated by Austrian School
economist and libertarian Murray Rothbard in the mid-twentieth century, synthesizing elements from the Austrian School of economics, classical liberalism, and nineteenth century American individualist anarchists Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker (while rejecting their labor theory of value and the normative implications they derived from it). In Rothbardian anarcho-capitalism, there would first be the implementation of a mutually agreed-upon libertarian "legal code which would be generally accepted, and which the courts would pledge themselves to follow." This legal code would recognize sovereignty of the individual and the principle of non-aggression.
Animal magnetism
the term is translated from Mesmer's magnétisme animal. Mesmer chose the word animal to distinguish his supposed vital magnetic force from those referred to at that time as "mineral magnetism", "cosmic magnetism" and "planetary magnetism". The theory became the basis of treatment in Europe and the United States that was based on non verbal elements such as gaze, passes (movements of the hands near the body accompanied by intention of the operator), and mental elements as will and intention, and that sometimes depended also on "laying on of hands."
Animal magnetism
it was very popular into the nineteenth century, with a strong cultural impact. From some of the practices of animal magnetism branched out hypnotism, spiritualism, New Thought, so called "magnetic healing", and parapsychological research. Some forms of animal magnetism continue to be practiced, especially in continental Europe, even today (2013). In France, for example energy healers (that are seen as different from spiritual healers) are still called "magnétiseurs".
Animal magnetism
In modern usage, the phrase "animal magnetism" may refer to a person's sexual attractiveness or raw charisma.
Animism
is the religious worldview that natural physical entities—including animals, plants, and often even inanimate objects or phenomena—possess a spiritual essence. Specifically, animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the religion of indigenous tribal peoples, especially prior to the
development and/or infiltration of civilization and organized religion.
Anomic aphasia
- sometimes subjects may know what to do with an object, but still not be able to give a name to the object. For example, if a subject is shown an orange and asked what it is called, the subject may be well aware that the object can be peeled and eaten, and may even be able to demonstrate this by actions or even verbal responses - however, they can not recall that the object is called an "orange."
Anomic aphasia
- is a severe problem with recalling words or names.
- is a type of aphasia characterized by problems recalling words or names. Subjects often use circumlocutions (speaking in a roundabout way) in order to express a certain word for which they cannot remember the name. Sometimes the subject can recall the name when given clues. In addition,
patients are able to speak with correct grammar; the main problem is finding the appropriate word to identify an object or person.
Anomic aphasia
- sometimes, when a person with a condition is fully bilingual, in trying to find the right word he might confuse the language he speaks.
Antiphrasis
is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is used to mean the opposite of its usual sense, especially ironically.
Apartheid in South Africa
was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP) governments, who were the ruling party from 1948 to 1994, of South Africa, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and white supremacy and Afrikaner minority rule was maintained. Apartheid was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and Broederbond organisations and was practised also in South West Africa,
which was administered by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate (revoked in 1966 via United Nations Resolution 2145[2]), until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990.
Apartheid in South Africa
racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times under Dutch and British rule. However, apartheid as an official policy was introduced following the general election of 1948. New legislation classified inhabitants into four racial groups ("native", "white", "coloured", and "Asian"), and residential areas were segregated, sometimes by means of forced removals. Non-white political representation was completely abolished in 1970, and starting in that year black people were deprived of their citizenship, legally becoming citizens of one of ten tribally based self-governing homelands called bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states. The government segregated education, medical care, beaches, and other public services, and provided black people with services inferior to those of white people.
Apartheid in South Africa
apartheid sparked significant internal resistance and violence as well as a long arms and trade embargo against South Africa.[7] Since the 1950s, a series of popular uprisings and protests were met with the banning of opposition and imprisoning of anti-apartheid leaders. As unrest spread and became more
effective and militarised, state organisations responded with repression and violence.
Apartheid in South Africa
reforms to apartheid in the 1980s failed to quell the mounting opposition, and in 1990 President Frederik Willem de Klerk began negotiations to end apartheid, culminating in multi-racial democratic elections in 1994, which were won by the African National Congress under Nelson Mandela. The vestiges of
apartheid still shape South African politics and society. Although the official abolishment of Apartheid occurred in 1990 with repeal of the last of the remaining Apartheid laws, the end of Apartheid is widely regarded as arising from the 1994 democratic general elections.
Apostasy
- the term is occasionally also used metaphorically to refer to renunciation of a non-religious belief or cause, such as a political party, brain trust, or a sports team.
- apostasy is generally not a self-definition: very few former believers call themselves apostates because of the pejorative implications of the term.
