In the Middle Ages, political espionage became Important. Joan of Arc was betrayed by Bishop Pierre Cannon of Beaus, a spy In the pay of the English, and Sir Francis Willingham developed an efficient political spy system for Elizabeth l. With the growth of the modern national state, systematized espionage became a fundamental part of government in most countries. Joseph Pouch is credited with developing the first modern political espionage system, and Frederick II of Prussia is regarded as the founder of modern military espionage.
During the American Revolution, Nathan Hale and Benedict Arnold achieved fame as spies, and there was considerable use of spies on both sides during the U. S. Civil War. By World War l, all the great powers except the united States had elaborate civilian espionage systems and all national military establishments had intelligence units. To protect the country against foreign agents, the U. S. Congress passed the Espionage Statute of 1917. Meta Hart, who obtained information for Germany by seducing French officials, was the most noted espionage agent of World War l.
Germany and Japan established elaborate espionage nets In the years preceding World War II. In 1942 the Office of Strategic Services was founded by Gene. William J. Donovan. However, the British yester was the keystone of Allied intelligence. Since World War II, espionage activity has enlarged considerably, much of it growing out of the cold war between the United States and the former USSR. Russia and the Soviet Union have had a long tradition of espionage ranging from the Car's Shrank to the Committee for State Security (the KGB), which also acted as a secret police force.
In the united States the 1947 National security Act created the central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to coordinate intelligence and the National Security Agency for research into codes and electronic communication. In addition to these, the United States has 13 other intelligence gathering agencies; most of the U. S. Expenditures for intelligence gathering are budgeted to various Defense Dept. Agencies and their programs. Under the intelligence reorganization of 2004, the director of national Intelligence Is responsible for overseeing and coordinating the castles and budgets of the U. S. Intelligence agencies.
China has a very cost-effective intelligence program that is especially effective in monitoring neighboring countries. Smaller countries can also mount effective and focused espionage efforts. The Vietnamese Communists, for example, ad consistently superior intelligence during the Vietnam War. Israel probably has the best espionage establishment in the world. Some of the Muslim countries, especially Libya, Iran, and Syria, have highly developed operations as well. Iran's Historical Origins and Evolution of Espionage (how did espionage start? ) Espionage is one of the oldest, and most well documented, political and military arts.
Historical and literary accounts of spies and acts of espionage appear in some of world's earliest recorded histories. Egypt Egyptian hieroglyphs reveal the presence of court spies, as do papyri describing ancient Egypt extensive military and slave trade operations. Early Egyptian pharaohs employed agents of espionage to ferret-out disloyal subject and to locate tribes that could be conquered and enslaved. From 1,000 B. C. Onwards, Egyptian espionage operations focused on foreign intelligence about the political and military strength of rivals Greece and Rome.
Egyptian spies made significant contributions to espionage tradeoff. As the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome employed literate subjects in their civil services, many spies dealt with written communications. They had to develop codes and disguise writing. Egyptian spies were the first to develop the extensive use of poisons, including toxins derived from plants and snakes, to carry-out assassinations or acts of sabotage. Greece The rise of the Greek civilization brought forth new concepts of government and law enforcement. Between 1500 B. C. And 1200 B. C. Grace's many wars with its regional rivals led to the development of new military and intelligence strategies. The early Greeks relied on deception as a primary means of achieving surprise attacks on their enemies. So renowned were Greek employments of deceptive strategies, that Greek iterate from antiquity celebrated its intelligence and espionage exploits. The legendary incident of the Trojan Horse, a wooden structure given to the city of Troy as gift, but which contained several hundred Greek soldiers seeking safe entrance into the heavily fortified rival city, became the symbol of Grecian intelligence prowess.
In the era of democratic Greek city-states, espionage was chiefly employed as a political tool. Agents of espionage spied on rival city-states, providing rulers with information on military strength and defenses. The most farsighted contribution of the ancient Greek intelligence community, however, was its creation of a complex and efficient means of communication between cities. Greek communications were so efficient that they remained unparalleled until the modern era. Middle East In the Middle East, and later Byzantium, the large government bureaucracy established one of the earliest civilian intelligence agencies.
