Safeguarding the welfare of children and young people 1. Identify 3 current legislations,guidelines,policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people Every school must develop range of policies,legislations and guidelines to ensure the safety,security and well-being of all pupils. This legislation and procedures must be followed by everyone who works with children and young people. The meaning of the term safeguarding is promoting children’s safety and welfare as well protecting them when abuse happened.

It also include protection and welfare to those who are in seriousness or impact of harm trough a single action or over a period of time. Although 50 years ago the rights and the safety of the children were not fully develop,in the years to come the system was in need of improvement in his legislation,caused by high profile cases,such as the death of Maria Colwell in 1973,and most recently Victoria Climbie in 2000. In 1991 UK sign up to the Treaty of The United Nations Convention on the Right of the Child (1989). This Convention applies to every child whatever their ethnicity,gender,religion,abilities or what type of family they come from.

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The Treaty holds 54 articles. In 43 of them are set out the rights and freedom of all children,and 11 articles are about how adults and government must work together to ensure all children,including the one in need,get all their rights. Another legislation for safeguarding the welfare of the children and responsibilities for those who work with them is Children Act 1989. This Act reforms the law relating to children and it identifies the responsibilities of parents and professionals who work with children,and what they must do to ensure the safety of the child.

The Act is summarising The Welfare of the Child,as well as parental responsibilities for children and the meaning of it, acquisition of parental responsibilities by father,mother or step-parent etc. In some sections of the Act is explained about appointing of the guardian and their revocation and disclaimer,children's residence,contacts and other orders. Education Act 2002 received Royal Assent on 24 July 2002. It sets out the responsibilities of parents,local educational authorities, schools (including independent schools),head teachers and everyone who work with children to ensure that they are safe and free from harm.

In addition,they all have a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of the child. This Act deals with the respective roles of, and collaboration between, schools and local authorities in protecting and safeguarding children. To do so,everyone who works with children and young people must: Refer the cases to social services, make decisions, solve the dilemmas and confusion Give support to children in need Teachers expressed uncertainty about the correct route to take when they had concerns about pupils, especially when they appeared to be about children in need.

Additional training is always helpful Teachers and parents: balancing support and surveillance Sometimes,confusion among teachers occurs in relation to parents when there are concerns about their children. Usually they are about whether and when to approach parents, who should do so and how. Communication: sharing information and confidentiality Teachers and other staff in the education service have day-to-day contact with individual children. They are, therefore, particularly well placed to observe outward signs of abuse, changes in behaviour or failure to develop.

Teachers and other staff who work with children and young people are responsible for sharing the information and confidentiality. Designated teachers, governors and child protection policies and Access to advice and support The act imposes various minimum standards for independent schools in areas such as health and safety and space requirements. It also states that all children and young people need to be safe from bullying and discrimination,and get help to develop positive relationships and choose not to bully or discriminate.

The Children Act 2004 set out the national framework for delivering children’s services, and identified the Every Child Matters five outcomes for children and young people, which all professionals must work towards. The Government's aim is for every child, whatever their background or their circumstances, to have the support they need to: Be healthy Stay safe Enjoy and achieve Make a positive contribution Achieve economic well-being This Act also includes the requirement for: services to work more closely

Which means that sharing information between schools and social workers,and local authorities is vital and essential common assessment framework to help the early identification of need It is much more easier to find solution if we are able to identify the children in need in early stage of the problem. A shared database of information which is relevant to the safety and welfare of children and earlier support for parents who are experiencing problems Challenging bullying, discrimination and harassment is a key element in The Children Act 2004.

What to do if you are worried a child is being abused(2006) In all cases where abuse is suspected or a sustainable allegation is made, teachers and other members of staff should report the information to the designated teacher. The designated teacher should refer these cases to, or discuss them with, the investigating agencies according to the procedures established by the local Area Child Protection Committee This document provides best practice guidance for those who work with children in order to safeguard their welfare.

It also contains an appendix to help practitioners with the legal issues affecting the sharing of information. It also provides general information for anyone whose work brings them into contact with children and families, and particularly focuses on those who work in social care, health, education and criminal justice services. What you should do if you have concerns about a child’s welfare; What will happen once you have informed someone about those concerns; What further contribution you may be asked or expected to make to the processes of assessment, planning, working with children, and reviewing that work.