Apostasy
is the formal disaffiliation from or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person. One who commits apostasy (or who apostatises) is known as an apostate. The term apostasy is used by sociologists to mean renunciation and criticism of, or opposition to, a person's former religion, in a technical sense
and without pejorative connotation.
Apostasy
many religious groups and some states punish apostates. Apostates may be shunned by the members of their former religious group or subjected to formal or informal punishment. This may be the official policy of the religious group or may be the action of its members. Certain churches may in certain circumstances excommunicate the apostate, while some religious scriptures demand the death penalty for apostates.
"Appeal to emotion or argumentum ad passiones"
this kind of thinking may be evident in one who lets emotions and/or other subjective considerations influence one's reasoning process. This kind of appeal to emotion is a type of red herring and encompasses several logical fallacies,
including:
Appeal to consequences, Appeal to fear, Appeal to flattery,
Appeal to pity, Appeal to ridicule, Appeal to spite, Wishful thinking
"Appeal to emotion or argumentum ad passiones"
is a logical fallacy which uses the manipulation of the recipient's emotions, rather than valid logic, to win an argument. The appeal to emotion fallacy uses emotions as the basis of an argument's position without factual evidence that logically supports the major ideas endorsed by the elicitor of the argument.
Appeal to tradition
is a common fallacy in which a thesis is deemed correct on the basis that it correlates with some past or present tradition. The appeal takes the form of "this is right because we've always done it this way."
An appeal to tradition essentially makes two assumptions that are not necessarily true:
- the old way of thinking was proven correct when introduced, i.e. since the old way of thinking was prevalent, it was necessarily correct. In actuality this may be false—the tradition might be entirely based on incorrect grounds.The past justifications for the tradition are still valid at present. In actuality, the circumstances may have changed; this assumption may also therefore be untrue.The opposite of an appeal to tradition is an appeal to novelty, claiming something is good because it is new.
Archetype
in psychology, an archetype is a model of a person, personality, or behavior.
Archetype
is a universally understood symbol, term, statement, or pattern of behavior, a prototype upon which others are copied, patterned, or emulated. Archetypes are often used in myths and storytelling across different cultures.
Archetype
in philosophy, archetypes have, since Plato, referred to ideal forms of the perceived or sensible objects or types.
In the analysis of personality, the term archetype is often broadly used to refer to:
a stereotype— a personality type observed multiple times, especially an oversimplification of such a type. An epitome— a personality type exemplified, especially the "greatest" such example.
A literary term to express details. Archetype refers to a generic version of a personality. In this sense, "mother figure" may be considered an archetype, and may be identified in various
characters with otherwise distinct (non-generic) personalities.
Archetypes
Archetypes are likewise supposed to have been present in folklore and literature for thousands of years, including prehistoric artwork. The use of archetypes to illuminate personality and literature was advanced by Carl Jung early in the 20th century, who suggested the existence of universal contentless forms that channel experiences and emotions, resulting in recognizable and typical patterns of behavior with certain probable outcomes. Archetypes are cited as important to both ancient mythology and modern narratives.
Artificial intuition
is the capacity of an artificial object or software to function with intuition, or a machine-based system that has some capacity to function analogous to the human intuition.
Attentional control
refers to individuals' capacity to choose what they pay attention to and what they ignore. It is also known as endogenous attention or executive attention. In lay terms, attentional control can be described as an individual's ability to concentrate. Primarily mediated by the frontal areas of the brain including the anterior cingulate cortex, attentional control is thought to be closely related to other executive functions such as working memory.
"Attribution bias or attributional bias"
is a cognitive bias that refers to the systematic errors made when people evaluate and/or try to find reasons for their own and others' behaviors. People constantly make attributions regarding the cause of their own and others' behaviors; however, attributions do not always accurately mirror reality. Rather than operating as objective perceivers, people are prone
to perceptual errors that lead to biased interpretations of their social world.
"Attribution bias or attributional bias"
attribution biases were first discussed the 1950s and 60s by psychologists such as Fritz Heider, who studied attribution theory. Other psychologists, such as Harold Kelley and Ed Jones expanded Heider's early work by identifying conditions under which people are more or less likely to make different types of attributions.
"Attribution bias or attributional bias"
attribution biases are present in everyday life, and therefore are an important and relevant topic to study. For example, when a driver cuts us off, we are more likely to attribute blame to the reckless driver (e.g., "What a jerk!"), rather than situational circumstances (e.g., "Maybe they were in a rush and didn't
notice me"). Additionally, there are many different types of attribution biases, such as the fundamental attribution error, actor-observer bias, and hostile attribution bias. Each of these biases describes a specific tendency that people exhibit when reasoning about the cause of different behaviors.
