Immediate/direct punishment in which the purpose is to show what is wrong as soon as the crime is made
Manifest Function
Purpose of punishment is to reintegrate and restore society as well as to deter future action (instill fear)
Latent Function
The type of solidarity that is based on co-operation
Positive Solidarity
The type of solidarity that is based on no co-operation
Negative Solidarity
All individuals (members of society) share the same definitions and beliefs
Mechanical Solidarity
Each individual/institution has a specialized function but they work together/cooperate
Organic Solidarity
• The labor power bought by the capitalist to use over a period of time
• Must be lower than the capital produced
• Amount capitalists invest in on the workers
A commodity owned by the proletariat
Labor Power
• Those who own labor power, working class
• Their alienation destroys their sense of self
• They are opposite to wealth but always in relation to wealth
• It is a GROWING class
• Those who control the means of production and various forms of capital
• They have their own sense of alienation but gain a sense of self
• It is a SINKING class
The Marxist term for the economic system of a society that is made up of its productive forces and relations of production
Mode of Production
Resources used to make profit
Resources in the past that living labor must use
Accumulated Labor
Labor power of proletariat worker
Living Labor
• It is the highest means of social change
• Changing mode of production is also a change in all relations social, political, familial and economic
• All aspects of inequality have to be destroyed in order for equality to take place
• It is the reconstruction of society, different ideas, leaders, behaviors
Government control of the means of production
Government without private property
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
• Society is broken down to complex institutions
• Separate ordered/ranked group
• Ordering of society and various hierarchical relations
different races have different levels/ biological
Racial Inequality
Social construction without genetic basis
• Outsourcing
• Industry is no longer centralized
Post-Fordist Economy
The means of taking two unrelated things and synthesizing them to give them a sense of permanency and naturalness
ex:black athlete
• Flattening or dismissing of differences among/within a group
• Allowing for one essence to represent the entire group
ex:blacks get into college because of affirmative action
Domination of one state over its allies that involves coercion and consent
Resisting power and confronting the traditional status quo by attempting to dismantle hegemony power
A mean to deal with hegemony where change occurs within the system
War of Position
A mean to deal with hegemony where change occurs from without(outside) the system
War of Maneuver
Those facts that are external to the individual (e.g., crime rates, law)
Social Fact
• Takao Ozawa filed for United States citizenship under the Naturalization Act. He attempted to have the Japanese classified as "white."
• Justice George Sutherland found that only Caucasians were white, and therefore the Japanese, by not being Caucasian, were not white and instead were members of an "unassimilable race," lacking provisions in any Naturalization Act.
Ozawa vs. US
• Thind argued that as an Indian he belonged to the Aryan and therefore the Caucasian race.
• The Court concluded that "The term 'Aryan' has to do with linguistic, and not at all with physical, characteristics, and it would seem reasonably clear that mere resemblance in language, indicating a common linguistic root buried in remotely ancient soil, is altogether inadequate to prove common racial origin."
Thind vs. US
• The Court established the doctrine of "separate but equal"-a legal fiction that protected the Jim Crow system from judicial scrutiny for racial bias
Plessy vs. Ferguson
• Armstrong filed a motion for discovery pursuant to a motion to dismiss on the basis that he and his cohorts were specifically targeted for Federal prosecution because they were black.
• The claim was that when whites were arrested, they were prosecuted under the State system while blacks were prosecuted under the Federal system (has harsher penalties)
Armstrong vs. US
• Mcleskey challenged his death sentence on the grounds that Georgia's death penalty scheme was infected with racial bias and thus violated the Fourteenth Amendment.
• The court rejected McCleskey's claims under the Fourteenth Amendment, insisting that unless McCleskey could prove that the prosecture in his particular case had sought the death penalty because of race or the jusr had imposed it for racial reasons, the statistical evidence of race discrimination in Georgia's death penalty did not prove unequal treatment under the law.
McCleskey vs. Kemp
• The Supreme Court ruled that any race-neutral reason, no matter how silly, ridiculous, or superstitious, is enough to satisfy the prosecutor's burden of showing that a pattern of striking a particular racial group, is not, in fact, based on race.
Purkett vs. Elm
It was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional.
Brown vs. Board of Education
In this case, the court rejected constitutional challenges to sentences of twenty-five years without parole for a man who stole 3 golf clubs, and fifty years without parole for another man for stealing children's videotapes from a Kmart store.
Lockyer vs. Andrade
The Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment prohibits prosecutors from discriminating on the basis of race when selecting juries, a ruling hailed as an important safeguard against all-white juries locking up African Americans on racial biases and stereotypes.
Batson vs. Kentucky
• It was a case challenging the Alabama Department of Public Safety's decision to administer state driver's license examinations only in English.
• The plaintiffs claimed that subjecting non-English speakers to take the test in English is discrimination based on their national origin.
Alexander vs. Sandoval
If you were born in the US, you are considered a citizen
1790 Naturalization Law
• It was the first federal immigration law and prohibited the entry of immigrants considered "undesirable." The law classified as "undesirable" any individual from Asia who was coming to America to be a contract laborer, any Asian woman who would engage in prostitution, and all people considered to be convicts in their own country.
• Race and Gender were used to exploit
1875 Page Act
The Act excluded Chinese "skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining" from entering the country for ten years under penalty of imprisonment and deportation. Many Chinese were relentlessly beaten just because of their race.
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act
Illegalized multicultural/multiracial sexual interactions or unions
Anti-miscegenation Law
An awareness of oneself as well as an awareness of how others perceive you
• It is not a neutral entity but rather a social construction through codes and constitutions
• Solidarity through similarities on the conception of crime, punishment and social rules
• The inability of society to see that exploitation is taking place (Marx)
• Indirectly accepting this system of inequality, therefore creating a hegemonic discourse (Gramchi)
• Awareness of the hegemony
• Looking beyond the hegemonic discourse
programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities
Affirmative action