Know sequence of steps in research process: Step 1: Select a Topic Defining the Problem step 2. Reviewing the Literature step 3. Step 4: Formulating a Hypothesis Choosing a Research Method/Design step 5. Collecting the Data step 6. Analyzing the Results step 7. Sharing the Results (Replicating) step 8. Hypothesis - A statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another - An educated guess. Operational definition - The way researchers measure a variable. Cantle describes the specifics of the variable.
Such as smokers, what do hey smoke? Research method/design and know the different designs - There are 7 different designs to choose from. 1 . Survey - Collection of Data by having people answer a series of questions. 2. Participant Observation - Research setting and Observing Setting. 3. Case Study - Analysis of a single event. 4. Secondary Analysis - Analysis of data that has been collected by other researchers. 5. Documents - Recorded Sources. 6. Experiments - Use of control and experimental groups, and independent and dependent variables that will test causation. 7.
Unobstructed Measures - Ways of observing people so that they do not know they are being observed and studied. Reliability - Apart of step 6 of the research process, collecting the data, reliability is the extent to which research produces consistent and reliable results when replicated. Replication - Apart of step 8 of the research process, sharing the results, it is vital to replicate the experiment performed to ensure reliability or accuracy of results. Therefore other scientist can know perform your experiment and see if they get the same results proving the accuracy of the conducted study.
Random sample - A sample in which everyone in the target population has a chance of being selected in the study. Types of questions in a survey 1. Neutral questions - Unbiased Questions 2. Questionnaire - A list of questions to ask respondents; self-administered questionnaire. 3. Interview Questions - Direct questioning of respondent with biased interviewer; Structured (Close-ended Questions - yes or no) Vs.. Unstructured (Open- ended Questions) Experimental group - Group of subjects in an experiment that are exposed to the independent variable. Control group - Subjects not exposed to the independent arable.
Independent variable - Factor in an experiment that causes change in the other variable, or dependent variable. Dependent variable - Factor in an experiment that is changed by a variable, the independent variable. Know at least 2 elements of ethics 1. Honesty Truth 2. 3. Openness Forbids falsification of results 4. Condemns plagiarism 5. Subjects should be informed 6. Subjects should never be harmed 7. Protect the anonymity of subjects 8. Researchers should not misrepresent themselves. 9. Social change - The alteration of society and culture over time.
Evolutionary theory of social change - Nonlinear - assumes all society follows the same route, evolving from simpler to much more complex forms. There are 3 stages to this theory, savagery, barbarism, and civilization. Multilayer - different routes lead to the same stage of development. Natural cycles theory of change - "Civilizations are like organisms," they are born, enjoy and exuberant youth, come to maturity, decline as they reach an old age, and die. Technology - Changes in Social Organization, Changes how people organize themselves, Changes in Ideology, Capitalism vs.. Socialism, Changes in
Conspicuous Consumption, Material culture, Changes in Social Relationships, Families, Dating. "Just as Technology stimulates social change, social change stimulates technology. " Mar's view of social change - Karl Marx accepted the evolutionary argument that societies develop along a specific direction, Marx noted that history proceeds in stages in which the rich always exploit the poor and weak as a class of people. Only by socialist revolution led by the proletariat (working class) will any society move into its final stage of development: a free, classless, and communist society.
Invention - combination of existing elements to form new ones. (Cars, cellophanes, computers, desks, etc... ) Discovery - new way of seeing some aspect of the world. (Gold in California, Columbus discovering America, DNA, etc... ) Deviance - the violation of norms or rules and expectations - going against the norms. Crime - the violation of norms that are written into laws. Social control - formal and informal meaner of controlling and enforcing the norms. Can be done through sanctions, positive and negative.
Differential association theory - people who associate homeless with certain groups of people learn an "excess of definition of deviance" increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant themselves. Family, Friends, Neighborhoods, Peer Pressure pretty much, when one starts associated themselves with a new group and they do bad things to fit in they too will conform in the groups ways becoming deviant. Control theory - idea that two control systems - inner and outer control- work against our tendencies to deviate. Stronger bonds with society = more inner control *Bonds *Attachments *Commitments *Involvements *Beliefs
Labeling theory - the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others perceptions upon them, thus channeling their behavior into defiance or conformity. If they do not like the title/label they are given they will be defiant to change the label. Functionalist perspective on deviance (know the 3 functions) - Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms. Social unity Deviance promotes social change ? Deviance promotes Strain Theory - strain produced when a society socializes a large number of people to desire a cultural goal, but withhold from some of the meaner of reaching that goal.
Deviance (for example stealing). They want and accept the goal, or car, but reject the meaner of getting it so are defiant and steal to get it. Conflict perspective on deviance - The conflict perspective on deviance assumes that deviance, that is, behavior that departs from the social norm, is a social creation. It assumes that there is no "human nature" that sets a natural mode of behavior. Instead, conflict theory holds that it is the power structure in any given society that defines what is normal and what is not. Hence, deviance is the creation of the social structure, not something built into our tauter.
C "the power elite uses the criminal Justice system to protect its position of power and prestige" Hate crimes - crimes motivated by bias (dislike, hatred) against someone's race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. Social stratification - a system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige Know the 4 major systems of stratification 1. Slavery: some people own other people; Based on race, debt, crime, and war 2. Caste system: statuses are determined by birth and are life-long; Indian's caste system as existed for almost 3, 000 years. . Estate: consists of three groups or estates: the nobility, clergy, and commoners (surfs) 4. Class: based on the possession of money or material possessions; Social mobility: movement up or down the class ladder Know the 3 major causes of slavery before life in the American colonies - debt, crime, war Know the main difference between the class system and the other forms of stratification Weeper's social class components - property, power, and prestige (status) Functionalist perspective on stratification - Stratification inevitable
Positions must be filled Some positions are more important than others The more important positions must be filled by the more qualified people To motivate the more qualified people to fill these positions, society must offer them greater rewards Know how the powerful maintain power - control through meaner of Ideas, Divine right of kings (or those in government), Information, Technology.