"Attribution bias or attributional bias"
since the early work, researchers have continued to examine how and why people exhibit biased interpretations of social information. Many different types of attribution biases have been identified, and more recent psychological research on these biases has examined how attribution biases can subsequently affect emotions and behavior.
Attrition warfare
is a military strategy in which a belligerent side attempts to win a war by wearing down its enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel. The war will usually be won by the side with greater such resources.
Atychiphobia
a person afflicted with atychiphobia considers the possibility of failure so intense that they choose not to take the risk. Oftentimes this person will subconsciously undermine their own efforts so that they no longer have to continue to try. Because effort is proportionate to the achievement of personal goals and fulfillment, this unwillingness to try that arises from the perceived inequality between the possibilities of success and failure holds the atychiphobic back from a life of meaning and the realization of potential.
Atychiphobia
is the abnormal, unwarranted, and persistent fear of failure. As with many phobias, atychiphobia often leads to a constricted lifestyle, and is particularly devastating for its effects on a person's willingness to attempt certain activities.
Atychiphobia
by definition, the anxiety of any particular phobia is understood to be disproportionate to reality, and the victim is typically aware that the fear is irrational, making the problem a largely subconscious one. For this reason there are no simple treatments for atychiphobia, however there are several options available.
Automaticity
is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice.
Automaticity
examples of automaticity are common activities such as walking, speaking, bicycle-riding, assembly-line work, and driving a car (see Highway hypnosis). After an activity is sufficiently practiced, it is possible to focus the mind on other activities or thoughts while undertaking an automaticized activity (for example, holding a conversation or planning a speech while driving a car).
Avolition
is a psychological state characterized by general lack of drive, or motivation to pursue meaningful goals. A person may show little participation in work or have little interest in socializing. They may sit still for long periods of time. It is commonly seen in patients with schizophrenia, and is one of the five main "negative" symptoms of that disorder, the others being flat affect, alogia, anhedonia, and asociality. It is sometimes mistaken for simple disinterest or anhedonia but is distinct. People with avolition may want to complete certain tasks but lack the motivation to complete them.
Avolition
literally meaning "poverty of will," it is a restriction in initiation and production of goal directed behavior. Abulia (poverty of motivation) - is a restriction in will or motivation, often characterized by an inability to set goals or make decisions.
In the DSM-IV-TR, avolition is mentioned as one of the possible symptoms of schizophrenia.
Bait-and-switch
is a form of fraud used in retail sales but also practiced in other contexts. First, customers are "baited" by merchants' advertising products or services at a low price, but when customers visit the store, they discover that the advertised goods are not available, or the customers are pressured by sales people to consider similar, but higher priced items ("switching").
"Balance of power theory"
is the idea that national security is enhanced when military capabilities are distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others. If one state gains inordinate power, the theory predicts that it will take advantage of its strength and attack weaker neighbors thereby providing an incentive for those threatened to unite in a defensive coalition. Some realists maintain that this would be more stable as aggression would appear unattractive and would be averted if there was equilibrium of power between the rival coalitions.
"Balance of power theory"
when confronted by a significant external threat, states may balance or bandwagon. Balancing is defined as allying with others against the prevailing threat, whereas bandwagoning refers to alignment with the source of danger. States may also employ other alliance tactics, such as buck-passing and chain-ganging. There is a longstanding debate among realists with regard to how the polarity of a system impacts on which tactic states use, however, it is generally agreed that balancing is more efficient in bipolar systems as each great power has no choice but to directly confront the other. Along with inter-Realist debates about the prevalence of balancing in alliance patterns, other schools of International Relations, such as constructivists, are also critical of the balance of power theory, disputing core realist assumptions regarding the international system and the behavior of states.
"Balance sheet or statement of financial position"
is a summary of the financial balances of a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation or other business organization, such as an LLC or an LLP. Assets, liabilities and ownership equity are listed as of a specific date, such as the end of its financial year. A balance sheet is often described as a
"snapshot of a company's financial condition". Of the four basic financial statements, the balance sheet is the only statement which applies to a single point in time of a business' calendar year.
"Balance sheet or statement of financial position"
a standard company balance sheet has three parts: assets, liabilities and ownership equity. The main categories of assets are usually listed first, and typically in order of liquidity. Assets are followed by the liabilities. The difference between the assets and the liabilities is known as equity or the net assets or the net worth or capital of the company and according to the accounting equation, net worth must equal assets minus liabilities.
"Balance sheet or statement of financial position"
another way to look at the same equation is that assets equals liabilities plus owner's equity. Looking at the equation in this way shows how assets were financed: either by borrowing money (liability) or by using the owner's money (owner's equity). Balance sheets are usually presented with assets in one section and liabilities and net worth in the other section with the two sections "balancing."