Civilian agents of espionage culled information about foreign militaries and economic practices from traders, merchants, sailors, and other businessmen. Outside of the Mediterranean region, other civilizations utilized and contributed to the art of espionage. Written ago. In China, Sun Txt penned the comprehensive military treatise, The Art of War , which contained several chapters devoted to the use of spies both on and off the battlefield. Rome No civilization in the ancient world relied more heavily on intelligence information, nor furthered the development of espionage more than ancient Rome.
Over a millennium, the Romans created the largest empire of the ancient world, necessitating the governance of the most expansive infrastructure, military, and bureaucracy or the period. Romeos most famous case of espionage and intrigue culminated in the assassination of Julius Caesar on March 15, 44 B. C. The exact details of the assassination conspiracy remain a mystery to historians, but records have established that the Roman intelligence community knew for the plot and even provided information to Caesar or his assistants providing the names of several conspirators.
The information from the intelligence community was ignored. The ever-expanding Roman Empire often spied on its neighbors. Not only did intelligence forces provide comprehensive reports on the military strength and resources of those outside the empire, but the Roman military also employed intelligence forces to ribald organizations and convince leaders to Join in alliance with Rome. If populations were Judged hostile by informants, the military was informed, and engaged the opposing forces.
This type of intelligence campaign was very successful in the Italian Peninsula during the fourth century B. C. , but far less effective in the later campaigns to conquer North Africa and Northern Europe. The Roman Empire possessed a fondness for the practice of political espionage. Spies engaged in both foreign and domestic political operations, estimating the political climate of the Empire and rounding lands by eavesdropping in the Forum or in public market spaces. Several ancient accounts, especially those of the A. D. Iris century, mention the presence of a secret police force, the fragmentarily . By the third century, Roman authors noted the pervasiveness and excessive censorship of the secret police forces, comparing them to an authoritative force or an occupational army. Some ministries even employed saboteurs. Concern about government rivalries necessitated the creation of the agents in rebus , the first exclusive counterintelligence force. The Middle Ages After the collapse of the Roman Empire in Europe, espionage and intelligence activities were confined to wartime or local service.
Warring factions under barbarian lords may have used strategic espionage to gauge the strength of their opposition or learn about enemy defenses, but no written records of such activities survive. The only considerable political force in Europe during the Dark Ages was the Catholic Church, but operations on the European periphery were confined to monastic outposts that struggled for survival. In the Middle Ages, the birth of large nation-states, such as France and England, in the ninth and tenth entities facilitated the need for intelligence in a diplomatic setting.
Systems of couriers, translators, and royal messengers carried diplomatic messages between messages were carefully delivered verbatim by couriers, or clergy acted as scribes. Espionage remained mostly limited to battlefield operations, but the development of the feudal system, in which lords swore fealty to monarchs, created a complicated allegiance network. The web of allegiances gave rise to laws prohibiting treason, double allegiances, and political espionage against allied lords. In the eleventh entry, the Catholic Church rose to the fore in European politics.
With a large bureaucratic network, the resources of feudal military forces, and the largest treasury in the world, the Church formed policy that governed all of Europe. Throughout the course of the Middle Ages, two events, the Crusades and the Inquisition, united the power of the Church and created the only long-standing, medieval intelligence community. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the first Crusade, a military campaign to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Lands from Muslim and Byzantine rule. The Church massed several large armies, and employed spies to port on defenses surrounding Constantinople and Jerusalem.
Special intelligence agents also infiltrated prisons to free captured crusaders, or sabotage rival palaces, mosques, and military defenses. The Crusades continued for nearly four centuries, draining the military and intelligence resources of most of the European monarchs. The Crusades also changed the tenor of espionage and intelligence work within Europe itself. Religious fervor, and the desire for political consolidation, prompted thirteenth century church councils to establish laws regarding the prosecution of heretics and anti-clerical political leaders.
The ensuing movement became known as the Inquisition. Although the Church used its political force as impetus for the Inquisition, enforcement of religious edicts and prosecution of violators fell to local clergy and secular authorities. For this reason, the Inquisition took many forms throughout Europe. The same movement that was terror-filled and brutal in Spain, had little impact in England and Scandinavia. Espionage was an essential component of the Inquisition. The Church relied on vast networks of informants to find and denounce suspected heretics and political dissidents.