The guidance is accompanied with following the procedure from referral, initial assessment, emergency action that might need to be taken, through to what happens after a strategy discussion and child protection review conference. Working together to safeguard children 2010 This is a new interactive version of Working Together to Safeguard Children and it was issued March 2010. It is a guidelines which sets out the duties of organisations and how they must work together to safeguard children and young people.

Here are few of the duties which everyone who works with children and young people must follow: Local Safeguarding Children Boards Managing individuals who pose a risk of harm to children Child death review processes Working together to safeguard and promote the welfare if children and families Managing individual cases where there are concerns about a child's safety and welfare Policies which safeguard All schools must develop a range of policies which ensure the safety,security and well-being of the pupils. The Department of Education provides guidance for local authorities and schools.

The schools on the other hand,use these guidance to develop their own policies and procedures which must be followed. The policies must include section which cover the following issues of: safeguarding and protecting and procedures for reporting e-safety bulling,including cyber-bulling 3. Identify the characteristics of different type of child abuse Abuse is intimidation or manipulation of another person or intrusion into another's psyche,with purpose to control. It is generally a long term pattern of behaviour although specific short term interactions can be labelled abusive.

Child abuse is the bad treatment of a child under the age of 18 by a parent, caretaker, someone living in their home or someone who works with or around children. Abuse of a child is anything that causes injury or puts the child in danger of physical injury. It happens when rights of the children are in breach and their health and development are affected from it. Abuse cuts across all social categories and classes. It occurs in well educated high income areas and in low income working class areas. It can occur in families,schools,churches,and community groups.

Because is often learned in early age of the child,it can be passed from generation to generation like a family disease. Abuse tends to happen to children in a weaker position,or those who are willing to be accommodating,for example,stronger brother will abuse weaker brother,spoiled teenager can manipulate a parent in an abusive manner,or agreeable and supportive sister can be abused by her uncompromising brother. Abuse can include verbal,social,economic,intellectual or spiritual abuse. It gets worse as boys and girls increase in age.

Because children are so helpless and depend on adults for basic needs such as food and clothing as well as guidance,all forms of abuse apply. And because children are not fully developed human beings,they are specially vulnerable. So while a child might have a warm comfortable home,that same child might be intellectually abused by a parent who does not respect the child's intellectual interest,for example. Child abuse is any action (or lack of) which endangers or impairs a child’s physical, mental or emotional health and development. Child abuse occurs in different ways and children often suffer from more than one type of abuse.

For example,a child being sexually abused ,may also be threatened by emotional (due to hurt feelings) and physical (due to unwanted sexual contact) abuse . All forms of abuse and neglect are harmful to the child. Child abuse is the worst of all other adult to adult abuse because the scars will last a life time and the child may never develop in a healthy manner. Child abuse can be: physical – it happens when a child is physically hurt or injured such as hitting,kicking,beating with objects,burning,suffocating,scolding,throwing and shaking. Physical abuse is any physical injury to a child that is not accidental.

Physical signs can be visible on the abused child such as:unexplained burns,bruises of fractures,grasp marks,bite marks,bruises to both eyes(or to the soft part of the face),and marks showing the outline of an implement such as stick or belt buckle. Everyone who works with children and young people should be able to identify the important behavioural signs caused by physical abuse. Almost in every abuse children withdraw their behaviour,or have an aggressive one,uncomfortable when changing for PE,fear of parent being approached for explanation,depression,running away from home or flinching when approached or touched. exual abuse is when the child is involved in any sexual activity with an adult or another child who is either older or more powerful. The child is forced or persuaded into sexual activities or situation by others. This can be physical including sexual intercourse, oral and anal sex, touching of private parts or incest,or non-physical forcing a child to watch while others have sexual intercourse, incest, pornography. Physical signs from sexual abuse are bruises or marks,difficulty in walking or sitting,sleep and stomach problems,frequent headaches,vaginal bleeding or discharge,and “love bites”(blue-reddish marks on the skin).

Behavioural signs due to a sexual abuse are:self-harming,eating disorder,knowledge inappropriate for age,using sexually implicit language and secrecy when on line and closing web page if adult present. emotional abuse happens when the child suffers persistent ill treatment which affects their emotional development. It involves constant disapproval, belittling,teasing and calling the child names . It may involve making the child frightened,unloved worthless or in danger. Emotional abuse happens alone,but often takes place with other types of abuse such as sexual,physical and neglect.