"Balance sheet or statement of financial position"
a business operating entirely in cash can measure its profits by withdrawing the entire bank balance at the end of the period, plus any cash in hand. However, many businesses are not paid immediately; they build up inventories of goods and they acquire buildings and equipment. In other words: businesses have assets and so they cannot, even if they want to, immediately turn these into cash at the end of each period. Often, these businesses owe money to suppliers and to tax authorities, and the proprietors do not withdraw all their original capital and profits at the end of each period. In other words businesses also have liabilities.
Bandwagoning
occurs when a state aligns with a stronger, adversarial power and concedes that the stronger adversary-turned-partner disproportionately gains the spoils they conquer together. Bandwagoning, therefore, is a strategy employed by weak states. The logic stipulates that an outgunned, weaker state should align itself with a stronger adversary because the latter can take what it wants by force anyway. Thucydides' famous dictum, "the strong do what they can and the weak suffer what they must," captures the essence of bandwagoning.
Bandwagoning
Bandwagoning was coined by Quincy Wright in A Study of War (1942) and popularized by Kenneth Waltz in Theory of International Politics (1979) (in his work, Waltz incorrectly attributes Stephen Van Evera with coining the term). Bandwagoning occurs when weaker states decide that the
cost of opposing a stronger power exceeds the benefits. The stronger power may offer incentives, such as the possibility of territorial gain, trade agreements, or protection, to induce weaker states to join with it.
Bandwagoning
- realism predicts that states will bandwagon only when there is no possibility of building a balancing coalition or their geography makes balancing difficult (i.e. surrounded by enemies). Bandwagoning is considered to be dangerous because it allows a rival state to gain power.
- is opposed to balancing, which calls for a state to prevent an aggressor from upsetting the balance of power.
"Base and Superstructure"
the base determines (conditions) the superstructure, yet their relation is not strictly causal, because the superstructure often influences the base; the influence of the base, however, predominates. In Orthodox Marxism, the base determines the superstructure in a one-way relationship. However, in more advanced forms and variations of Marxist thought their relationship is not strictly one-way, as some theories claim that just as the base influences the superstructure, the superstructure also influences the base.
"Base and Superstructure"
in Marxist theory, human society consists of two parts: the base and superstructure; the base comprehends the forces and relations of production — employer-employee work conditions, the technical division of labour, and property relations — into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life. These relations determine society's other relationships and
ideas, which are described as its superstructure. The superstructure of a society includes its culture, institutions, political power structures, roles, rituals, and state.
"Battered woman defense" also referred to as "Battered woman syndrome"
is a defense used in court that the person accused of an assault / murder was suffering from battered person syndrome at the material time. Because the defense is most commonly used by women, it is usually characterised in court as
battered woman syndrome or battered wife syndrome. There is currently no medical classification to support the existence of this "syndrome" in the sense used by lawyers, though it has historically been invoked in court systems. Although the
condition is not gender-specific, the admission of evidence regarding battered woman syndrome as relevant the defense of self-defense is commonly understood as a response by some jurisdictions to perceived gender-bias in the criminal law.
"Battered woman defense" also referred to as "Battered woman syndrome"
this is a reference to any person who, because of constant and severe domestic violence usually involving physical abuse by a partner, may become depressed and/or unable to take any independent action that would allow him or her to escape the abuse. The condition explains why abused people may not seek
assistance from others, fight their abuser, or leave the abusive situation. Sufferers may have low self-esteem, and are often led to believe that the abuse is their fault. Such persons may refuse to press charges against their abuser, or refuse all offers of help, perhaps even becoming aggressive or abusive to others who attempt to offer assistance. This has been problematic because there is no consensus in the medical profession that such abuse results in a mental condition severe enough to excuse alleged offenders. Nevertheless, the law makes
reference to a psychological condition, even though neither the DSM nor the ICD medical classification guides as currently drafted includes the syndrome in the sense used by lawyers.
"Bias blind spot"
is the cognitive bias of failing to compensate for one's own cognitive biases. The term was created by Emily Pronin, a social psychologist from Princeton University's Department of Psychology, with colleagues Daniel Lin and Lee Ross. The bias blind spot is named after the visual blind spot.
"Bias blind spot"
pronin and her co-authors explained to subjects the better-than-average effect, the halo effect, self-serving bias and many other cognitive biases. According to the better-than-average bias, specifically, people are likely to see themselves as inaccurately "better than average" for possible positive traits and "less
than average" for negative traits. When subsequently asked how biased they themselves were, subjects rated themselves as being much less vulnerable to those biases than the average person.
