sociological imagination (according to mills)
1. understand history and relate it to our personal situations in a specific time period
2. relate history and biography
3. shift perspectives of society (ex= political-psychological)
*social and historical meaning of individual in society in time period*
troubles (according to mills)
part of sociological imagination
1. private matter
2. based on a person's relations with others if values cherished by individual are threatened
3. biographical entity
immediate milieu (according to mills)
social setting that directly opens individual's personal experiences
mileux (according to mills)
various range of institutional organizations in society
issues (according to mills)
part of sociological imagination
1. public matter
2. matters/ values that the public feels threatened by
3. matters that affect local environments of individual
structural changes (according to mills)
to deal with an issue need to consider political / economic issues that affect the institutions
institution > individual needs
megalopolis --> overdeveloped society
sociological perspective (according to berger)
seeing through the facades of social structures
debunking (according to berger)
unmasking pretensions and propaganda that cover men's actions with each other
see behind the taken-for-granted ways of thinking about social reality
"bandits going wild in haiti" (according to galosh-boza) summary
media- haiti earthquake
1. lack of historical context in media how need usa military support
--> USA's involvement
2. increase in civil unrest and social violence
--> lawlessness: consequence of natural disaster
3. controlling images of african descent
--> black criminality
- social myth about a stereotype
debunk- sociological evidence debunks and frames profit oriented media
feild research- need to research and be there and have evidence before make assumptions
sociological evidence (according to galosh-boza)
1. USA's involvement- military barely there
2. lawlessness- media portrayed how badly haiti needs usa and how they are doing something
3. black crime- media portrayed rape rate increases
social myths- 1,2,3
--> not necessarily true
--> media stereotypes people
debunk- sociological evidence debunks and frames profit oriented media
field research- need to research and be there and have evidence before make assumptions
"between good and ghetto: (according to nikki jones) summary
participant observation
showed how african american girls framed their tough, ghetto personality in order to not get hurt and show they were tough
result--> no support from school or social institutions
reinforcement--> for the girls to continue to be tough and stand on own
violence-reduction project (according to nikki jones)
girls dont like it when they are disrespected (so fight as result)
interpersonal threats of violence for girls occur regularly
talk about problems and try to get them to not fight and change their view
get to planned parenthood, criminal justice center
conclusions (according to nikki jones)
raise strong black women in poor black hispanic communities
value female strength-->different type of femininity
participant observant- allowed her to conduct interviews and experience and talk about what these girls go through and get them help through the program and see if it is effective and if it can be applied to other places
qualitative research design aimed at exploring cultural phenomena
result--> reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group
"promoting bad statistics" (according to joel best)
social problems = misleading because advocacy can sway social situations
ex) put a large # on something and broader definitions
statistics- evoke science and precision on social situation
--> descriptive > inferential
methodology (according to joel best)
define what is being counted and choose method
important--> cuz can over/ under exemplify statistic
"romantic relationships from adolescence to young adulthood" (according to meier and allen)
hypothesis: to compare norms of relationship patterns overtime among adolescents to young adults
accounted for confounding variables: race, SES, gender, levels of commitment, emotional intensity, sexual intensity
data: questions (survey)
sample: representative- accounted for population
study: longitudinal
"computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler) summary
cyberspace is its own culture and has its own online subcultures
ex) video game interaction, facebook chatting, virtual world that creates virtual self
community - "computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler)
social network of people who somehow interact in common
ex) location (geographic), common interests, distinct identity, shared values
*location- decreasing with virtual world*
--> select own communities (flexible)
cyberspace - "computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler)
virtual computerized realm of web pages, chat room, emails, video games, blogs
virtual communities - "computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler)
communities of people who regularly interact and form ongoing relationships via internet
*people who interact online are not automatically part of online community*
subcultural geography - "computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler)
terrain that the youth congregate and live the subculture today
ex) chat hangout rooms
language - "computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler)
produce own online / text language
add emojis
