Father of sociology.
Stressed that the scientific method be applied to the social world (positivism), but he did not apply it himself.
Study bases of social order.
Thought that results of studying society should be used for social reform.
Second founder of sociology.
Coined the term "survival of the fittest."
Sociologists should not guide social reform because it interferes with the natural process that improves society.
Roots of human misery are in class conflict.
Workers will overthrow capitalists resulting in social change to form a classless society.
Compared suicide rates of different countries. More likely to commit suicide if ties to community are weak.
Importance of social integration in social life.
Modern societies and division of labor produce feelings of isolation.
Degree to which people are tied to their social group.
1st generation US citizen will be more closely tied to their original culture than the 2nd generation, and so on.
Only sociologist to win Nobel Peace Prize.
Worked on behalf of poor immigrants (founded Hull-House).
Leader in Women's suffrage.
Leader in peace movement of WWI.
1st African American to earn doctorate at Harvard.
Study relations between African Americans and whites.
Combined role of academic sociologist with social reformer.
Middle ground. Criticism of society and social policy.
Analyze problems, evaluate programs, suggest solutions.
Get politicians and policy makers to apple the sociological understanding of how society works as they develop social policy.
Things to which we attach meaning. Used to express a point of view.
Ex: commercials, logos, avatars.
Symbols are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another.
Mead and Cooley.
One founder of symbolic interactionism
Lectures were compiled into a book by his students: Mind, Self, and Society
Parents used to provide less help to children. Some cultures allow children to support themselves much earlier in life and children contribute to their family. Now, parents can support children until the age of 20 and this increased responsibility often strains marriages.
Also the stay at home mom and working dad image has changed. Single dads, same gender parents, etc.
2. Define problem
3. Review literature
4. Make hypothesis
5. Choose research method
6. Collect data
7. Analyze results
8. Share results
2. Biased questions
3. Providing biased answers in closed ended questions
4. Discarding bad results
5. Misunderstanding subject's world
6. Misinterpreting results
Participant observation (fieldwork)
Analysis of documents
Protecting the subjects (don't share results that are meant to be confidential)
Misleading the subjects (tell the whole truth about the study to participants)