(BUSN 400)
I.D. UBB 1952 B B A 4925
The study specifically is aimed at determining the relevance of
promotion in marketing: an investigation on why companies promote their

In the first chapter an outline of the historical developments of
promotion and a background of the whole topic were provided.

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The second chapter gave much emphasis to the literature review, and
thereby observed many relationships between promotion and communication,
equally the promotional tools are observed.

The third chapter covered the methodology used in carrying out the
research. These include the sample area, population, limitations, and types
of questioneer and method of data analysis used, the question was the sole
instrument used for getting information.

The fourth chapter presents the data analysis. The findings are
presented in a tabular form with majority response is higher while the
minority cover of the responses.

On the whole it was found that promotion is given a prominent place by
companies in their operations.

Lastly in the final chapter the study consist of the summary,
conclusion and recommendations were made.

The study involves the relevance of promotion in marketing and
Impact of all promoting tools to every marketing activity. Promotion as one
of the marketing mix element is impartant in underscores on hew to
carefully implement it.

It is very important to note that promotion is in existence for a
very long period of time throughout the World. However, if the historical
concept of promotion is observed it has undergone many changes and
modernization. Interns of finance billions of dollars are spent annually
throughout the world.

Increase in the level of automation, the consumer is faced with many
products with similar characters tics, so the only way buyer to patronize
BIM is through careful promotional activities.

According to W. Duncan Reekie 1970
"since Eve first displayed her charms
with us. The streets of ancient Rome
were filled with bankers.

Restoration saw criers callout few
could have had the appeal and impact
of the orange seller. The apoeryphall
molly malure strode through dublin
with cocklegs and mussels' alive, -.1
the printed word joined the spoken advertising at least as erly as the
18th centuary. The spectator newspaper was used as a medium in 1710:
According to Duncan and rackie 1970: "an incomparable powder for cleaning
teeth which has given satisfaction to most of the nobility and general in
England." 2
However, the historical development of promotion cannot be over emphasized.

The longest of the development of promotio is that of Doctor Johnson when
he made observetion in 1759 and thougfh promotion is s0o near perfection
that it ia not easy to propose any improvement unto it. Whene johnson made
that observations, it was after 300 years when the first advertising
posters had been prited by laxton the date eas1480.

According to the times 28th October, 170: it described the poster indusry
as the "Clinderella" of advertiseing, it is now fact almost 500 years old.

King charles II had barely assumed the throne, in that same year by 1660,
before the king himself took an advertisements to ask the return of a
stolen dog. David sheley Nickoll reports which nobody offers to beg.

Uptill today promotion remains a very impotant aspect of every marketing
activity not only in britain but throughout the world. In different
writtings of advertising according to w.duncan Reekie: "advertising has
long been fascinating.

Socio-political topic, in the united states the federal trade commissioner
has devoted consiuderation effort to learn more about the subject by
holding (1971) extensive hearings on the modern advertising practices.

In Britain the labor party had equally produces green papper (1) devoted
solely to the impact of advertising on the economy abuyer, it is similar to
today'nd on society.

3. W.Duncan Reekie, Avertising (1970)
4. Ibid.

Here in Africa, promotion dates back to centuries when town criers
disseminates information to people in case of any eventualities - which is
part of publicity one of the aspect of promotion. Equally a slip of drink
to consume free of charge before purchase is made is part of African
culture towards convincing and encouraging the buyer, It is similar to
today's give away' or free sample.

In Nigeria modern promotion has been in existence for decades. The
association of advertising practioner of Nigeria gathered in Lagos for
their 15th annual general Meeting in 1987, bit advertising exists in
Nigeria even before formation of the association
Different people and groups have different perceptions and views to
what promotion is in marketing some see it as the ways companies make
people buy their products, while other see it as the way people are
deceived to buy, many others also see it as waste of money and it does
not have impact on anybody.

As malcolm A. Mchiven (1969) States:" there is probably no other part
of the business to which we allocate resources that provide so little
for their use"
The statement summarizes view of many businessman to the effect
that advertising is a waste.

