Winters Moore,J. Blake Snider, 2005 11 Emotion in the workplace: A reappraisal Blake E. Seaports and Ronald H. Humphrey, 1995 12 Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Leadership Practices R. And 2010 13 Emotion in the workplace: A new challenge for managers Neal M Santayana, Introduction: Emotional Intelligence is defined as the ability to understand one's own emotions and also be able to understand and verify other people's emotions and feelings and handle them in a positive manner.
Studies show that those with a higher level of emotional intelligence tend to have better Job performance and leadership skills, maintain strong and long lasting relationships and tend to have a better quality of life overall. The happier the employee, the more productive the work environment. This research paper would try to understand the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and employee output. How it can be managed and handled by supervisors and managers and how to better equip employees with II for their own benefit as well as that of the organization.
Literature Review: Article 1: The effects of emotional intelligence on age, work experience, and academic performance This article examines the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic reference. This is a significant study as those who perform better academically tend to perform well at the work place, so it was important to find or not to find some relationship between the two factors. The article also explores the links between age, work experience and emotional intelligence.
The studies carried out showed that academic performance or those students with higher level of Gaps, did have a positive relationship with emotional intelligence, and those with mid level Gaps showed more correspondence with general well being and emotional intelligence. It as also found out that age work experience was also positively related to emotional too vague a concept, and something that could not be measured by a proper rating scale.
But a new school of thought emerged that was of the view that El can be measure and proposed certain means to do so. The fist hypothesis proposed were that emotional intelligence is positively co related with work experience . The second hypothesis stated that emotional intelligence and academic performance was positively related as measured by GAP. A survey was sent to 193 business students of a southeastern university. The survey consisted of 30 content questions.
A specially designed Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Etiquette) was developed to measure emotional intelligence, consisting questions and facets deriving from prominent El categories which included, adaptability, assertiveness, emotion appraisal (self and others), emotion expression, emotion management(others), emotion regulation, impulsiveness (low), relationship skills, self-esteem, self motivation, social competence, stress management, trait empathy, trait happiness, and trait optimism Simple and multiple linear regression were made to find the association of emotional intelligence and academic performance and work experience.
The study carried out had a number of important findings. The study confirmed that emotional intelligence was positively associated with work experience. It also suggests that certain sub factors of emotional intelligence are related to academic performance as measured by GAP. While global emotional intelligence was not significantly associated with academic performance, there was a significant association between the emotional intelligence well-being and GAP Natalie L. Shipley, Mary Joy Jackson, 2008 http://www. Barb. Com/manuscripts/10535. UDF Article 2: EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS The article defines emotional intelligence as" the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in the self and others" The article cites the example of U. S army general, James Dozier who was captured by a terrorist group. Though initially he was frightened, he remembered something he had learned in an executive leadership program, that a single person can influence the emotional tone of a group by modeling.
His captors became increasingly irrational during his capture and the general had to do something before the situation got out of control. Firstly he calmed himself, and expressed it through his behavior. This had a calming effect on his captors, who did not do anything rash until his rescue. The general believed that managing his emotions and those around him, meaning emotional intelligence, he was able to get himself out alive from a dangerous situation.
According to the article, organizations face a number of challenges, which include, coping with change, driving innovation, processing large amounts of information, customer loyalty, titivation, teamwork, recruiting top talent, preparing for overseas assignments, In nearly all factors emotional intelligence would play a key role. Emotional Intelligence influences organizational effectiveness, and also has an impact on employee sales, revenue, efficiency. Sources of emotional intelligence include proper training, creating an environment where stable relationships can prosper, and effective human resource management HARM department.
The article goes on to say that there is a lack of research in the field of emotional intelligence and there has been a abate to the exact definition of the concept itself, and says it is an important concept into which further studies need to be carried out. Cary Cherries, 2001 http://Mohammedanizes. Com. AU/product_data/excerpt/02/07879569/0787956902. PDF Article 3: The article states that in modern times, companies and organizations operate globally. Studies were carried out that were meant to find a relationship between effective leaders and whether they possessed the characteristic of emotional intelligence.
The study was meant to assess the linkage between El and varying cultures, and employee and leadership performance. The study took into perspective guidelines set by project GLOBE, and a sample of four cultural managers and their impact on the performance of the organization. The results were found that emotional intelligence was highly valued and managers possessing this characteristic tended to be more successful in their organizational pursuits. Such managers were held in high esteem by the organization and had better chances of promotion. The linkage between El and performance was to be managed by a team of cross cultural scholars.
The method was to select managers of small companies and send them biophysicist questionnaires, and gather and analyze the data of those surveys. The results showed that those who rated Emotional Intelligence higher on the provided were more successful than the rest. Where as the rest of the managers rated social skills, cognitive skills, technical skills, motivation, empathy. Self management, though these characteristics are also important for a manger to possess, but managers who rated them above emotional intelligence tended to be less successful than the others.