fluid and virtual / non-virtual language will overlap
nerd masculinity - "computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler)
video game builders
reinforcement of the typical nerd, straight-edge geeks
create strong athletic men that dominate women
self - "computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler)
one's thoughts, feelings, choices
something we DO not are
emerges when interacting with others
postmodern identity- "computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler)
temporary, fragmented, unstable, and fluid
contradictory identities
ex) priest who likes horror films
virtual self - "computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler)
person connected to world and to others through electronic means
ex) internet, tv, cell phones
more comfortable
masquerading - "computer cultures, virtual communities, postmodern identity" (according to haenfler)
pretending to be something that you are not
sexualization of culture - "sexualisation of popular culture limits girls' in horizons" (according to coy)
image displays of women as erotic, sexual
use body as profit
personal value based on sex appeal
lack of education
young girls 'adultified'
women 'youthified'
identity - "sexualisation of popular culture limits girls' in horizons" (according to coy)
sexy body is the source of women's identity
ex) breast size, hair color, skin tone, eyelash length
popular culture - "sexualisation of popular culture limits girls' in horizons" (according to coy)
women's expectations on life--> limited
mass media - "sexualisation of popular culture limits girls' in horizons" (according to coy)
encourages early sexual activity and sexual relationships
globalization - "global culture" (according to stager)
determining whether people around the world are becoming more similar or different
*increasing sameness*
cultural homogenization - "global culture" (according to stager)
americanization of the world
dominant culture - "global culture" (according to stager)
american and western cultures are dominating the more vulnerable cultures
cultural imperialism - "global culture" (according to stager)
resist americanization of the world
ban satellite dishes and TV to stop spread of american culture but difficult
cultural globalization - "global culture" (according to stager)
colonizing tendencies of McWorld provoke cultural / political resistance in form of Jihad (to reject homogenizing force of west)
gloCalization - "global culture" (according to stager)
complex interaction of global and localized characteristics to produce hybridity (no clear cut definition btw same or different)
reinforce local niches
clique - "clique dynamics" (according to adler and adler)
base of friendship circle
consists of hierarchical structure with leader and in and out members
function as power
leaders- influence membership and social stratification (remained close ties with leader, more popular)
out-group - "clique dynamics" (according to adler and adler)
outsiders to clique
general targets of humiliation
turn others in the clique against targets
im-group - "clique dynamics" (according to adler and adler)
central clique members commonly harassed and mean to weaker standing ones
more ridicule day by day but if yo wanted to be popular thats how you had to do it
participant observation *
researcher both participant and observer
scientific method *
observation, hypothesis testing, data collection, analyzing data, generalization
statically based
interpretive observations
deductive reasoning *
general principal --> specific research question
inductive reasoning *
specific observations --> general principle
research design
starts with research question
ex) observation, review of existing studies
flow of research design based on question
qualitative research
focused on central research question
replication study
same research study repeated on a different group of people
quantitative research
numerical analysis
tentative assumption
attribute of person/ group with a value or score
independent variable
dependent variable
abstract characteristic that can be measured
ex) class / social power
reflects an abstract concept
likelihood that particular measure would produce same results if measure were repeated
Hawthorne effect
changes in the participants behavior during the course of the study
react a certain way because they know they are being studied
increased the light in western electric plant to increase productivity
heisenberg principle of indeterminacy
by studying an object, state is altered and can't determine original state
(participant observation combats this)
primary data
orginial data is gathered
participants that you are studying based on population
should be representative of population to avoid bias
collection of people
data analysis
organize collected data to determine data patterns and trends
something that emerges from a study that wasn't expected
draw conclusions from data and apply to population
most common (questionnaires, polls, interviews)
open-ended or close-ended questions
quaNitative > quaLitative
large # of variables studied
generalized to large population
difficult to measure people's attitudes
difficult to go in-depth on few variables
open-ended questions
explain what said
ex) essay
close-ended questions
simple answer
ex) MC
participant observation / field research
researcher- observer and participant
subjective and objective knowledge
personal involvement
time saver for data collection
less expensive for data collection
differences taken into account