Physical signs caused by emotional abuse are delay in physical and emotional development and speech disorders. Behavioural signs for this abuse are often presented in poor communication,self-harming,overreaction to problems or mistakes,low self-esteem,rocking chairs,thumb sucking,hair twisting,attention seeking,or aggressive and difficulty in making friends. Neglect happens when a parent or responsible caretaker fails to provide adequate supervision, or fails to to do something to protect a child's rights.

It is depriving a child of their basic needs,which include food, clothing, warmth and shelter, emotional and physical security and protection, medical and dental care, cleanliness, education, and supervision. Physical signs of neglect abuse are:hunger,poor personal hygiene,under or overweight,tiredness or lethargy,inappropriate or inadequate clothing,untreated health problems,delay in development and frequent illness. Behavioural signs in this abuse are:lateness or poor school attendance,difficulty in making friends and stealing from other kids.

We should never ignore the signs and must always to report if there is reasonable concern even if sometimes the signs might not be as abuse. Another type of abuse,recognised as Child abuse is Bullying. This abuse should always be taken seriously because is distressing for the victim and can have serious consequences. Bullying behaviour is a social problem most commonly associated with schools and workplaces but can take place in any environment where people live, work and play together. Bullying can be displayed by or targeted towards individuals or groups and is a significant concern for many children and young people as well as adults.

Bullying behaviour is often deliberate and repeated but unintentional actions can be harmful and behaviour displayed just once can also have a lasting and harmful impact on a person. Bullying behaviour is distinct from violence but any action which causes a person to feel hurt, humiliated or afraid can be perceived as bullying behaviour. Many different actions can cause a person to feel bullied: • Name-calling and verbal aggression (emotional bullying) • Spreading gossip and rumours (emotional) • Excluding and isolating (emotional) Cyber-bullying through mobile phones, email and social networking sites • Targeting someone because of who they are or who they are perceived to be Racial taunts or gestures (racist) Inappropriate physical contact,sexual comments (sexual) Other behaviours can also be considered bullying – the most important factor is the impact an action has on other people. Bullying can cause a victim to feel upset, afraid, ashamed, embarrassed, and anxious about going to school. It can involve children of any age, including younger elementary grade-school children and even kinder gardeners.

Bullying behaviour is frequently repeated unless there is intervention. Every child has the right to feel safe at home, at school and in the community (UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990). Bullying is not a normal part of growing up. It doesn't usually go away on its own and often gets worse with time. Bullying needs to be dealt with directly. To stop hurtful behaviour, we all need to respond when it occurs and take steps to prevent it. The first step is recognizing when there is a problem. Bullying is not a problem that children can solve themselves.

It is a power struggle that is difficult to change without the help of an adult. In most cases, it will require only a few minutes to stop the behaviour, especially if you act immediately and in a consistent manner. Cyber-bullying As our technology has advanced in recent years, so have the opportunities for this technology to be misused. Cyber bullying differs from traditional bullying because traditional bullying usually consists of physical or verbal torment. While cyber bullying does not cause physical harm, the damage can be much worse as the cyber bullying facts are disturbing.

Victims of cyber bullying are nearly twice as likely to attempt suicide compared to those who have not experienced cyber bullying. Cyber-bullying may be emotional,racist or sexual forms of abuse. It happens trough emails,messages,or telephone calls. Posting pictures and informations on a social networking sites is also form of cyber-bullying. Children and young people who use this method of bullying often feel disassociated from their actions,but the consequences can be just as serious for the child as they are unable to get away from it. Here are some ways to help avoid cyber-bullying:

Be careful to who you give your phone number and email address to Don’t leave your mobile unattended; Never lend your mobile phone to anyone. If a friend or anyone else asks to borrow it then dial the number or text for them. If you don’t do this they could use your phone to bully someone else and you could end up getting the blame Be careful about the personal details you put on social networking sites such as Facebook. Always use the privacy setting. Remember, you must be over thirteen to join sites such as Facebook Remember too that people are not always who they say they are on the Internet.