Promotion in marketing is far from all these perception and
understandings of thelayman.Promotioncomprisednotonly
advertisings but many promotional tools that make up to form promotion
in itself these can be advertising, personnel selling, sales promotion
(publicity, give away, exhibition, reseller, supporting and many
others. According to Engel, Warshaw and kinnear:
Promotion has assumed many meaning over the years, although the
original connotation in Latin was 'to move forward' More recently the
meaning has narrowed so that it refers to communication undertaken to
persuade others to accept ideas, concepts, or things. A controlled
integrated program of communication methods and materials design to
present a company and its product to prospective customers; to
communicate need - satisfying attributes of products to facilitate
sales and this contribute to long term profit performance"
5. Malcolm A.Mchiven (1969)
6. Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear, promotional strategy
Every aspect of promotion involves a sort of communication one cannot
talk of proimotion without actualy touching on communication, because, if
an advertisement is presented in the TV screen without voice it will be
very difficult to be interpreted by the average viewer. Thus, effective
communication also goes hand in hand with promotions. For the clear
understanding of promotion the differences in the promotional tools hs to
be observed. Some people in hearing of promotion in marketing always give
emphasis an advertisement alone because it is the widely used form of
promotion in Nigeria today. While in the real sense it is only are aspect
of the promotional tool. Advertisement has aspect of definitions but the
widely accepted one is the of Mr. Jeremy Bullmore:
"an advertisement is a paid for non personal form of communication
intended to inform and/or influence one or more people"
Every advertisement has to involve soma quantity of capital (money),
non-personnel commination and with the intention to influence. The rest of
the promotional tools are equally portent. 7. Mr Jeremy Bullmore selling
for example is the process of assisting and persuading a prospect to buy a
good or service or to act upon an idea through use of person to person
communication. Publicity is the non paid commercial significant news or
editorial comment see over the TV screen things like WAI, MAMSER, Environ
mental sanitation Day, Ramat Polytechnic resumption data announcements etc
to bring awareness. Sales promotion-those marketing activities other than
advertising, personal selling and publicity thatstimulateconsumer
demonstration, giveaways, lottery etc. sales promotion in Nigeria is fast
growing for example the col-cola capital gains and Malting, Sprite, Fanta,
and sponsoring of the year, match of the week, Maroc 88, sponsor by Nasco
Group etc are all sales promotion.

Promotion in marketing has many meanings to different observers
aseptically those without little of what marketing itself is about. Equally
many people still view promotion to mean only advertising.

This study although will give much emphasis an advertising as a
promotional tool it will equally go on to differentiate between them. The
main purposive the study is to:-
1) Determine and clearly state the differences between the promotional

2) To give a clue to the average average reader on what promotion
generally means .

3) To determine the justification on the huge amonut of money spend on

4) To determine which among the promotion tools is most accepted or
widely used by companies and organizations.

Authors and writers have written on many topics of similar nature such
as promotion, advertising and personal selling and many newspaper and
magazine articles. But still this writer thought it necessary to make the
research on promotion generally, because most of thewritingsand
researches cover in detail satins. Companies will have an idea on why to
promotion their products or service. Promotion usually entails where to get
the right products, price and time, hence enables achievement of the
concept of marketing.

In addition to that if one takes into consideration the huge amount
of money spent on promotion annually, it is easy to agree, the need exist
for further research for the purpose of clear understanding of promotion by
marketers. According to William M. Wilbate.

"In the united States advertising expenditure amounted to $33, 720, 000,
000 in the year 1976, it is estimated that abut 40% of this total or
$13,488, 000, 000 was handled by full service advertising agencies.

In the United States, however, advertising agencies are becoming major
businessman than 626 larger advertising agencies In the U.S. including all
the top service organizations. The 10 largest agencies interns of domestic
billing in 1976 were young and publican incorporation, J. Walter Thomson
Company, IRO Burnout Company Incorporation; DBBO International and six
others who make the combined domestic billings of $3, 396, 100, 000 0r
29.6% of the total 1976 Figure. In the USA exceeded %61 Billion, the trend
is expected to continua. Total yearly advertising expenditures are expected
to read between 80 and billion dollars by 1990"8
7. William W. Wilbatcher, Advertising
Here in Nigeria, there are more then 62 advertising agencies-
(Advertising in Nigeria 1987). In the bunch of Thursday march 31. 1988 one
of the advertising agencies Risible which took up on 6 February 1978 with
little or on capital can now boast of N11 Million at the and of 1987 with
25 regulation clients and 10 adhoc clients. These reason if carefully
studied it will be seen that the study really has a lot of significance and
this knowledge. With the steady growth of advertising agencies the tendency
exist for greater concern for the study of promotion by footer generations
of youths in this country, this study merits investigation.

The Guardian Financial weekly December 14,1987 taking on promotion:
"Marketing is a dynamic subject it is also a behavioral science since it
draws heavily on sociology, psychology and organizational behavior thus,
any attempt to contribute to market knowledge must combine all the
effective procedures of research and analysis are applicable to the
behavioral sciences, Buyers market according to it is a situation where
buyers buyers indicate or choose what they want instead of accepting what
is imposed the by the sellers. It is situations of general awareness in
which buyers not only know that they are king but also behave like kings.