Global managers who lead foreign teams should consider that while international managers can spend considerable effort in planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling their subordinates, success in achieving the firm's objectives cannot be realized without systematically studying and understanding the cultural environment within which they operate As this study and substantial prior research illustrate, cultural identities play an important role in determining the selection of preferred and effective leadership style.
Global leaders should also attempt to match their leadership styles to various cultural conditions. By using the appropriate behavior in the corresponding cultural environment, global managers can enhance subordinate motivation, which, in turn, can lead to organizationally desired outcomes such as enhanced performance. A leader should include all relevant parties in the decision making process, delegate responsibility, and try not to lead uncompromisingly from the top. Ann H Reilly, 2007 http://www. Fabric. Com/manuscripts/08134. UDF This article relates emotional intelligence and how it effects ethical decision making. This article also conducted studies as part of its research process, with the data and exults being favorable to emotional intelligence, that it has a positive significant role to play in the productivity of an organization or a culture. According to the article, a lack of emotional intelligence is the one of the leading causes of conflict, as the root of all conflict is the lack of sensitivity of one or both parties.
The study was conducted in seven countries and examined the relationship between emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and work-family conflict in ninety-eight senior managers. Research methodology was mostly through secondary data, urinals, news papers, books. According to the article, emotional intelligence and ethical decision making have the following facets, self awareness, self regulation, motivation, empathy and decision making. Through research carried out, it was found that emotional intelligence would act as a protector of ones well being when it came to work family, conflict.
The article examines the dimensions of conflict and targeting forces. It was found through their study that teams with less-well defined emotional intelligence climates were associated with increased task and relationship conflict ND increased conflict intensity and would help in making decisions that would be ethical, rational and Just. Thus Emotional intelligence is an important factor in making ethical decisions. Dry. Knish Garlic, Indri Chuddar, 2013 http://www. Jambs. Com/31/knish. UDF Article 5: This article explores the relationship between emotional intelligence, self efficacy and organizational commitment. Self efficacy is described as the ability or belief of a person to accomplish or complete a certain task. Organizational commitment is the level of loyalty an employee has towards his organization. Through research in this article, it was found out that emotional intelligence and self efficacy were positively related, while emotional intelligence and organizational commitment were also positively related, albeit on a lower level.
The article recommends that due to the findings of the research, organizations should make it mandatory for its employees to go through training programmers that would improve self efficacy and organizational organize and execute the courses of action The six constituent dimensions of occupational self-efficacy are: confidence, command, adaptability, personal effectiveness, positive attitude, and individuality, but the common theme of all the definitions is that organizational commitment is the emotional bond or attachment between the employees and their organization. 06 persons were asked to complete questionnaires, out of which 120 returned the completed questionnaires. El of the employees was assessed with the help of an emotional intelligence scale, which in which there was ten dimensions. Another Occupational self efficacy scale was used which consisted of six dimensions. Regression analysis and abbreviate analysis were inducted, the results of which indicated that Emotional intelligence, self efficacy and organizational commitment were positively associated.
The present study helps in understanding the concepts of E', occupational self-efficacy and organizational commitment, and provides an insight into the relationship between these variables. At this point, it is suggested that organizations should also focus on finding the levels of El and self-efficacy beliefs of their future employees, in addition to other characteristics, in the personnel selection process Neural Rather and Rene Ragtag, 2009 http://median. ICC. In/Jake/TTT/so/Jacket's pop. UDF Article 6: This article studies the relationship between occupational stress and emotional intelligence in employees of a bank. The employees were investigated both separately and in correlation. Demographic characteristics were also included in the study. The sample of the study consisted of 192 employees of various banks across Greece. The instruments used were Stress Scale, and the Schuster Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test. The results found that stress was influenced by demographic factors and was predicted in a small level by emotional intelligence.
The article describes stress as, taking from the field of psychology, a feeling of distress, anxiety, and or uncertainty. An employee's individual features, like age, gender, educational level and years of experience, are considered to be likely to affect his/ her Job performance and general wellbeing. In addition, demographic factors have been correlated with specific work factors, like Job satisfaction, Job commitment, job stress and Job burnout.
According to the article, the factor of gender had a specific role in occupational stress. Women experienced more stress at the workplace than their male underpants. Fresh university graduates were also more likely to experience stress. Management are likely to be predicted by the employee's levels of optimism and the ability to manage and use emotions positively. Thus those employees with higher levels of emotional intelligence were more capable of handling stress.