The Internet allows all sorts of people to make themselves appear in a way that is attractive to you. Someone who says they are only 14 and would like to meet you may actually be over 50 and not a nice person to meet. You could put yourself in serious danger Never agree to meet anyone you have met on the Internet without informing your parents or an adult who can go with you. Keep yourself safe. Check your personal details on Internet sites and remove any that could give away too much information Remove or block anyone you suspect of bullying from your friend lists If children do experience his type of bullying,they should not reply to abusive emails or texts but do keep them, as they can be used in evidence against the bully. 4. Describe the risk and consequences for children and young people using internet,mobile phones and other technologies. The Internet offers many positive educational and social benefits to young people, but unfortunately there are risks, too. It is impossible to suggest to children and young people not to use internet ,mobile phones and other technologies,but is useful if we explain them about the risks which may occur and how to protect themselves from it.

As in any other area of life, children and young people are vulnerable and may expose themselves to danger, knowingly or unknowingly, when using the internet,mobile phones and other digital technologies. Indeed, some young people may find themselves involved in activities which are inappropriate or possibly illegal. One of the key risks of using the internet, email or chat rooms is that young people may be exposed to inappropriate material. This may be material that is pornographic, hateful or violent in nature, that encourages activities that are dangerous or illegal, or that is just age-inappropriate.

Other risks which can be of sexual or emotional abuse is giving out information about themselves and accessing inappropriate information. There is also the risk of physical danger. Some people use the internet to make contact with children and young people with the intention of developing a relationship which they can progress to sexual activity. Bullying is another aspect of the use of new technologies which are perceived as providing an anonymous method by which bullies can torment their victims. Children may receive texts or emails that make them feel sad, embarrassed, upset, depressed or afraid.

This could be damaging to the child’s self-esteem and psychological well-being. Some children and young people may become involved in serious illegal activities. Possibilities include, identity theft, bullying, selling stolen goods, participation in hate websites. There is also a risk that children can access sites, such as suicide sites and on-line gambling,as well as possibility that children may divulge personal information such as full name, address, email,hobby etc. Consequences of sharing personal information The Internet is a wonderful resource for both adults and children, and a reat way to stay in touch with friends and family. But,as we said before it can also be a very dangerous place. Children often place their information about themselves which makes it easy for them to be identified. It may include their name,address,phone number or even photographs. The persons in search for children to abuse can be very patient and take a lot of time to collect enough information about their potential victims’ life, in some cases starting to ask questions about their sexual experiences, fantasies and hopes of getting a girl- or boyfriend.

This is called grooming. The process of getting close to children for sexual abuse happens through a process of manipulation and persuasion, in many cases without the child noticing it. The person starts communication with the young person, asking about apparently common interests, asking about where they live and their family, if they are happy or sad and why. All the communication is aimed at gaining their trust over time. Risk of accessing inappropriate information There are always risks of children accessing inappropriate information.

This includes access to information that may be inappropriate for children generally, sites that sell contraband or advocate illegal activities, and sites that pose risks to their privacy. In some cases, they may not even know they’re doing it, but the dangers are just as real. Despite the fact that this happens when they innocently searching for information on Internet,all schools must have filtering systems in place,which prevent access to unsuitable sites. They also must have a policy which ensures that children are protected at all times.

However parents and school staff are aware,the risk and consequences are increasing. It is very important that children are taught how to use internet safety and how to protect themselves when using Internet. They should also know how to report if there are any concerns. 5. Describe any tree actions that you would take in response to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused,harmed(including self-harm),bullied or be at risk of harm,abuse or bullying.

Everyone in the education service plays a part in keeping children and young people safe and at same time have responsibility to look for signs that abuse may happened. Creating a safe learning environment, identifying pupils who are suffering or at risk of harm and then taking appropriate action are vital to ensuring children are safe at home and at school. Assistant teachers,as well as teachers spend significant time with children in school,therefore,they build special relationship with them.

Children feel more comfortable to talk,share some privacy and confide when the rest of the class are not around. It is very important that the teacher knows how to recognise when abuse may be happening and which actions to take to protect the child. There are number of ways in which suspicions of abuse may be raised or actual abuse brought to our attention. A child or young person may confide in you that they are being abused and A colleague may report to you that child or young person has confided in them that they are being abused or they have a suspicions that a child is being abused.