By the early fourteenth century, Rome and the Spanish monarchs both employed sizable secret police forces to carry out mass trials and public executions. In southern France, heretical groups relied on intelligence gathered from their own resistance networks to gauge the surrounding political climate, and assist in hiding refugees. In 1542, the process of Inquisition was centralized within the Church. Pope Paul Ill established the Congregation of the Holy Office, a permanent council, composed of cardinals and other officials, whose mission was to maintain the political integrity of Church.
The nuncio relied on censure and excommunication to coerce problematic individuals, forsaking the brutal cloak and dagger methods of early Inquisitors. The council maintained spies and informants, but shifted their focus to scrutinizing the actions of Rupee's monarchs and prominent aristocrats. The advent of the Renaissance in Italy in the mid-effluents century quelled much of the fervor and political fear that drove the Inquisition, and the movement faded. The Renaissance The Renaissance marked the eclipse of the Church dominated world.
Europe or cityscape employing its own intelligence force. As nations and city-states became wealthier and gained more power, espionage enjoyed a resurgence. Competition for dominance over trade and exploration of the New World changed the political climate of Europe, and forced regimes to adopt increasingly deft measures of protecting political, military, and economic interests. In the late 1 sass, the English royal court developed the premier Renaissance era spy network.
Religious reforms and a schism with the Catholic Church under the rule of Henry VIII, prompted the creation of a large secret police force, commanded by the military, to locate and infiltrate Catholic loyalist cells that threatened the English monarchy. When his daughter, Elizabeth l, ascended to the throne, political tensions threatened her reign. The Elizabethan court gained a reputation for the ruthlessness of its spies, several of whom double and triple crossed those with whom they dealt. The Elizabethan espionage system was highly effective, but its novel contribution to the development of espionage lay in its employment practices.
Instead of relying on haphazard, ill- trained volunteers, or military men, the Elizabethan intelligence community employed linguists, scholars, authors, engineers, and scientists, relying on professional experts to seek and analyze intelligence information. Technological development in the Renaissance altered the practice of espionage. The development of small firearms, such the pistol, aided cloak and dagger operations. Chemists invested invisible inks, and the rebirth of complex mathematics revived encryption and code methods long dormant since Antiquity.
Telescopes, magnifying glasses, the camera obscure, and clocks facilitated the remote surveillance and the effective use of "dead drops" to pass information between gents. Travel became easier, but that ease soon prompted territorial growth and the rebirth of vast empires. The Birth of Modern Espionage: the Age of Empires, Industrial Revolution, and the Nineteenth Century Espionage in the Age of Empires, a period that spanned from 1700 to almost 1900, saw its greatest development in the numerous conflicts and wars that occurred in Europe, and between rival colonial powers in Europe and abroad.
Industrialization, economic and territorial expansion, the diversification of political philosophies and regimes, and immigration all transformed the world's intelligence communities. During the French Revolution, in the sass, all factions relied heavily on espionage. However, the period marked by the dictatorship of Robberies is most infamous. Informant networks denounced traitors to the new republic, and tracked down refugee aristocrats and clergy for trial and execution. The wide application of treason laws and charges marked one of the greatest abuses of intelligence powers in the modern era.
The American Revolution (1776-1783), and colonial wars for independence in South America in the sass and sass, marked the end of Rupee's New World empires. European nations turned their attention to Africa and the Orient. The ensuing land grab inflamed tensions among European nations, changing the balance of European power and creating a complicated alliance system. Colonial rulers employed secret police and agents of espionage throughout their territorial holdings, hoping to quell antinational rebellions but transformed economics.
Modern industrial espionage was born in the pan- European revolutions of 1848. The series of regional conflicts pitted workers against landed gentry, liberals against conservatives, and monarchists against republicans, communists, and other political groups. Many governments, especially those of England, France, and Prussia, employed spies to infiltrate political and labor organizations and report on any intergovernmental activities. Labor organizations often spied on each other, reporting on working conditions, factory operations, mining productivity, and other concerns.
Many radical workers' organizations carried out acts of sabotage, destroying factories, mines, and government property. After armed conflict abated, many governments continued to conduct surveillance on dissident and workers' groups, within a decade, the same principals of industrial espionage ere increasingly employed against foreign economic interests. Industrialization revolutionized tradeoff with the proliferation's of gadgets for the concealment, transcription, and analysis of intelligence information. The invention of dynamite aided saboteurs.