This leads to healthier relationships with their work colleague and creates a better work environment, and as a result, everyday problems and anxieties are dealt with in a more efficient manner. The article concludes by suggesting that policy makers, managers and administrators, need to maintain a check on occupational stress of their employees, and for better management of stress should introduce programmers to increase the level of emotional intelligence amongst its employees. Timorous Belies, Euthanasia Ketosis's, 2013 http://www. Maceration. Erg/Journal/index. PH/shirrs/article/view/4372/3666 Article 7: The given article assesses how emotional intelligence leads to better Job performance of teachers. The paper states how the Job of teaching is highly demanding while, the salaries and resources of teachers is low, which may lead to bob dissatisfaction, The paper has tried to assess the impact El has on the teachers overall welfare and commitment and Job satisfaction. This study asked teachers to complete a demographic survey, the Baron CEQ-I Self Report Scale, and the Job Descriptive Index.
One hundred and one teachers were asked to complete these forms and 101 surveys were completed and returned. Data analyses revealed that emotional intelligence does play a role in how teachers perceive their overall Job satisfaction based on self-report measures. According to the paper there have been little to no studies that connect emotional intelligence with Job satisfaction of teachers. Analysis of the data supports the hypothesis that emotional intelligence is positively correlated with self-report measures of Job enjoyment.
The results of this study also support the hypothesis that emotional intelligence is positively correlated with years of teaching experience. Once the demographic information is presented, it shows that Caucasian teachers report greater enjoyment of teaching and more satisfaction with supervision than black teachers. The paper admits that there were certain limitations of the research s the number of teachers it surveyed was limited given the small nature of the educational institution.
The paper nonetheless concludes with data and analysis showing how El is positively correlated with Job performance and satisfaction. It also stated that work experience is also positively co related with emotional intelligence their Job. Brandy cob, 2004 http://disconsolation. Wok. Du/CGI/vivisection. CGI? Article=2106&context=theses Article 8: Outcomes The article describes trust as the central issue in human relationships within and outside of the organization.
Trust is an integral human emotion and necessary for inference building and the necessary psychological safety required to perform in an organization. Many organizations rely on teams, and for teams to function, trust must be there for group members to perform effectively. Organizations need to focus on building trust amongst its workforce The article also gives preference to organizational culture and organizational climate, which are factors in output and performance.
Studies were carried out as part of this article consisting of 142 participant to test a leaders and groups emotional intelligence and its effect on performance. The article is of the opinion that both higher levels of the ability to understand the emotions of others and greater trust in managers predict organizational outcomes, Job satisfaction and organizational commitment, the relationships described herein between these two constructs offers a more sophisticated understanding of how these variables predict workplace variables.
Whilst ratings of individual traits and their relationship to workplace variables provide important information concerning how individual qualities contribute to performance and workplace behavior, they do not specifically illustrate how these individual qualities impact at the group or cultural level. Reliable assessment of cultural factors at the group or organizational level can further inform organizations about the downstream effects of more or less effective behaviors on group dynamics and performance.
The results of the present study provide preliminary evidence concerning the role of group level E', trust in leaders, and their mediating role in individual Job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Luke A Downey, 2011 http://www. Business-and-management. Org/library/2011 /6_1--30-40- Downey,Roberts,Stouts. PDF Article 9: Emotional Intelligence and Negotiation Performance. The aim of this article was to establish link between emotional intelligence and negotiation performance. The author, Charles B. Craver, wanted to find whether was emotional intelligence a greater factor.
The author has been a teacher for 35 years, teaching over 95,000 practicing lawyers at the George Washington University Law School. He states that he initially conducted his study in 1986, and found no such correlation between GAP and success on his negotiation course. He re examined the issue in 2000 and once again found no relationship. Next he wanted to find whether gender has role in negotiating skills, that males were better than females at negotiating. Through his studies, he found no such relationship.
Next he tried to find a connection between race and negotiation success, and once again found no relationship. Now lastly he has conducted research whether emotional intelligence and success at negotiating and at his negotiations class has any co- relation. Negotiating is important, as in the field of law, effective negotiations can win or lose legal disputes. The teacher has taken his class of 120 students as sample. A voluntary est.. On emotional intelligence was given to students, with four key factors, along with an Affective Communication Test (ACT) and a self monitoring scale.
The researcher found out that emotional intelligence does not have a significant role to play in negotiations, rather, reasoning skills, realistic aspirations and confidence in their own positions was key to negotiating effectively. That is not to say that emotional intelligence is irrelevant, it does have an impact, but not as significant. Charles B. Craver, 2013 http://scholarship. Law. GU. Du/CGI/vivisection. CGI? Article=2268=faculty_publications Article 10: The aim of this research paper was to establish whether there exists a link between emotional intelligence and thinking styles.