If we suspect abuse has taken place or abuse has been brought to our attention we are obliged to take action but we must also ensure at all times that the welfare of the child or young person is paramount and the interests of the person against whom the allegation has been made are protected. We must act quickly but appropriately and professionally. Here are the actions we should always take in case of concerns that a child has been abused,or in risk of abuse,harm or bullying: We should always report concerns about possible signs or changes in behaviour of the child to the designated person or our manager.

Listen carefully and take it seriously. Reassure the child or young person that they are right to tell and negotiate getting help. We should tell them that is not their fault,and that we will have to tell someone who can help. Make careful records of what was said using the child's or young person’s own words as soon as is practicable following the disclosure. Date, time and sign the record. This record later would be used in any subsequent legal proceedings. If a child disclose to us that is being abused,bullied or harmed,we should never: Jump to conclusions,we must always be observant.

Directly question the child in order to investigate further or suggest words for him/her to use. Try to get the child or young person to disclose all the details. Speculate or accuse anybody. Make promises that we cannot keep. Give our opinion, just state the facts as reported,or what has been told. We should never attempt to assess ourselves whether or not the allegations are true and never attempt to deal with any suspicion or report of abuse on our own. 6. Explain any two actions to take in response to concerns that a colleague is failing to comply with safeguarding procedures.

It is extremely important for anyone who works with children or young people to fully understand their own responsibilities in relation to safeguarding issues. One of the most important things to remember is that if we ever have concerns about the welfare of a child or young person, we should always make those concerns known to an appropriate person. In most work situations, that will be our manager or supervisor. Local Safeguarding Children Boards are statutory organisations which operate within each local area to ensure that services co-operate to promote the welfare of children and young people.

All organisations which work with children have a responsibility to recruit staffs who are suitable to work with children. When some one applies to work with children, he/she will be asked to complete a form to disclose any convictions that he/she may have. A CRB check will also be done for that person. Even with these checks in place abuse can, and has, happened within schools. This is called institutional abuse. Anyone who works in school has the responsibility to take action if it is felt that colleagues are not following the codes of conduct.

All staff has a duty to comply with policies and procedures. Failure to comply may put children and young people at risk of harm or abuse, so concerns should always be reported to the safeguarding co-ordinator or the head teacher. We should not delay in acting if we know or suspect that our colleagues are not complying with safeguarding procedures. Though it is difficult to complain about colleagues we should always have children and young people as our first priority. But we should not discuss these matters with anyone else.

First we need to do if there are concerns that a colleague may be failing to comply with safeguarding procedures is: report to our manager,designated person for safeguarding or to the Head Teacher and tell exactly what was observed and what happened to initiate the concern If the allegation are against the Head Teacher,we should report to the designated person for safeguarding,or directly to the Local Educational Authorities. 7. What two actions would you take in response to concerns that a colleague has either harmed,abused or bullied a child or young person.

Schools are usually some of the safest places for children and young people to be. However,sadly there have been incidents when children and young people have been harmed or abused by the adults who work with them and care for them. If we have concerns that a colleague is abusing a child, our actions should be exactly the same as if the abuser is a parent, family member or stranger. We must act immediately to protect children by: Informing the Head Teacher or designated person for child protection. We have to fill up the concern form when needed We may need to give evidence if the case is taken to court.

If we notice that a member of staff trying to develop a very close relationship with a child – for example, offering small presents and special treats, or arranging to meet the child outside of the setting or school,than we should be concern about it and report it . Discussions like these are awkward, but it is important to share any concerns we may have as the child’s welfare is paramount. 8. Explain any two principles on confidentiality,and when to share information on the pupil or young person with others who do not deal directly with the pupil.

Confidentiality is essential in schools and all school staff including practitioners and volunteers must apply of the policy,known as Confidentiality Policy . We usually gather information from parents or guardians about child's medical record,records from previous schools or records for special educational needs,in order to carry out our role as teachers. All these are confident information and needs to use only for the purpose for which were gathered. In general, you must keep sensitive information confidential. If information circulates too freely,parents can feel very exposed and vulnerable.

They may stop sharing information with staff. As mentioned above the school has a Confidentiality Policy which sets out guidelines for confidential information. For example, the policy states that all information about individual children is private and should only be shared with those staff that have a need to know, and all social services, medical and personal information about a child should be held in a safe and secure place which cannot be accessed by individuals other than school staff. Any medical information such as allergies or medical needs are made available to any staff who need the information.