Under this buyers bargain for batter products with better price tags;
8. The Guardian financial weekly, December 14.1987.

1. Duncan Reekie, Advertising, (1970)
2. IBID.

3. IBID.

4. IBID.

5. Malcolm A. Mchiven (1969)
6. Engel. Warsaw and Kinnear, promotional strategy (Illiners Richard D.

7. Mr. Jeremy Bullmore
8. William W. Weilbatcher, Advertising
9. The Guardian Financial weekly December 14,1987.

Promotion as one of the marketing mix element has assumed many
meanings over the years. It refers to communication undertaken to persuade
others to accept ideas, concepts or things, promotion then isthe
communication function of marketing.

Although all the elements of marketing mix are essential, one has to
give careful regard to promotion, because it is the source of link between
the product offered and the customer. No matter how good and effective the
product, the distribution and take place the customer will not have an
promotion the satisfaction the product will give. Promotion comprised of
many elements that can persuade the buyer to change heart which the other
elements of the marketing mix lack. Customers can reject a good product
with good price, but a free sample of the product by salesmen can make the
customer to buy.

Sales promotion tools like coupons, samples, 'Give away', and even
packaging can change the mind of buyers.

Inspire that promotion is one aspect of the marketing mix. It can
hardly move on unwanted product, the one over-priced or which lacks good
quality. Marketing then encompasses a broad mix of efforts (product, price,
place and promotion) through which the company adopts its offerings to a
changing environment. No single element of this mix can be managed in
isolation apart from the others without some potentiallydisastrous

According to M.A. Itegboje (1987) "promotion in themarketing
perspective is simply referred to as communication embarked upon to
persuade others to accept ideas, concepts or things"
Every aspect of promotion is done with the intend of oersuading the person
to accept what is offered to him. Promotion is undertaken in different
ways, for
1. M.A. ITEGBOJE, Promotional challenges under SAP first National Simile
conference (1987)
Achieving different purposes. Different authors have givendifferent
definitions of promotion.

According to Engel, Wershaw and Kinnear:
"Promotion is a controlled integrated programme of communication methods
and materials designed to present a company and its products to prospective
customers; to communicate need-satisfying attributes ofproductsto
facilitate sales and thus contribute to long term profit performance." 2
According to Theodore Levitt "certain factors must be accepted mere
or less as given, in that they are beyond the immediate and direct control
of management, Most of these are external; demand, competition, marketing
law, the wholesale and retail structure and the advertising media. Others
are internal, including resources, facilities and policies some of these
really are profit inhibitors in that they restrict ability to gain
competition advantage.

An example would be marketing myopia, where management losses sight of its
real business and fails to change its product offerings as the world around
Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear, Promotional Strategy, Illinois, Richard Dirwin.

The firm changes.'' 3
To achieve the aim of profit maximization or expansion in business and
overcome the external problems and threats caused by competitors the
implantation of the basic promotional tools are necessary in order to
succeed or achieve the original meaning of promotion in Latin to like
advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity, and besides
these tools some elements exist.

Marketing in itself is defined as; "the proceaa in society by which
the demand structure for economic goods and services is anticipated or
enlarged and satisfied through the conception, promotion, exchange and
physical distribution of such goods and services" ALL the aspects mentioned
above involved some sort of communication, however, promotion then is the
2. Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear, promotional strategy, Theodore Levitt
Marketing Layopia Harvard Business Review (1960)
3. Philosophy of Marketing Faculty of the Ohio State University Buteau of
Bus. Research Ohio State Uni. (1964) Promotional Strategy.

The communication function of marketing. Communication tion is very vital
to promotion because the proper interoperation of the message can only be
achieved if the message is understood by the audience clearly.

According to Engel, Waeshaw, and Kinnear "Marketin communication
process differs from many similar world If builds on a rigorous base of
consumer behavior if the message is understood by the audience clearly.

According to Engel, Warshaw, Kinnear "Marketing
Communication process differs from many similar world. It builds on a
rigorous base of consumer, sales promotion reseller stimulation, personal
selling, and other communication tools as part of anoverall promotional
mix. In other wards, various communication methods are treated as variables
for use alone or in combination to communication the wan satisfying
attributes of products and services
Communication has assumed many meanings over the years, it has been
offend in number of ways.

"as the transmission of information, ideas, attitudes or emotions from one
person or personsito another or (others) primarily through symbols" 6
4. Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear, Promotion Strategy Illings Richard Irwin
5. Theoderso and Theoderson (1959)
Every definition of communication indicates the message as coming from a
source which can an individual or organization and going to directed are
which also can be individual or groups. Any communication initiates
communication with same kind of goal or intent for the message, but
intended effect does not necessarily equal actual effect. The receiver must
respond interms of his or her own background and psychological processes.

