A group of people who share a culture and a territory.
Sociological Perspective
Stresses the social contexts in which people live, how the contexts influence people's lives. How groups influence people and how people are influenced by society.
Social Location
Corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in society. Where you are located right now.
Examples of what is studied with social location:
Jobs, income, education, gender, race, age
Why study social location?
See what affects people's ideas and behavior. Find out why people do what they do.
Auguste Comte: (4)

Father of sociology.

Stressed that the scientific method be applied to the social world (positivism), but he did not apply it himself.

Study bases of social order.

Thought that results of studying society should be used for social reform.

Apply the scientific method to the social world
Herbert Spencer: (3)

Second founder of sociology.

Coined the term "survival of the fittest."

Sociologists should not guide social reform because it interferes with the natural process that improves society.

Karl Marx: (2)

Roots of human misery are in class conflict.

Workers will overthrow capitalists resulting in social change to form a classless society.

Class conflict
Society is made up of two classes that are natural enemies: capitalists (bourgeoisie) and workers (proletariat).
Emile Durkheim: (3)

Compared suicide rates of different countries. More likely to commit suicide if ties to community are weak.

Importance of social integration in social life.

Modern societies and division of labor produce feelings of isolation.

Social integration

Degree to which people are tied to their social group.

1st generation US citizen will be more closely tied to their original culture than the 2nd generation, and so on.

Women were expected to devote themselves to...
The 4 C's: Church, Cooking, Children, Clothes
Marion Talbot:
Achieved higher education. Associate editor of the American Journal of Sociology from its founding - 30 years.
Grace Abbott:
First chief of the US government's Children's Bureau
Frances Perkins:
1st US woman to hold a cabinet position- 12 years secretary of labor under Franklin Roosevelt
Jane Addams: (4)

Only sociologist to win Nobel Peace Prize.

Worked on behalf of poor immigrants (founded Hull-House).

Leader in Women's suffrage.

Leader in peace movement of WWI.

Harriet Martineau:
Did extensive analyses of US social customs. Hid her writing because of sexism.
WEB Du Bois:

1st African American to earn doctorate at Harvard.

Study relations between African Americans and whites.

Combined role of academic sociologist with social reformer.

C. Wright Mills:
Controversial. Analyze role of power elite in US society. Wanted social reform.
Basic Sociology
Analyze society with no purpose besides gaining knowledge. No application of research for reform.
Applied Sociology
Implementing solutions based on research. How does society affect environmental reform/climate change? How can we help to change environmental reform/climate change?
Public Sociology

Middle ground. Criticism of society and social policy.

Analyze problems, evaluate programs, suggest solutions.

Get politicians and policy makers to apple the sociological understanding of how society works as they develop social policy.

General statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work. How two or more facts are related to each other.

Things to which we attach meaning. Used to express a point of view.

Ex: commercials, logos, avatars.

Symbolic interactionism

Symbols are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another.

Mead and Cooley.

George Herbert Mead:

One founder of symbolic interactionism

Lectures were compiled into a book by his students: Mind, Self, and Society

4 examples of symbols from the book
Marriage, divorce, parenthood, love
The meaning of marriage summary-
Marriage became less about duties and more about feelings. A marriage could be broken if feelings changed.
The meaning of divorce summary-
As it became more common, its meaning changed from "failure" to "freedom/new beginning"
The meaning of parenthood summary-

Parents used to provide less help to children. Some cultures allow children to support themselves much earlier in life and children contribute to their family. Now, parents can support children until the age of 20 and this increased responsibility often strains marriages.

Also the stay at home mom and working dad image has changed. Single dads, same gender parents, etc.

The meaning of love summary-
We expect true love to deliver emotional highs, and this strains a marriage because disappointment is inevitable. This shouldn't be the only basis for marriage.
Research Model:
1. Select a topic
2. Define problem
3. Review literature
4. Make hypothesis
5. Choose research method
6. Collect data
7. Analyze results
8. Share results
How not to do research:
1. Biased sample
2. Biased questions
3. Providing biased answers in closed ended questions
4. Discarding bad results
5. Misunderstanding subject's world
6. Misinterpreting results
Research methods
Participant observation (fieldwork)
Case Study
Secondary analysis
Analysis of documents
Ethics includes...

Protecting the subjects (don't share results that are meant to be confidential)

Misleading the subjects (tell the whole truth about the study to participants)

In reference to values, what should researchers be?
Objective / value free/neutral