Specialized Specialty-specific Health Information Standards Walden university In order to properly care for patients, health care providers realized that each area of specialty needs to have a standardized way to communicate and share information. As a result, groups such as pharmacists, nurses, dentists and others have developed electronic standards of codes, nomenclatures and measurements to transmit data. They have even standardized the integration of various systems in an effort to manage patients by standardizing care across sectors, regions and the world.

Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes The Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOIN) were developed by Registered Institute Inc. , an international nonprofit, medical research organization affiliated with the University of Indiana (Genealogy, 2010). The first universal identifier of laboratory observation was developed by Registered Institute and the LOIN committee in 1994 (Genealogy, 2010).

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LOIN is a standard set of universal Identifiers for observations that was develop to facilitate the electronic sharing of clinical laboratory data In Health Level Seven (HAL) messages to facilitate the aggregation and exchange of results used for clinical care and management purposes (Freeman, 2010). LOIN names are multiracial and composed of 6 main parts or axes (Genealogy, 2010). The names are fully specified because they contain entries of each of the six axes (Genealogy, 2010). It was originally developed specifically for laboratory observations (Armenia, 2007).

However, its use has by Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DOTCOM) ultrasound messaging, Clinical Data Interchange Standards and Consortium (CADIS), pharmaceutical industry messaging and can be used in clinical and research database (McDonald, et l, 2003). LOIN is endorsed and has been adopted internationally as the national laboratory standard in many countries including the United States (Armenia, 2007). Since the initial release of LOIN in 1995 there have been 18 releases (Mcdonald et al, 2003).

The current database LOIN 2. 44 was released June 29, 2013 and contains over 72,625 terms, including codes for many clinical subjects beyond the laboratory, added short names for laboratory tests, free browsing programs, and the Registered LOIN Mapping Assistant (Freeman, 2013). LOIN codes are now developed in three divisions (McDonald, et al, 2003). The laboratory LOIN division is the largest most widely used and best developed system (McDonald et al, 2003). It is exclusive to laboratory observation (McDonald et al, 2003).

The Clinical LOIN division relates to non-laboratory diagnostic studies, critical care, and nursing measures, as well as the history, physical, and survey of instruments (McDonald et al, 2003). The third division pertains to the proposal for the Health Insurance and Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPO) attachments mandates for payment, enrollment, administrative functions, and claims (McDonald et al, 2003). LOIN codes are maintained by the Registered Institute Inc. And the LOIN committee (Genealogy, 2010). New versions are released semiannually in June and December of each year (Freeman, 2010).

North American Nursing Diagnosis Association North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (AND) classification system is one of the terminologies recognized and adopted by the American Nursing Association as one of the standard languages for nursing (Genealogy, 2010). AND is a set of nursing diagnosis that is published and approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, International (Warren & Haskins, 1990). The classification is organized around thirteen domains with each list containing two or more classes (Genealogy, 2010).

AND was established from an alphabetic list in the mid-sass into a concrete multiracial taxonomy system that refine and classify nursing diagnosis into different categories (Genealogy, 2010). Since 1982 AND has undergone many changes and updates (Rutherford, 2008). Some of the changes include submission to the World Health Organization for inclusion in the International Classification of Disease in 1986, international participation in 1988, title hanged to Nursing Diagnosis in 1997, and became the international recognized development of nursing terminology in 2002 (AND. Org, n. D. ). The international version now has over 200 nursing diagnosis (AND. Org, n. D. ). AND celebrated its 40th anniversary and renamed the AND International (AND-I) Journal as the International Journal of Nursing Knowledge in 2012(AND. Org, n. D. ). The purpose of AND international is to commit to increasing the visibility of nursing contribution to patient care through and to continue to develop, refine, and organize phenomena of concern to nurses (Rutherford, 2008).

AND is used in conjunction with Nursing Intervention Classification and Nursing Outcome Classification to stipulate coverage for nursing care process and is the foundation of nursing plan (Rutherford, 2008). AND is maintained and updated every three years by the Drug Terminology In 2001 , the National Library of Medicine (ML) realized that patient safety could be compromised if a nomenclature for clinical drugs was not established (Genealogy, 2010). As a result, they began experimenting with uniformed terminology in the Unified Medical Language System (Ambassador, 2010).

The ultimate goal was to produce a standardized nomenclature that they could use for the drugs they were manufacturing (U. S. National Library of Medicine ([ML], n. D. ). The venture included several steps. The first step defined Semantic Normal Form (SON) and this was used for clinical drugs (Ambassador, 2010). Sniffs are categorized based on strengths, ingredients and the dosages that can be ordered. Each clinical drug has two Son's (Genealogy, 2010). Once the nomenclature was standardized, health care facilities and providers were better able to communicate and share information via electronic yester verbally (Ambassador, 2010).

The entire concept is termed Errors ML, n. D. ). Errors has the names of prescription and non-prescription drugs that contain two or less ingredients (Genealogy, 2010). Over the counter drugs are included if enough information is available about them (ML, 2010). Errors is organized by concept and the users can choose the features that are applicable to their situation (Genealogy, 2010). Errors is maintained and updated weekly by ML (Genealogy, 2010).

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