The depuration given by osgood at al (1957) equally has some correlation
with the others "In the most general sense we have communication wherever
one system-a sources influences another-the destination by manipulating of
alternative systems which can be transmitted over the channel connecting
them." 7
The broad understanding of communication can be the process of meaningful
interaction among human beings. Nore specifically, it is the process by
which meanings are exchanged so as to produce understanding among human
beings. This explanation not only includes written or spoken words, but all
the ways in which meaning is conveyed. Even silence may convey meaning
6. Osgood et al (1957)
And therefore must be considered a form of communication. In addition,
gestures, facial expressions, and body postures communicate meaning to
others. According to Darlton Mc Farland " Communication is the sum total of
directly and indir ctly, consciouslyandunconsciouslytransmitted
feelings, attitudes and wishes," 8
This definition of communication process must now be extended include
computers and related managing information systems, It is important to
distinguish between the systems and processes on the other computers and
systems approaches are valuable as aids to greater accuracy and repaid
processing of information, but it is ultimately monsters who consne and
utilize communication. Signsandsymbolsarebasicelementsin
communication, signs are signals, to which we learn to respond because they
stand for other smith, signs become meaningful through of "conditioned"
responses-that is, responses learns through repeated association with a
given stimulus, even though that particular response would not
7. Jacques, the changing culture of a factory (Lencoa) Tavistock (1951)
Fraction Mc Farland, Management Foundation and Practices.

Normally be evoked by that stimulus E. g the sound of a dinner bell arouses
salivation even without food, if we have learned that the ringing of the
bell is associated with food. The bell one stands in place of the food and
hence is called a sing.

Symbols are special is arbitrary and is less closely associated with
its cues. The Nigeria Flog for example, brings forth complex feelings and --
- in the mind of the observer, who has learned that this symbol should
evoke patriotic attitudes. The flag is an example of a non verbal symbol,
but words or mathematical contains are examples of other symbols in common

American political scientist. Professor Harold D. Laswell began
article in 1948 with perhaps the most famous single phrase in
communication ---- "A convenient way todecribranactof
communication is to answer the following questions:-
1. Who ?
2. Says what?
3. In which channel?
4. To whom?
5. With what effect?
The five questions has ever been know and cited as the level formula. And
if transferred to a graphic model it gives the following diagram:
|Who ||Say what||To ?????||With what|
|||content||||effect analysis|
The five step tries to explain the processes involve in communication from
the source to the receiver.

- The communicator.

This is the sender of the message, where the message originates like
the company that sends its promotional message throughadvertising,
personal selling etc.

- the message:
this is what actually is sent to the audience or receives of the message.

The message
This is what actually is sent to the audience or receives of the
message. The message should be designed to attract attention. It should
employ symbols that give rise to communication meanings. Communication is
facilitated if A and B are as much alike as possible interns of background,
stored information and experience, needs, social influents and so on.

The channel
The channel signifies the medium through which the message in sent.

These usually consist of spoken words, although various forms of writings
can be used. The importance of non verbal signals coming through these
channels should net be overlooked, however, such foursomes body movement,
use of dress, all enter into communicative act.

The fidelity or accuracy of communication is gritty influenced by w
noise which can effect both message and channel. These are extraneous
factors which interfere with message reception, sound of cars airplanes,
doorbells, alarms, bad writings, incorrect address, poor sound or stress
which can obviously distract either of the parties. When this may be
nothing the communicator can do to break through.


The Receiver
This is the person to whom the message is sent. It might be
individual or group.

Feedback from the receiver isveryimportantespeciallyin
interpersonal communication. Communication is always a circular process
unless opportunity is given to feedback. If t' e message is off target
feedback does not occur.

Mass communication, however, is part of basic communication. With the
increase in the level of automation and for mass communication system in
growing need for mass communication system in marketing taking into
consideration settlement of people, how large and scattered. According to
janowitz (1968):
"Mass communication comprised the institutions and techniques by which
specialized groups employ technological devices (press, Radio, TV films
etc) to disseminate (spread) symbolic content to large heterogeneous
(different) and widely dispersed audiences".

8. Janowitz (1968).

Actually there is really growth in the field of using mass communication as
channel of communication in this country. Almost all messages both from
government and organizations reach the public through the mass media TV,
Radio, Press etc. the scndised in mass communication is always part of an
organized group and often a member of an institution which has function
other than communication. The receiver (audience) is always an individual
but may often be seen by the sending organizations a group or collectivity
with certain general attributes, the channel on longer consist of the
social relationship mesa on expressions and sensory organs but includes
large scale technologically based distribution devices and systems. These
systems still have social components since they depend on low, cushion and
expectation. The message in mass communication is not a untrue transmitting
element bot the mass produced and. Infinity re peaceable symbolic structure
often of great complexity.

