1. Title Meta Tag
The title tag is the headline displayed in the SERPs (Search Engine Results Pages). The title tag of your website should be easy to read containing the main keyword of your site at least once.
2. Description Meta Tag
The description tag is the paragraph that users will see when your page comes up in the search results of a search engine. It should be around 200 words describing your entire site giving the people an exact and complete idea of what your website is about.
3. Keywords Meta Tag
Meta keyword tags are used to place keywords that are relevant to your webpage for the search engines to rank for. Its a bad practice to stuff in too many keywords in your meta tags as some search engines penalize such a practice. Examine web logs to determine what your users are using to get to a similar site and consider optimizing specific pages of your web site with the descriptive phrases.
4. Alt Tags
Its a good practice to have an alt tag for every image with your key words or phrases mentioned in the tag. Again keyword stuffing results in penalization
5. Header Tags
The text of each page is given more weight by the search engines if you make use of header tags and then use descriptive body text below those headers. Bullet points work well too. It is not enough to merely BOLD or enlarge your text headlines. The web page should make use of h1 and h2 tags (header tags) to emphasize pertinent keywords and phrases.
6. Link Text
Search engine spiders cannot follow image links. In addition to having image links or buttons on your web pages, you should have text links at the bottom or elsewhere.
7. Site Map
Using a site map not only makes it easy for your users to see the entire structure of your website, but it also makes it easier for the search engines to spider your site. When the search engine spiders come to visit, they will follow all of the text links from your main index page. If one of those links is to a site map, then the spiders will go right to the sitemap, and consequently visit every page you have text linked to from that site map. On the site map page, try to have a sentence or two describing each page, and not just a page of links.
8. Inbound Links
High relevant links to you from other popular related websites can increase your visibility and Google Page Rank (PR). Link to others, and have them link to you. It's proven, and it works. To see who's linking to you, in Google type the following:
9. Your Content
Regular unique fresh content with quality pages can actually appeal to the human reader. Write pages that provide the reader with exactly what they are looking for; that is, information about the exact search phrase they've entered. The idea is to develop quality content that will result in incoming links. Use your keywords or phrases often, and use them at the beginning of your paragraphs wherever possible. Don't overuse them and make the page sound phony, but don't write a page about a certain subject, and not mention that subject repeatedly either.
10. Site URL
Keywords related to the webpage can and should be used in the webpage urls. Use hyphens rather than underscores between the keywords. If you are targeting a specific region or market consider purchasing a local domain. For eg: A .in domain ranks better in Indian Search Engines.