"Big red button (BRB)"
sometimes called a big red switch (BRS), is a real or fictional button with various functions. The purpose of being big and red is for its quick identification and actuation. In its more ominous forms, the phrases are often capitalized as the Big Red Button or the Big Red Switch.
"Black-and-white dualism"
the colors White and Black are widely used to depict opposites. Visually, white and black offer a high contrast. In western culture, white and black traditionally symbolize the dichotomy of good and evil, metaphorically related to light and darkness and day and night. The dichotomy of light and darkness appears already in the Pythagorean Table of Opposites.
"Black operation or black op"
a single such activity may be called a "black bag operation"; that term is primarily used for covert or clandestine surreptitious entries into structures to obtain information for human intelligence operations.[4] Such operations are known to have been carried out by the FBI,[5] the Central Intelligence Agency, Mossad, MI6 and the intelligence services of other nations.
"Black operation or black op"
is a covert operation by a government, a government agency, or a military organization. This can include activities by private companies or groups. A black operation typically involves activities that are highly clandestine and often outside of standard military/intelligence protocol, sometimes against the law. Key features of a black operation are that it is clandestine, it has negative overtones, and it is not attributable to the organization carrying it out. The main difference between a black operation and one that is merely clandestine is that a black operation involves a significant degree of deception, to conceal who is behind it or to make it appear that some other entity is responsible ("false flag" operations).
"Blunt instrument"
is any solid object used as a weapon, which damages its target by applying direct mechanical force, and has no penetrating point or edge, or is wielded so that the point or edge is not the part of the weapon that inflicts the injury. Blunt instruments may be contrasted with edged weapons, which inflict injury by cutting or stabbing, or projectile weapons, where the projectiles, such as bullets or shot, are accelerated to a penetrating speed.
- blunt instruments typically inflict blunt force trauma, causing bruising, fractures and other internal bleeding. Depending on the parts of the body attacked, organs may be ruptured or otherwise damaged. Attacks with a blunt instrument may be fatal.
"Blunt instrument"
Some sorts of blunt instruments are very readily available, and often figure in crime cases. Examples of blunt instruments include:Personal implements such as walking sticks. Tools such as hammers or wrecking bars. Parts of tools, such as pickaxe handles. Sports equipment such as cricket or baseball bats, hockey sticks, pool cues, golf clubs, etc. Weapons such as nightsticks, bâtons français, axes (using the back of the blade), spears (using the haft), or guns (see firearm as a blunt weapon) Other items, such as millwall bricks or tree branches
Bohemian Grove
is a 2,700-acre campground located at 20601 Bohemian Avenue, in Monte Rio, California, belonging to a private San Francisco-based men's art club known as the Bohemian Club. In mid-July each year, Bohemian Grove hosts a two-week, three-weekend encampment of some of the most powerful men in the world.
Boiling frog story
is a widespread anecdote describing a frog slowly being boiled alive. The premise is that if a frog is placed in boiling water, it will jump out, but if it is placed in cold water that is slowly heated, it will not perceive the danger and will be cooked to death. The story is often used as a metaphor for the inability of people to react to significant changes that occur gradually.
According to contemporary biologists the premise of the story is not literally true; a frog submerged and gradually heated will jump out. However, some 19th-century experiments suggested that the underlying premise is true, provided the heating is sufficiently gradual.
"Bucket brigade" or "human chain"
- is a method for transporting items where items are passed from one stationary person to the next.
- a human chain unloads a warehouse after the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
"Bucket brigade" or "human chain"
- the method was important in firefighting before the advent of hand pumped fire engines, whereby firefighters would pass buckets to each other to extinguish a blaze. A famous example of this is the Union Fire Company. This technique is still common where using machines to move water, supplies, or other items would be impractical.
- the method is applicable only if the number of participants is sufficient compared to the distance to cross.
"Buffer state"
is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. Buffer states, when authentically independent, typically pursue a neutralist foreign policy, which distinguishes them from satellite states. The conception of buffer states is part of the theory of balance of power that entered European strategic and diplomatic thinking in the 17th century. In the 19th century, the manipulation of buffer states like Afghanistan and the Central Asian emirates was an element in the diplomatic "Great Game" played out between the British and Russian Empire for control of the approaches to strategic mountain passes that led to British India.
"Business model"
- describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value (economic, social, cultural, or other forms of value). The process of business model construction is part of business strategy.