Some aspects of particular significance in mass communication include
the public and open nature of all communication, the limited and control
assess to sending facilities, the impersonality of the relation ship
between sender and receiver, the imbalance of the relationship between the
and finally the Intervention of the institutionalized arrangements between
sender and receiver.

Source: Fungal, Warsaw and kinnear, Formational strategy.

No discussion about promotion can be complete without understanding
the science of communication. Promotion is an aspect of communication, the
sole aim of promotion is to create awareness and achieve persuasion. In the
preamble endeavors have been mace towards understanding what communication
is all-adous briefly. However, at this stage the basic relations of
promotion and communication will be seen.

According to Carl Mc Daniel Jre. "Mauy people feel that the fourth
controllable, element of the marketing mix is the most exciting. A good
promotion can sometimes dramatically increase a firm" Sales. Each element
of promotion is coordinated and managed with the others to create a for
example, helps a buyer "get to know" a company. It paves way for a
successful sales call."
At one time all promotion was undertaken an face to basis through personal
selling. From a communicator's point of view with another person. As far as
marketing is concerned dragooning can take place due to the interaction of
the seller and buyer, the seller also feels out the prospect and thereby
determines the proper communication content on view of the customers
background and psychological influences, the seller then can, phrase the
massage so the effective communication results and if the message somehow
misses its mark the availability of
The individual customers, their needs will be determine from the views
expressed by those contacted. When offering the product the marketer it
convenient to the costar to patronize him in so doing the easiest
alternative open to him is through carefulimplementationofthe
promotional mixes.

Marketing is defined according to institute of Marketing (Moorhall):
"the management process which identifies, anticipates and supplies is
customer requirements efficiencies and profitably". 11
Douglas Foster defines Equalas marketing;
"Marketing involves the systematic application of entreneurship to the
almost constantly changing conditions of the present age. It is concerned
with the rational and Logical use of people, materials, plant, money and
other, resources to ensure profit survival and growth over the longest
possible period"12
Promotion comprised of many elements, however, all the elements are
used by the marketer depending on the situation it found itself and the
nature of the product. Advertising can communicate the information to
customers in correct way. The impact ofchangeandthegrowing
identification of new product opportunities are already creating new
communication needs which advertising can satisfy. A large simply by
guiding the buyer to particular brand of product to satisfy an already
existing demand for that type of product, in this case the marketer will
gain customer loyalty. The pace of social development everywhere seems to
be quickened by advertising. For example fashions that may have started in
New York or Paris new reach Nigeria as fast as they are began, all because
the world is narrowing down as difficulty in undertaking his activities
interns of awareness to customers. Once a middleman is introduced into a
marketing pattern, it is not enough to depend on distribution aspect and
pricing as tools for sales. But promotion by the actual producer is
important. Advertising may be used to reach people inaccessible to the
sales force, improve dealer relations attract new group of customers,
introduce new product and increase sales of product, it also makes people
aware of the existence and advantages of goods and services. It also
attempts to reinforce favorable attitudes and to loosen or eliminate
unfavorable ones.

Not only advertising but other aspects of the promotional mix
personal selling, sales promotion and publicity equally do help the company
in achieving its aim of promoting its mordents.

The focus of this study comprised of the promotion mixes like
advertising, presume selling sales promotion and publicity. In other
worlds, various communication methods are treated as variables for use
alone or in combination to communicate the want satisfying attributes of
products or services. The achievement of a better understanding of the
promotional strategy to be used by companies depend on many things like
resources at hand, best possible way the message will reach the intended
group or individuals. It will be unwise for example for a marketer having
Borno State as target market to advertise through the National Network
News. Instead NTA Maiduguri, BRTV, Borno Community Concord, READ Newspaper
etc will be more economical.

Acoording to Mohammed Bomoi,
"the basic objectives of promotion are to inform, persuade, or remind
target customers about the company's market mix and the about the company
itself. Agreeing on this, defining the firm's promotion is to be effective
because the right blend depends on what is to be accomplished.13
Advertising dates back to centuries, when African traditional rulers
use Town Criers to announce any event. Notice of lost-but-found circulated
by the ancient Egyptians-inscribed an papyrons (From which we derived our
word 'paper').