Any photographs of children are not to be used without the permission of parents/guardians and children’s names are never to be used with a photograph. The school staff are to give parents clear guidance about the use of cameras during public school events. Information about a child’s work, marks and progress should be kept confidential and only shared with parents/guardians or another school should the child change schools - parents cannot be given information about any child’s work or progress other than their own child.

Any social services records or reports, health reports, SEN reports or records are to be kept confidential and only shared with the appropriate parties. Any information containing addresses, telephone numbers or any other contact details are kept confidential and only given to staff if required in an emergency - no one else can access this information. Once the child has left the school this information would be disposed of (or shredded). In some circumstances,we have to share the information without consent with professionals who need to know,for example if the child may be at risk of significant harm.

If sharing information will help to ensure a child or young person’s safety, we must do this. In nearly all cases, we should start by explaining to the parent why we want to share the information and how this would help their child. If a parent refuses, we should ask for advice and guidance from the named person for safeguarding or the manager. Failure to share information has been highlighted in a number of serious child abuse cases. Sharing information ensures that problems are identified early and actions are taken when children are thought to be at risk of abuse. . Identify tree (3) signs and symptoms of common childhood illness in the learning environment. It is likely for school staff to notice when children are ill or may be incubating an common childhood illness,as they spend average 6 hours per day in school. In order to help them,we should be able to recognise the signs and symptoms,but not to diagnose them. It is important that the school informs their parents if there are signs of common illness so they can take the child home.

But is also important that school staff knows what kind of illness is ,so they can protect the rest of the children,especially ,if is illness that can spread to other children. Common childhood illness are:Flu,Tonsillitis,Diarrhoea,Vomiting,Chickenpox, Rubella,Measles,Impetigo,Ringworm etc. Measles Incubation period: 7-12 days. Infectious period: A few days before the rash appears until 5 days after it goes. How to recognise the symptoms: It begins like a bad cold (runny nose, watery eyes), cough, loss of appetite. The child will gradually feel more and more unwell, with a temperature.

A rash appears after the 3rd or 4th day on the neck, forehead and cheeks, which spreads to the rest of the body. Spots are red and slightly raised, and may be blotchy. The rash is not itchy. The child will become very unwell, with a cough and high temperature. The illness usually lasts about a week. What parents should do: See a doctor. Give rest and plenty of fluids to drink. Warm drinks will ease cough. Special child strength paracetamol will ease the discomfort and lower temperature. Vaseline around the lips protects the skin. Wash crustiness from eyelids with warm water.

Measles is a very infectious condition. Can be serious and bring complications affecting the ears, lungs and brain. It can even lead to death. It is important for the school staff to identify the symptoms of measles and contact the parent immediately,so the child can see doctor. Mumps Incubation period: 14-21 days. Up to 3 weeks from infection to outbreak. Infectious period: From a few days before unwell until the swelling goes down. Around 10 days in all. How to recognise the symptoms: The virus enters the body through the airways, then passes around the body in the bloodstream.

It can end up almost everywhere - the kidneys, thyroid gland, pancreas, sexual glands and, not least, the salivary gland. The virus thrives in the parotid salivary glands, which lie in the cheeks just in front of the ears. In the early days the child may be unwell with an increasing temperature. They may complain of pain around the ear or feel uncomfortable when chewing caused by a swelling of the parotid glands. Swelling starts under the jaw, up by the ear, usually on one side, followed by the other. It is only possible to get mumps in one of the glands.

The body temperature may rise to 40oC and the swelling can feel oppressive and sore. The earlobes stick out and the child's face eventually looks very swollen. The child experiences pain when opening their mouth. The face goes back to normal size after about a week. The child may not feel especially ill, but more a general discomfort. What parents should do: Child strength paracetamol will ease the pain in swollen glands. Give plenty to drink (water), but not fruit juices as these make saliva flow and can cause discomfort or pain.

Generally no need to see the doctor unless the child has stomach-ache and is being sick. The school staff need to inform the parent if they recognise symptoms of mumps. Chickenpox Incubation period: 14-16 days. Infectious period: From the day before the rash appears until the spots are dry. How to recognise the symptoms: The child will begin by feeling unwell with a cold or headache, and will develop a rash and maybe a temperature. Some children will develop abdominal pain, or a vague sick feeling a day or 2 before the rash appears. Spots are red and become yellow fluid-filled blisters within a day or so.