"Business model"
- in theory and practice, the term business model is used for a broad range of informal and formal descriptions to represent core aspects of a business, including purpose, offerings, strategies, infrastructure, organizational structures, trading practices, and operational processes and policies. The literature has provided very diverse interpretations and definitions of a
business model. A systematic review and analysis of manager responses to a survey defines business models as the design of organizational structures to enact a commercial opportunity. Further extensions to this design logic emphasize the use of narrative or coherence in business model descriptions as
mechanisms by which entrepreneurs create extraordinarily successful growth firms.
"Business model"
- whenever a business is established, it either explicitly or implicitly employs a particular business model that describes the architecture of the value creation, delivery, and capture mechanisms employed by the business enterprise. The
essence of a business model is that it defines the manner by which the business enterprise delivers value to customers, entices customers to pay for value, and converts those payments to profit: it thus reflects management's hypothesis
about what customers want, how they want it, and how an enterprise can organize to best meet those needs, get paid for doing so, and make a profit.
"Business model"
- business models are used to describe and classify businesses (especially in an entrepreneurial setting), but they are also used by managers inside companies to explore possibilities for future development. Also, well known business models operate as recipes for creative managers. Business models are also referred to in some instances within the context of accounting for purposes of public reporting.
Business Process Modeling (BPM)
- (in systems engineering) is the activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analyzed and improved. BPM is typically performed by business
analysts and managers who are seeking to improve process efficiency and quality. The process improvements identified by BPM may or may not require information technology involvement, although that is a common driver for the need to model a business process, by creating a process master.
Business Process Modeling (BPM)
- change management programs are typically involved to put the improved business processes into practice. With advances in technology from large platform vendors, the vision of BPM models becoming fully executable (and capable of simulations and round-trip engineering) is coming closer to reality.
Buzzword
- is a word or phrase used to impress, or an expression which is fashionable. Buzzwords often originate in jargon. Buzzwords are often neologisms.
- the term was first used in 1946 as student slang.
Cabin fever
- a person may experience cabin fever in a situation such as being in a simple country vacation cottage. When experiencing cabin fever, a person may tend to sleep, have distrust of anyone they are with, and an urge to go outside even in the rain, snow, dark or hail. The phrase is also used humorously to indicate
simple boredom from being home alone.
Cabin fever
- is an idiomatic term for a claustrophobic reaction that takes place when a person or group is isolated and/or shut in a small space, with nothing to do for an extended period. Cabin fever describes the extreme irritability and restlessness a person may feel in these situations.
Caliphate
In theory, the organization of a caliphate should be a constitutional theocracy, (the Constitution being the Constitution of Medina), which means that the head of state, the Caliph, and other officials are representatives of the people and of Islam and must govern according to constitutional and religious law, or Sharia. In its early days, the first caliphate resembled elements of direct democracy and an elective monarchy.
Caliphate
is an Islamic state led by a supreme religious as well as political leader known as a caliph (meaning literally a successor, i.e. a successor to the prophet Muhammad). The term caliphate is often applied to successions of Muslim empires that have existed in the Middle East and Southwest Asia. Conceptually the
caliphate represents the political unity of the entire community of Muslim faithful (the ummah) ruled by a single caliph.
Caliphate
- it was initially led by Muhammad's disciples as a continuation of the leaders and religious system the prophet established, known as the 'Rashidun caliphates'. A "caliphate" is also a state which implements such a governmental system.
- the caliphate was "the core leader concept of Sunni Islam, by the consensus of the Muslim majority in the early centuries."[3]
Caliphate
- it was initially led by Muhammad's disciples as a continuation of the leaders and religious system the prophet established, known as the 'Rashidun caliphates'. A "caliphate" is also a state which implements such a governmental system.
Caliphate
- sunni Islam stipulates that the head of state, the caliph, should be elected by Shura - elected by Muslims or their representatives. Followers of Shia Islam believe the caliph should be an imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt
(Muhammad's purified progeny). From the end of the Rashidun period until 1924, caliphates, sometimes two at a single time, real and illusory, were ruled by dynasties. The first dynasty was the Umayyad. This was followed by the Abbasid, the Fatimid (not recognized by Muslims outside the Fatimid domain), and finally the Ottoman Dynasty.
Calque (loan translation)
is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Capacity utilization
is a concept in economics and managerial accounting which refers to the extent to which an enterprise or a nation actually uses its installed productive capacity. Thus, it refers to the relationship between actual output that 'is' actually produced with the installed equipment, and the potential output which
'could' be produced with it, if capacity was fully used.
Capitulation
- it is an ordinary incident of war, and therefore no previous instructions from the captors' government are required before finally settling the conditions of capitulation. The most usual of such conditions are freedom of religion and security of private property on the one hand, and a promise not to bear arms
within a certain period on the other.