According to D.S. Nicholl "print advertising startee as far back as
1480 by William Caxton when he printed a poster advertisement"14
Advertising, however, like many other apparently simple words, the closer
you look at it the more remarkably difficult it is to define precisely. One
of the best defination of advertisement was written by Jeremy Bullmore:
"an advertisement is a paid for non personal form of communication intended
to inform and/or influence one or more people."15
Advertisement can be informative, it presents straight facts. These facts
are not presented in argumentation forms nor is the relevance of the facts
explained for example classified advertisements like change of name.

Advertisement can also be arguments or regiment reason why, this type is
structured in form logical argument. The reasons utilize in the arguments
may be either facts or expected benefits to the consumer. While motivation
or psychological appeal ad make use of emotional appeal by attaching
pleasant emotional connotation to it, advertising cosmetics, cigarettes,
beer are heavy users of mood commercials. Repeat assertian types of
advertisement are not supported by facts and so are the reasons why the
statement holds. E.g. "the little tablet is more effective". Symbol
association and imitative are usually connected to things which people
really admire so that advertisements can be made through them. While
command ad usually give commanding, words, they are good for well-known
products e.g. 'Drink Fanta Orange', 'Take Coca- Cola" etc.

According to Usman Bulama:
"Advertisement is a paid communication,
The special special features in advertising is paid for by some interested
party who stands to benefit from the communication of message."16
Advertising certainly has some objectives taking into consideration
the high expenditure incurred in it. Advertising makes people aware of the
existane and advantages of goods and services, it is a form of personal
salesmanship (though advertising differs from personal selling). It is
designed to make familiar brand, consumers would have form a number of
different impressions, probably both favorable and unfavorable based on
previous usage, recollectica of past advertising attitude to packaging and
price opinions of friends and so on. Advertising is unlades to succeed
selling an inferior predict more than once and since it is applied most
heavily against fast and moving goods. According to Tom Conner:
"Advertising is to help the consumer more through series of mind, usually
starting with unawareness and ending with action"17
Informative and for example is solely used to bring awareness e.g during
the introductory stage of the product-like-cycle. Persuasive ad becomes
important in the competitive (growth) stage. Where a company's objective is
to build selective demand for a particular brand. While in the maturity's
existence. People and situations change, one form of advertising might be
appropriate at one moment, another the next, consumers are in a continues
stage of change-in-attitudes, task, beliefs, lifestyle, about a single
product can be varied among customers. Elephant detergent of example has
different types of ad for the same product undertaken by different people.

The advertising objectives as summarized by Colin J. Conlson Thomas
(1984). as:
"The objectives of advertising could create awareness, build preferences,
differentiate, encourage purchase new rather than Inter consolidate an
existing reputation, encourage as or request for further information, up
morale misleading claims of others build up morale within the organization,
transmit information or to encourage understanding".18
Personal selling is a special form of interpersonal communication,
unlike advertising sales promotionandpublicity,whichremass
communication forms. Personal selling is carried out by salesmen to the
prospect inform of face to face basis. Personal selling allows for
bargaining to takes place because effective comes face-to-face with the
customer. However, as far as communication is concerned it is the most
effective form of communication because it enables response and feedback to
take place, unlike the mass media where the marketer will not determine
immediate response or feedback immediately. Under marketing by interaction
(MBI), the message is going to specific or intended area as when mass media
is used in which tendency exist for the information going into unintended
area. According to J. Stanton:
"In many companies personal selling is the largest single operating
expense. Personal selling has the advertising of being more flexible in
operation. Sates people can tailor their presentations to fit the need and
behavior of individual be seen by salesman, effort. In advertising the
message to people who are on no way real prospects. In personal selling a
company has no opportunity to pinpoint. Ots target market for more
effectively than with any other promotional tool."19
Sales promotion comprises a wide variety of tactical promotion tool
of a short inebtive nature designed to stimulate earlier and/or stronger
target market response popular form of sales promotion include coupons,
preeminent, give, reseller support, exhibitions, free samples, after sales
service, reseller support, trade promotion, point of purchase displays,
demonstrations, trade shows, dealer incentive, trade allowances, customer
education, bonus packs, brand and package etc.

The basic contribution of sales promotion include communication that
is gain attention and provide information. Then they serve as incentive,
concession or inducement also engage in the transaction.

For better understanding of the sales promotion tools, each of them
will be touch briefly.


This are free offers of units of a product or trade of a product to
customers' samples can be attached to other products, distributed door-to-
door, mailed to customers, or featured in advertising the best way to
customers, or featured in advertising offer. This method is expensive but
undoubtedly the best way to introduce a product to potential new users. It
is superior to its competitors once they try it (and extremely dangerous if
the opposite happen).

One of the oldest form of promotion highly effective in the right
situation. This method is really successful where the product or service is
obtain sufficiently, frequently for the cupans to bild up reasonably.