First on the chest and back, and they then spread to almost everywhere else on the body, including the scalp, mouth, nose, ears, and genitals. The spots eventually dry into scabs and then drop off. Unless spots are badly infected (which is common when they are picked or scratched off), they don't usually leave a scar. These symptoms may last for a few days, and fever stays in the range of 37. 7 to 38. 8 degrees Celsius, although it may occasionally be higher. Younger children often have milder symptoms and fewer blisters than older children or adults.

What parents should do: Most chickenpox infections require no special medical treatment. However, call your child's doctor immediately if your child has a fever that lasts for more than 4 days or rises above 38. 8 degrees Celsius, has a severe cough or trouble breathing, has an area of rash that leaks pus or becomes red, warm, swollen, or sore, has a severe headache, is unusually drowsy or has trouble waking up, has trouble looking at bright lights, has difficulty walking, seems confused, seems very ill or is vomiting, has a stiff neck. Teachers must inform the parent to take their child home to stop the spreading.

Usually if more than one child is with chickenpox,written sign is displayed on the doors for parents to be awere. 10. Describe any tree (3) actions to take when children or young people are ill or injured in learning environment. It is important that children are given opportunities to explore their environment safely,but accidents do happen,and we need to know how to deal with it. All schools must have a lest one paediatric first aider present on the premises at all time when children are present. It is also important that we know who the named first aiders is and how it can be contacted.

When pupils are at school the responsibility for their safety rests with the Authority and the head teacher and staff undertake this responsibility on behalf of the authority. This means that reasonable steps should be taken at all times to prevent any pupil suffering injury and to ensure that accidents or difficulties can be reported to a responsible adult and appropriate action taken. Schools have system in place for summoning urgent medical help to the classroom or playground. Schools also need to ensure that they keep their first aid training up to date and are confident to put it into practice.

When children and young people are injured or ill in the learning environment,we should follow the procedures and policies which each school have when comes to deal this. First we need to do is to ask for help from another colleague even if we are first aider. When injuries are minor such as cuts or bruises it can be deal within the school by washing and cleaning the wound with clean water,but lotions and cream should never used as some children might be allergic to some contents. Second, we need to fill in the accident book which each school must have about how the accident happened and how was dealt.

We need to make notes as soon after the event if possible. Preferably these accident book should be duplicating pages,so the parent can take copy home. At the end of the school day,we must inform the parents that their child had minor accident and how was dealt. Reporting to parents is particularly important when child suffered a head bump. Even where there are no obvious symptoms,the parents must be aware of what has happened. If a child is ill while in school,we should not give any medicine,but inform the parent to take them home if necessary.

If children need to be given medication at school, parents must complete the relevant forms which are available from the school office. The medicine must be in date and in the original container. The school staff must notify Ofsted and Health and Safety Executive of any serious accident or injury to,or serious illness of, or death of any child whilst in school care and act on advise given. Failing to do so without reasonable excuse,is commitment of offence. 11. Identify any tree (3) circumstances when children and young people require urgent medical attention.

Minor and major illnesses and injuries can occur in children during the school day. Children and youth can be injured or become ill during the school day. Such events may require non urgent, urgent, or emergency health care at school. School administrators, in consultation with the school health nurse and school physician (a paediatrician or other physician knowledgeable about child and adolescent health and school health issues employed or designated by the school) should develop policies and guidelines for all these situations, including emergency health care.

Procedures should be in place to summon help in emergency situations from local emergency medical service professionals and, where available, the 999 system. Transportation to a hospital or other medical facility should be accessible and appropriate for the level of care required en route. Every school district should identify the persons who are authorized and educated to make decisions when health emergencies occur. Names, telephone numbers, and locations of these persons should be provided to all staff members.

