It can be argued that the modern world began with the scientific advancements that took place between 1550 and the sass's, thanks to the efforts of Copernicus, Galileo, and Sir Isaac Newton (text, 582), just to name a few. The Scientific revolution, as historians call it, is the era when Copernicus, developed the heliocentric model of the universe (text, 530). This states that the sun is the center, and that the earth revolves around it (lecture, 107). Galileo continues Copernicus' work by observing the skies with a homemade telescope.
Although he was able to prove Copernicus correct, his work was rejected by the Church and he was forced to recant (take back) or face execution. Here we see the struggle between science and religion that we still experience today. Between 1642 and 1727, Sir Isaac Newton proposed universal laws and a mechanical universe. Newton used mathematics to describe gravity as the force that keeps planets revolving around the sun. He also explained that this same force is what causes objects to fall to earth.
The Scientific Method is we know and study it today was at the enter of these discoveries. Amazingly this methodology consisting of specific steps is still applicable and used today to explain theories through the use of observation and experimentation. A culture and methodology of science was created and educated people increasingly began to look to science to explain the inexplicable. The Scientific revolution established standards for modern science as well as challenged the power of the Church. During this time knowledge and reason replaced mystical beliefs and religion.
The result of the scientific revolution was the industrial revolution which clearly stimulated European economy leading to essential world domination by the European nations by 1900. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to Belgium, France, Germany, the United States and Japan. During 1750, most people in Europe lived on small farms and produced most of their needs by hand. A century later, many people lived in cities and most of their needs were produced by complex machines using steam power. It was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, and altered the way people lived.
The Industrial Revolution was a time of scientific and technological advancement. Advancements in agriculture took place in the sass's with Jotter Dull, a British farmer and inventor (BBC Online). He created the mechanical seed drill to aid in planting (BBS). Tulle's complete system was a major influence on the agricultural revolution and its impact can still be seen in today's methods and machinery. Britain experienced a revolution in energy use as they switched from animal power, to water power, to steam power in a few short years. In 1712, Thomas Newcomer developed a steam engine powered by coal (BBS).
This engine was used to pump water out of mines. Later, James Watt would improve on this engine, and Watt's steam engine would be the power source of the Industrial Revolution (BBS). Steam power had one great advantage: it allowed factories to be located anywhere that made economic sense instead of limiting the location to streams and rivers (Lecture 116). The transportation revolution came about with the building of canals which allowed boats to go to places not along rivers (Lecture 116). The next British invention that completely transformed transport was the steam layaway.
By 1850, Britain had a system of tracks that linked all major cities into one national market (Lecture 116). This powerful new form of transportation was responsible for the international expansion of trade. The steam ship similarly replaced wind powered ships and spearheaded the way to a true dependable global transportation. Economic circumstances alone, cannot explain industrialization. It was more than the economic phenomenon. For the contemporaries who took part in it, the appeal of industry was a form of enchantment. Like magic, it multiplied power ND effected dazzling transformation.
Industrial technology represented, for its early witnesses, the triumph of imagination over nature. (text, 680). There was quite a bit of admiration for industrialization during those times despite the fact the many Jobs were replaced by automation. Similar to today, other Jobs emerged requiring more education. As a result of industrialization, people moved to towns and cities to be closer to the factories. Conditions were very poor during the early part of the Industrial Revolution, as factory workers lived in overcrowded buildings, with no swage or sanitation services (text 711). This resulted in widespread disease.
As the Industrial Revolution moved forward, new improvements in sanitation, housing construction, and medicine made life much better for the industrial worker. The end of the 19th century and both World Wars were times of incredible scientific and technological advancements. Prior to World War l, advancements in medicine greatly improved health and increased overall life expectancy. In 1870, French scientist Louis Pasteur discovered the link between germs and disease. He also showed that ailing germs often prevented the spread of certain diseases. In 1931, Penicillin, the first antibiotic was discovered.
Antibiotics were not widely used until the sass. As a result of industrialization around the world, many new inventions began to appear at the end of the 19th century. One of the most important innovations of this time, was the beginning use of electricity. The 20th century is called the age of electricity. Thomas Edison developed the first practical light bulb and soon American streets were using electric lights. In homes, electricity was used to run appliances and make fife easier and more comfortable. This followed with the use of telephones, radios, televisions, and personal computers.
The World Wide Web or what we call the internet is also part of the age of electricity and spills over to the Information age which we are presently living in now. Electronic mail, social networking, and online shopping are the innovations of the past decades. In addition there are a host of handheld wireless devices like electronic readers, cell phones and tablets that enable communication from anywhere. "The history of warfare is also the history of genealogy' (Lecture 119). The rise of nationalism resulted in numerous wars that also contributed to the technological advancement of weapons (Lecture 120).
Arms trade spread industrially around the world (text, 790). For example World War I and World War II spurred the development of Civilian aviation. "The range of weapons expanded with the killing power" (lecture 120). Weapons of mass destruction are an advancement that certainly result in the demise of mankind. The events of the scientific revolution, industrial revolution, advancements in medicine, the age of electricity, and the World Wars had everything to do with the beginning of the modern world as we know it today.