It refers to certificates that entitled the berar to a stated saving on the
purchase of a specific product. Coupons can be mailed, enclose in other
products, they are very good way to stimulate sales of a mature brand as
well as induce early trial of a new brand.

-Price Packs
They are also called money-off packs or deals. This are offers to customers
of a certain amount of money off the regular price of a product, flaged in
the label or package.

Are items of merchandise that are offered at a relatively low cost or
free as van incentive or bonus to purchasers of a particular product.

Inside (inpack) or outside (on pack) the package. The package itself, if a
reasonable container, may serve as a premium.

-Trading Stamps.

They are special type of premium in which consumers receive stamps
from retailers in making purchases and can redeem them for merchandise
througn premium catalogs or stamp redemption centers. These stamps are used
by grocery stares, gasoline stations, department stores etc.

-Point of purchase displays and demonstrations, called POP, this sales
promotion technique cover displays and demonstration that take place at the
point of purchase or sale i.e next to the merchandise we often see posters
or pictures of materials located near to the stores entrance is an example.

-Trade promotion-it takes the formabuyingallowanceofferby
manufacturers to ,, and retailers, which is a short term offer of money off
on each case purchased during a stated period of time. The purpose is to
encourage dealers to buy an item or quantity that they might not buy
otherwise. It is often used to introduce a new product and compensate
buyers for the trouble of adding it to their stock.

-Business convention and trade shows industry trade association organises
annual or more frequent conventions for their members and typically sponsor
a trage show at the same time. Those who sell to this particular industry
are limited to participate in the trade show to display and demonstrate
their products to association members.

Contest, sweepstakes and games. These devices present to consumers,
dealers and sales forces an opportunity to win something such as cash
prizes, trips, or goods-as a result of or extra effort. In the customer
area, a contest calls for customers to submit an entry a single estimate,
suggestion to be examined by a panel of judges who will select the best
entries. A sweepstake calls for consumers to merely submit their to be
included in a drawing of prizes winners. A game calls for consumers to
receive something everytime they make a purchasesuch as 'bingo' numbers,
missing letters-which may or may not help them win a prize. On the other
hand, sales contest describe contestys aimed at dealers or the sales force
that take the form of a competition to induce them to redouble their sales
efforts over a stated period, with prizes going to the top perform.

Another major marketing communicationtoolispublicity.

According to Phillip Kotler, "publicity is the activity of securing
editional space, divorced from paid space, in all media read, viewed, or
heard by a company's customers or prospect for the specific purpose of
assisting in the meeting of sales goal."20
Publicity can be used to create events in news avouch.

A marketable entity by organizations the results cansometimesbe
spectacular. Consider the case of the diet drink martial:
"Almost overnight, metrical became part of the American tribal customs,
fashions and language. The signs were everywhere. Drug stores served
material across soda fountains. Newspapers printed-inspiredcartoons.

Fashionable luncheon clubs served matrecal cocktails. Steve Allen and a
probate judge in Charleston South Carolina, wrote songs adcut matrecal.

Don whilson, the announcer, darced" the matrecal Bounce on television.

Overnight football players in Chicago at the matrecal table."21
However, Kotler (1980) gave some objectives of publicity they are
made to achieve(4) major objectives towards promoting persons, products and
services, or ideas. These are:-
1) Newsworthiness:- products that can support interesting stories that
news editors will accept are the best candidates for publicity.

2) Stimulus for sales force and dealers:- publicity can be useful in
boosting the enthusiasm of the sales force and dealers when it might
be lacking. For example, news stories, appearing about a new product
before it is launched will keep the sales force gain a hearing from
3) Need for Credibility:- publicity introduces an element of credibility
by virtue of communication the message in an editional context.

Credibility is needed by new products as well as mature products
that the market has questioned.

4) Small budget-publicity, while it is not without cost, tends to be low
in cost for producing exposures in comparison with direct mail and
media advertising. The smaller the company's marketing communications
badger, as stranger the case or using imaginative publicity to
neutralize the advantage of a competitor who has more money to spend
on advertising.

In summary and clear understanding of the topic fig 2.3 below shows
the relationship of the promotion al mix, promotional strategy, and overall
marketing strategy. Different combinations, types promotionand other
types of promotion are brought together into promotional mix which becomes
the promotional starts Each component of thepromotionalmixthe
strategies. These individual strategies are blended together into the
promotional strategies, which then, needs blending with product, price and
place strategy into an overall marketing strategy.

However, management's task is to determine the forms most effective
for achieving the objectives of promotion and optimize expenditure on it.