Cascade Effect
- an agreement in time of war for the surrender to a hostile armed force of a particular body of troops, a town or a territory.
Cascade Effect
is an unforeseen chain of events due to an act affecting a system. If there is a possibility that the cascade effect will have a negative impact on the system, it is possible to analyze the effects with a consequence/impact analysis. Cascade effects are commonly visualised in tree structures, also called event
trees.
Catharsis
refers to the purification and purgation of emotions—especially pity and fear—through art or to any extreme change in emotion that results in renewal and restoration. It is a metaphor originally used by Aristotle in the Poetics to describe the effects of tragedy on the spectator.
Chain of custody (CoC)
- the term is also sometimes used in the fields of history, art history, and archives as a synonym for provenance (meaning the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object, document or group of documents), which may be an important factor in determining authenticity.
Chain of custody (CoC)
- in legal contexts, refers to the chronological documentation or paper trail, showing the seizure, custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of physical or electronic evidence.
- particularly important in criminal cases, the concept is also applied in civil litigation - and sometimes more broadly in drug testing of athletes, traceability of food products and to provide assurances that wood products originate from sustainably managed forests.
Chain reaction
- chain reactions are one way in which systems which are in thermodynamic non-equilibrium can release energy or increase entropy in order to reach a state of higher entropy. For example, a system may not be able to reach a lower energy state by releasing energy into the environment, because it is hindered in some way from taking the path that will result in the energy release. If a reaction results in a small energy release making way for more energy releases in an expanding chain, then the system will typically collapse explosively until much or all of the stored energy has been released. Since chain reactions result in energy transformation into forms associated with larger amounts of entropy. In accordance with the laws of thermodynamics, the reactions cannot be reversed.
Chain reaction
- is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place. In a chain reaction, positive feedback leads to a self-amplifying chain of events.
Chain reaction
- a macrosopic metaphor for chain reactions is thus a snowball causing larger snowfall until finally an avalanche results ("snowball effect"). This is a result of stored gravitational potential energy seeking a path of release over friction. Chemically, the equivalent to a snow avalanche is a spark causing a forest fire. In nuclear physics, a single stray neutron can result in an prompt critical event, which may be finally be energetic enough for a nuclear reactor meltdown or (in a bomb) a nuclear explosion.
"Choice-supportive bias"
- once an action has been taken, the ways in which we evaluate the effectiveness of what we did may be biased. It is believed this may influence our future decision-making. These biases may be stored as memories, which are attributions that we make about our mental experiences based on their subjective qualities, our prior knowledge and beliefs, our motives and goals, and the social context. True and false memories arise by the same mechanism because when the brain processes and stores information, it cannot tell the difference from where they came from.
"Choice-supportive bias"
- what is remembered about a decision can be as important as the decision itself, especially in determining how much regret or satisfaction one experiences. Research indicates that the process of making and remembering choices yields memories that tend to be distorted in predictable ways. In cognitive science, one predictable way that memories of choice options are distorted is that positive aspects tend to be remembered as part of the chosen option, whether or not they originally were part of that option, and negative aspects tend to be remembered as part of rejected options.
"Choice-supportive bias"
- is the tendency to retroactively ascribe positive attributes to an option one has selected. It is a cognitive bias.
Circumstantial speech (also referred to as circumstantiality)
- is a communication disorder in which the focus of a conversation drifts, but often comes back to the point. In circumstantiality, unnecessary details and irrelevant remarks cause a delay in getting to the point.
Circumstantial speech (also referred to as circumstantiality)
- circumstantial speech is less severe than tangential speech in which the speaker wanders and drifts and usually never returns to the original topic, and is far less severe than logorrhea.
Clandestine cell structure
in the context of tradecraft, covert and clandestine are not synonymous. The adversary is aware that a covert activity is happening, but does not know who is doing it, and certainly not their sponsorship. Clandestine activities, however, if successful, are completely unknown to the adversary, and their function, such as espionage, would be neutralized if there was any awareness of the activity. A overt cell structure is tantamount to a contradiction in terms, because the point of the cell structure is that its details are completely hidden from the opposition.
Clandestine cell structure
is a method for organizing a group of people in such a way that it can more effectively resist penetration by an opposing organization. Depending on the group's philosophy, its operational area, the communications technologies available, and the nature of the mission, it can range from a strict hierarchy to an extremely distributed organization. It is also a method used by criminal organizations, undercover operatives, and unconventional warfare (UW) led by special forces. Historically, clandestine organizations have avoided electronic
communications, because signals intelligence is a strength of conventional militaries and counterintelligence organizations.