Advances in chemistry and chemical production transformed everything from dyes and inks, to poisons and acids. Chemical weapons and poison gases were developed during this time, but were considered too inhumane for strategic use until World War l. The discipline of forensic science added scientific methodology to the investigation of crimes and the analysis of intelligence information. The collection of intelligence information forever changed in 1837, with the invention of the daguerreotype, the first practical form of photography.
Though not able to be widely incorporated into intelligence practices until the sass, the photograph permitted agents of espionage to portray targets, documents, and other interests as they actually were. As soon as photo development became more practical with the advent of film, in lieu of glass plates, cameras were made smaller, disguised, or placed in mundane items for use in espionage. Until the advent of electronic data storage in the twentieth century, the photograph was the best means of copying and transmitting information.
Improvements in transportation and communications also transformed espionage operations. Morse code and the telegraph were able to send messages over lines in a matter of minutes, requiring only knowledge of the operational code. As soon as governments began to use telegraphs to send vital communications, rival intelligence services learned to tap the line, gaining access to secret communications and conducting detailed surveillance from a comfortable distance. Use of the telegraph necessitated the development of employ codes, and the creation of specialized cryptology departments.
By the turn of the twentieth century, most national intelligence operations in Europe and the United States involved communications surveillance and the tapping of both wired, and wireless, telegraphs. Just as the discovery of the New World, and the development of fast ships in the seventeenth century altered the scope of espionage, so did the invention of the locomotive and the proliferation of railroads. Railroads also became primary targets of enemy sabotage, and one of the main protective objectives of counterintelligence personnel.
Ease of travel facilitated communications and surveillance, permitting agents to travel to foreign destinations under the guise of tourists without arousing suspicion. Movement, travel, and immigration with a field of language and culture experts. By the dawn of the twentieth century, espionage had evolved into a highly specialized, technical field. Far from the battlefield and political intrigue of the ancient world, modern espionage involves more research and analysis than field operations.
Specialized military units are still used for strategic intelligence, but most nations have developed large, centralized, villain intelligence communities that conduct operations in wartime and peacetime with increasing technological sophistication. Meta Hair Margaret Gerundial Cell was born in Learned, Netherlands, better known by the stage name Meta Hart, was a Dutch exotic dancer, courtesan, and convicted spy who was executed in France under charges of espionage for Germany during World War l.
To avoid the battlefields, Meta Hair traveled between France and the Netherlands via Spain and Britain, and her movements inevitably attracted attention. In 1916, she was traveling by steamer room Spain when her ship called at the English port of Falmouth. There she was arrested and brought to London where she was interrogated at length by Sir Basil Thomson, in charge of counter-espionage but she denied. In January 1917, there were transmitted radio messages to Berlin describing the helpful activities of a German spy, code-named H-21.
French intelligence agents intercepted the messages and, from the information it contained, identified H-21 as Meta Hart. On 13 February 1917, Meta Hair was arrested. She was put on trial, accused of spying for Germany and consequently causing the deaths of at least 50,000 soldiers. Although the French and British intelligence suspected her of spying for Germany, neither could produce definite evidence against her. Secret ink was found in her room, which was incriminating evidence in that period. She contended that it was part of her make- up.
She wrote several letters to the Dutch Consul in Paris, claiming her innocence. She was executed by firing squad on 15 October 1917, at the age of 41 . German documents unsealed in the sass proved that Meta Hair was truly a German agent however. Nathan Hale Nathan Hale was a soldier for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He volunteered for an intelligence-gathering mission in New York City but was captured by the British and hanged. He is probably best remembered for his purported last words before being hanged: "l only regret that I have but one life to give for my country. During the Battle of Long Island, which led to British victory and the capture of New York City via a flanking move from Staten Island across Long Island, Hale volunteered on September to go behind enemy lines and report on British troop movements. He was ferried across on September 12. It was an act of spying that was immediately punishable by death and posed a great sis to Hale. According to the standards of the time, spies were hanged as illegal combatants. Hale was marched along Post Road to the Park of Artillery, which was next to a public house and hanged.
He was 21 years old then. Richard Gorge War II. He worked as a Journalist in both Germany and Japan, where he was imprisoned for spying and ultimately hanged. His GURU codename was "Ramsey" Gorge was recruited as a spy for Soviet intelligence. With the cover of a Journalist, he was sent to various European countries to assess the possibility of Communist revolutions. Apparently, his dedication to duty led to his divorce. In 1929, Gorge became part of the Red Army's Fourth Department (the later GURU, or military intelligence). He remained with the Department for the rest of his life.