difficult to generalize beyond research setting
time-consuming research process
cover participant
group member provides information about being studied
cover participant observation
observed individuals do NOT know they are being studied
over participant observation
observed individuals DO KNOW they are being studied
number of parts per hundred
parts per some number
correlation *
positive / direct (same direction)
negative / indirect (diff direction) association of 2 variables
spurious correlation *
not all relationships are meaningful
2 variables may appear to be related but actually caused by a 3rd
3rd= confounding
ex) salting the roads in the winter causes more accidents
-confounding= winter --> weather conditions
see if two variables are related by breaking them into categories
controlled experiment
2-3 variables
difficult to measure alot of variables
cause and effect
experimental and control group
establish causation but can be artificial
content analysis
qualitative ; quantitative
measuring by examining cultural artifacts of what people say, see, hear
measure cultural change
limited- studying cultural products rather than people's attitudes
historical research
time saver for data collection
less expensive for data collection
capture long-term social changes
limits- data reflects bias of original researcher and of cultural norms from when the data were collected (outdated)
evaluation research
qualitative & quantitative
direct policy application
actual outcomes of program / strategy
effect of policies / programs on people in society
researcher explains purpose of study to subject
normally done after study
tuskegee syphilis study
ethical violations
informed consent
participant is aware and agrees to participate and aware of risks and complications
system of social interaction including both culture and social organization
social interaction
behavior between 2 or more people that is given meaning by them
broadest view of society
large patterns of social interaction
smallest, visible parts of life
people interacting
social organization
order established in social groups
social institutions
stablished / organized system of social behavior with recognized purpose
ex) family, edu, work, religion, health care
functionalist theorist
involving new members of society
- family and edu
production / distribution of goods and service
- economy and family
replacement of society's members
- family (death)
maintenance of stability and existence
- government, police force, military
providing members with an ultimate sense of purpose
ex) national anthems, patriotism
- religion, family, education
social structure
organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together compose a society
ex) social class
collective consciousness
body of beliefs common to community / society that give people sense of belonging / feeling / moral obligations to demands and values
- people's participation in common activities (work, family, edu, religion)
collection of individuals who:
- interact and communicate with each other
- share goals / norms
- subjective awareness of themselves as "we"
social categories
based on 1 or more shared characteristics
established position in social structure that carries w it a degree of social rank / value
status set
complete set of statuses occupied by person at a given time
status inconsistency
statuses occupied by person bring w them significantly different amounts of prestige and different expectations
achieved status
attained by virtue of individual effort
ex) police officer
ascribed status
occupied form birth
ex) sex
master status
overriding all features of person's identity
behavior expected from person due to their status
role modeling
imitate behavior of another person we admire who is in a particular role
role set
all roles occupied by that person at a specific time
role conflict
2 or more roles associated with contradictory expectations
ex) family and job
role strain
condition wherein single role brings conflicting expectations
nonverbal communication
communicating through everything but speech
depends on race, ethnicity, social class, gender
tactile communication
patterns of touch
influenced by gender
proxemic communication
amount of space between interacting individuals
zimbardo experiment *
simulated prison for 6 days
experimenter got hooked on experiment
social situation made the participants completely change
quickly dehumanized prisoners
when parents came tried to make it seem like it was better
-prisoners dehumanized to objects
-guards: normal ppl transformed into evil
- applied to Nazi germany
-sadistic behavior elicited from individuals who were not sadistic types
-lack of emotional stability for selected individuals
zimbardo experiment relation to sociology *
environment affects personality and what we do
(can facilitate altruistic behavior as well)
in certain situations normal people may behave in dehumanizing ways
impact of social structure --> holocaust
film on shopping
materialism- such a complex problem do not know how to deal with it
ex) stopped selling bottled water
-come together as a group, can get things accomplished
-consumerism related o global warming
-start--> advertising
-consumerism--> consequence
jones between good and ghetto
intersection btw individuals and environment
girls restricted by environment
-act tough to protect themselves in violent environment
-label= "ghetto" --> institutionalized
- more likely to loose any type of institutional protection
*context in which we live impacts our behavior*