Each school should have an emergency plan that specifies the responsibility for contacting these persons during an emergency. When working in a school it is likely to be in situations where we have to make a decision about calling urgent medical attention. Here are some reasons to do so: if the child has difficulty breathing or shortness of breath if the child has had a change in mental status, such as suddenly becoming unusually sleepy or difficult to rouse, disoriented, or confused if the child has a cut in the skin that is bleeding and won't stop if the child has a stiff neck along with a fever f the child has a rapid heartbeat that doesn't slow down if the child accidentally ingests a poisonous substance or too much medication if the child has had more than minor head injure We should also get urgent medical attention if the child suffer from: asthmatic attack (which is not helped by inhaler),Epilepsy,Anaphylaxis,Diabetes,Sickle cell disease,and major head injuries. Asthma Some pupils will have medical conditions that require support so that they can attend school regularly and take part in school activities.

Schools and their employers should have policies on managing pupils' medicines and on supporting pupils with medical needs. Most children with asthma manage the illness well and carry an inhaler with them,so they can attend school and take part in schools activities. On average, there are two children with asthma in every classroom in the UK,and that makes asthma most common condition in schools. Asthma (sometimes called bronchial asthma) makes breathing difficult for more than five million people in the UK. Asthma symptoms, which include coughing, wheezing and chest tightness, are common in an asthma attack.

There is a person with asthma in one in every five households in the UK, but with proper treatment for symptoms of asthma both children and adults can live well. All school staff need to be trained to be able to help children in asthma attack. If that occurs,immediate,urgent medical help attention is needed and called. We can help children with asthma without medical help by: make sure that they take asthma medicine properly, and that they use their inhaler(not someone else's) If possible let them take the medication in the school office at set times, or if need it, during activities.

Help them feel comfortable doing this by letting them do this discretely. Make sure that their medication is stored in the school office, and that their parents / carers are told when it is getting low. Make sure that they bring their asthma medication with them on school trips. Epilepsy Epilepsy is a common serious neurological condition where there is a tendency to have seizures that start in the brain. Many young people with epilepsy don’t have special educational needs (SEN), and may never experience a seizure at school.

About two thirds of children with epilepsy do underachieve academically, and a minority will experience seizures during school time. Epilepsy is a very individual condition and every child with epilepsy is different. Epilepsy Action recommends that teachers find out as much as possible about a child’s epilepsy, from the child and their parents or carers. The type of information that would be useful might include some of the following: what type of seizures the child have,how long do they last,which activities the child to avoid etc. When child suffer from Epilepsy,and has an attack,first aider should always be called.

When children recover from the attack,they need to be kept safe from harm and reassured. Urgent medical help must be called if: the child does not recover immediately has more than one seizure or has not been diagnosed epileptic. Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is the word used for serious and rapid allergic reactions usually involving more than one part of the body which, if severe enough, can kill. The schools should have protocol and procedures which should be followed by anyone caring for a child who may be at risk of allergic symptoms or Anaphylaxis.

The protocol is to ensure that everyone caring for the child is aware of their allergies, symptoms and to promote better understanding of the child's needs and medical requirements. This should help to allow for better management of symptoms and recognition of how to deal with emergency situations if they arise. It should also allow for effective communication between parents, childcare organisations and medical professionals which should help both the allergic child and anyone involved in their care.

Many children have allergic reactions caused by eggs,nuts,seafood or insects bites. Children who are allergic to foods often notice the effect in seconds, and their life may be in jeopardy within a few minutes. Sometimes a reaction takes much longer to start, an hour or so, but can still be extremely serious. Improvement can also happen quickly, especially with the right treatment. All school staff need to be aware of children diagnosed with Anaphylaxis,as well as to identify the symptoms and be able to help them.

The Medication often prescribed for a child at risk of anaphylaxis is Epinephrine. (Commonly known as Adrenaline) and should be available at the school. Amongst the commoner causes of anaphylaxis are: Foods: especially nuts, some kinds of fruit, fish and less commonly spices Drugs: Especially penicillins, anaesthetic drugs, some intravenous infusion liquids, and things injected during x-rays Bee or wasp (yellow jacket) stings when these cause faintness, difficulty in breathing, or rash or swelling of a part of the body which has not been stung.

Aphylaxis usually happens quickly and we need to act quickly to help the child. Anaphylaxis can produce: An itchy Swelling Swelling in the throat, causing difficulty in swallowing or breathing Asthma symptoms Vomiting Cramping tummy pains Diarrhoea A tingling feeling in the lips or mouth if the cause was a food such as nuts Death due to obstruction to breathing or extreme low blood pressure (anaphylactic shock) In event of reaction immediate medical help must be sought,even if adrenaline has been given to the child.