Gorge supplied Soviet intelligence with information about the Anti-Commitment Pact and the German- Japanese Pact. It has been rumored that Gorge is said to have provided the exact date of "Barbarous". Gorge's rival and opponent in Japan and east Asia was IVR Listener, an agent of the German Barber As the war progressed, it was becoming increasingly dangerous for Gorge, but he continued spying. Gorge was arrested shortly thereafter in Tokyo. It was not until a few months later that Japanese authorities announced that Gorge had in fact been indicted as a Soviet spy.
He was incarcerated in Sumo Prison and was executed there in 1944. The Soviet Union did not officially acknowledge Gorge until 1964. It was argued that Gorge's biggest coup led to his undoing, because Stalin could not afford to let it become known that he had rejected Gorge's warning about the German attack in 1941. However, it should also be mentioned that nations seldom officially recognize their own spies. Sidney Reilly Sidney Reilly, original name Sigmund Rosenberg spy who obtained Persian oil inceptions and German naval secrets for Britain. Many of the romanticizes stories about him may have been inventions of his own.
Born the illegitimate son of a Jewish doctor in Odessa, he studied chemistry in Vienna before going to Brazil. There he befriended British Army officers in the Amazon and was recommended to British intelligence in London. He changed his name to Sidney George Reilly in 1899. Attached to Britain's Secret Intelligence Service, he allegedly over the years reported on Russian oil developments at Baku, the progress of the Trans-Siberian Railroad, Dutch aid to the South African Boers, oil developments in Persia, and Russian naval fortifications in Port Arthur, Manchuria.
In 1905, as the story goes, he disguised himself as a priest on the French Riviera and inveigled the Persian oil-concession holder, William Knox Diary, into selling oil concessions to Britain against fierce French competition, greatly benefiting Britain's future energy supplies. As manager of a German shipbuilder's agency in SST. Petersburg, Russia, he seems to have gained access to details of Germany's five-year naval-development plan, which he reported o London over a three-year period prior to the outbreak of World War l. In New York City he bought munitions and helped counter German sabotage of American factories supplying the Allies.
Returning to Europe, he made frequent missions behind the German lines, on one occasion (by his own account) attending a General Staff meeting in the presence of Kaiser William II. In May 1918 Reilly went to Moscow, intent on toppling the Bolshevik regime, but his plans were betrayed, and he had to flee. He is thought to have made a series of other trips to Russia, and in September executed. Cambridge Five The Cambridge Five were a ring of spies, recruited in part by Russian scout Arnold Deutsche in the United Kingdom, who passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and at least into the early sass.
Four members of the ring have been identified: Kim Philly (cryptology: Stanley), Donald Durra Mclean (cryptology: Homer), Guy Burgess (cryptology: Hicks) and Anthony Blunt (cryptology: Johnson); Jointly they are known as the Cambridge Four. The term "Cambridge" in the name Cambridge Five refers to the recruitment of the group during their education at Cambridge University in the sass. The four known embers all attended the university, as did the alleged fifth man. Debate surrounds the exact timing of their recruitment by Soviet intelligence; Anthony Blunt claimed that they were not recruited as agents until they had graduated.
Blunt, a Fellow of Trinity College, was several years older than Burgess, Mclean, and Philly; he acted as a talent-spotter and recruiter for most of the group save Burgess. Several people have been suspected of being the "fifth man" of the group; John Crisscross (cryptology: List) was identified as such by Oleg Sordidness, though many others have also been accused of membership in the Cambridge ring. Both Blunt and Burgess were members of the Apostles, an exclusive and prestigious society based at Trinity and King's Colleges. Crisscross was also an Apostle.
Other Apostles accused of having been the "fifth man" or otherwise spied for the Soviets include Michael Whitney Straight, Victor Rothschild and Guy Lidded. However, on the 20th October 2012 Brian Swell touted Andrew Go as the 'fifth man' and spy master of the group. Valerie Flame Valerie Elise Flame Wilson (born August 13, 1963), known as Valerie Flame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Flame Wilson, is a former United States CIA Operations Officer and the author of a memoir detailing her career and the events leading up to her resignation from the CIA.