Clandestine cell structure
is a method for organizing a group of people in such a way that it can more effectively resist penetration by an opposing organization. Depending on the group's philosophy, its operational area, the communications technologies available, and the nature of the mission, it can range from a strict hierarchy to an extremely distributed organization. It is also a method used by criminal organizations, undercover operatives, and unconventional warfare (UW) led by special forces. Historically, clandestine organizations have avoided electronic
communications, because signals intelligence is a strength of conventional militaries and counterintelligence organizations.
Clandestine cell structure
- a sleeper cell refers to a cell, or isolated grouping of sleeper agents that lies dormant until it receives orders or decides to act.
Clouding of consciousness (also known as brain fog or mental fog)
is a term used in conventional medicine denoting an abnormality in the "regulation" of the "overall level" of consciousness that is mild and less severe than a delirium. The sufferer experiences a subjective sensation of mental clouding described as feeling "foggy".
Cognitive bias
is a pattern of deviation in judgment, whereby inferences of other people and situations may be drawn in an illogical fashion.Individuals create their own "subjective social reality" from their perception of the input. An individual's construction of social reality, not the objective input, may dictate one's behaviour in the social world. Thus, cognitive biases may
sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality.
Cognitive bias
some cognitive biases are presumably adaptive. Cognitive biases may lead to more effective actions in a given context (e.g. Gigerenzer & Goldstein, 1996). Furthermore, cognitive biases enable faster decisions when timeliness is more valuable than accuracy, as illustrated in heuristics. Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations, resulting from a lack of
appropriate mental mechanisms (bounded rationality), or simply from a limited capacity for information processing.
"Cognitive bias"
a continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics. Cognitive biases are important to study because "systematic errors" highlight the "psychological
processes that underlie perception and judgement" Moreover, Kahneman and Tversky (1996) argue cognitive biases have
efficient practical implications for areas including clinical judgment.
Colloquialism
is a word, phrase or paralanguage that is employed in conversational or informal language but not in formal speech or formal writing. Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation colloq. as an identifier. Colloquialisms are sometimes referred to collectively as "colloquial language". A colloquial name is a word or term used for identification that is employed in conversational or informal language but not in formal speech or formal writing.
Religious colloquy
is a meeting to settle differences of doctrine or dogma, also called a colloquium (meeting, discussion), as in the historical Colloquy at Poissy, and like the legal colloquy, most often with a certain degree of judging involved. Religious colloquys are relatively common as a means to avoid calling full synods and avoiding out and out breaches leading to schisms.
Religious colloquy
colloquy may also be considered, the conversation of prayer with God. A private opportunity with God the Father, to plead ones need for assistance, reassurance or forgiveness. St. Gregory of Nyssa is quoted as saying "Prayer is conversation, and colloquy with God" Discussions between religious and theological pioneers of the evolving or established religions and confessions have been part of the history of Christianity from its beginning to the present.
Religious colloquy
an overview and bibliography have not been available previously, and the history has not been written. Up until now only some prominent examples and periods have
been explored. The present work is the first attempt to fill this gap for Western Europe, i.e. for the Latin Church from the period of the unity of Church and State (381 - 1789/1815). The emphasis is on a survey made as comprehensive as possible of the discussions, their institutional form, their development, as
well as their theological themes and problems. The detailed Table of Contents is followed by the author's research report on his survey from the 16th Century onwards and on the scholarly analysis since the 18th Century. There is also a formulation of the author's research aims and methods.
The School of General Studies (commonly known as General Studies or simply GS)
is one of the three official undergraduate colleges at Columbia University. It is a highly selective Ivy League undergraduate liberal arts college known for its non-traditional and international students; GS confers Bachelor of Art and Bachelor of Science degrees in over seventy different majors. GS students take
the same courses with the same faculty, are held to the same high standards, and earn the same degree as all other Columbia undergraduates. GS students, who comprise of approximately 25% of all Columbia undergraduates, have the highest average GPA of all the undergraduate schools at Columbia.
Comfort zone
is a behavioural state within which a person operates in an anxiety-neutral condition, using a limited set of behaviours to deliver a steady level of performance, usually without a sense of risk (White 2009).[1] A person's personality can be described by his or her comfort zones. Highly successful persons may routinely step outside their comfort zones, to accomplish what they wish.
Comfort zone
a comfort zone is a type of mental conditioning that causes a person to create and operate mental boundaries. Such boundaries create an unfounded sense of security. Like inertia, a person who has established a comfort zone in a particular axis of his or her life, will tend to stay within that zone without stepping outside of it. To step outside their comfort zone, a person must experiment with new and different behaviours, and then experience the new and different responses that occur within their environment.
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