No ideal promotional mix fits all marketing situations. Many factors
influence the promotional inputs that should be incorporatedina
particular promotional mix and strategy. But the most critical are the
other components of overall marketing strategy(product-market,
distribution, and pricing strategies) and the relative cost of different
forms of promotion.

FIGURE 2: 3 Bomoi Quoting: cundiff/ still/ govoni "fundamentals of modern

We can infer from the preceding review that companies concentrate not
only on one aspect of the promotional tools, but all the mixes are
important. However, every promotional tool need some form of communication
in order to make the potential customer understand the importance and need
of the product or service offer to him.

In order to find a suitable theory, which this work will operate,
Hierarchy of effects model can be used the Hierarchy of effects model
states, knowledge (cognitive) liking and preference (affective) intention
to buy or conviction and purchase (bevitivra).

Arguments are often made an appropriate that success car only be measured
interns of sales others contend that each element in the marketing mix has
a more specific role and that a change inange in sales is others.

Advertising parrots the punition of persuasive communication through the
use of mass media and the result shculd be stated in communication terms.

This whole argument is tied into the Hierarchy of effect awareness, which
lead to attitude change, which lead to behavior change. The Hierarchy of
effects is basically a model off consumer response to promotional activity.

The effect may be at a cognitive, affective, or behavioral level. Figure
2.4 presents a graphic representation of the model. This model hypothesizes
that the consumer passes through the stages ofawarenesknowledge
(cognitive) liking and preferences (affective) intention tobuyor
conviction and purchase (behavioral).

Hierarchy of Effects Model
Source: Promotional Strategy, Engel, Warsaw and Kinnear (1983)
Richard D. Irwin, Incorpartion Homewood, I11, nois
1. ITEGBOJE M. A. (1987) Promotional Challines under SAP, First
National Biennial Conference.

2. ENGEL, WARSHAW AND KINNEAR (1983) Promotional Strategy,
(Illingins, Richard D. IRWIN).

3. THEODORE LEVITT: (1960) Marketing Mayophia Haward
Business Review from Engel. WarshipandKinner
Promotional Strategy.

4. Philosophy of Marketing Faculty of the Ohio State University Bureau of
Business Research Ohio State University (1964) From promotional
Strategy Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear.

5. ENGEL, Warshaw and Kinnear PromotionalStrategy
(Illinois, Richard D. Iwrin)
6. THEODERSO and Theoderson (1959)
7. OSGOOD et al (1957)
8. DARLTON MC FARLAND, ManagementFoundationsand

9. JANUWITZ (1968)
10. CORLTON MC DANIEL JR. (1982) THE University of (Taxes
Arlington, Harper and Row publishers, New York).

11. TOM CONNON: Basic Marking Principles and practice
(Instiute of Marketing, Moorhall).

12.DAUGLAS FORSTER:(1982)MasteringMarketing
(Macmillan Press Limited)
13. BOMOI MOHAMMED: (1988) Advertising: its purpose,
Principles and practice (MC D. and Evan Limited
Estever Plymerth, London).


15. BUAMA USMAN: (1987) Communication in a marketing
perspective, A seminar paperpresentedinthe
Departmental Seminar, Ramat Polytechnic,
16. CANUAN TOM: Basic Marketing Principles and prao
17. THOMAS GULSAN J. COLIN (1981)fundamentalsof
Trawbridge, Witshire, (Promotional Startegy)
18. STANTON J. WILLIAM. (1981) Fundamentals of Marketing
(MC Graw Hill Book Company Japan)
19. KOFTER PHILLIP: Principles of Marketing Prantice Hall

20. IBID.

In the first two chapters a statement of the problem and study
objectives has been discussed, however, various researchworksand
writtings a promotion in marketing has been reviewed. This chapter will
primarily be concerned with the methods used in carrying out the study. It
will involve the methodology used in collecting, analyzing and interpreting
the data collected.

This in essence entails the area in which the study is mainly
undertaken. The area under study subjected, for the choice canbe
attributed to: -
1) Time - The time factor is very important aspect to be taken into
consideration because the time is limited.

2) Finance-In the present ceopomic situation resources is another aspect
to be give regard because it is very limited and wider area will
entail greater financier cost.

3) Convenience-It is also another reason to be given regard, the location
is convenient for the study because it does not involve difficult of
travelling which also save time and cost at the same time.

The method used for collecting the data is the field survey. As Mohammed
Momoi guotes, Tull and Hawkins (1980);
"A field survey is the systematic gathering of information from respondents
for the purpose of understanding and/or predicting some aspects of the
behavior of the population of interest".

In the field survey the direct interviewing through questioneer will be

This contains the elements of the population to be sampled, 25
companies were selected that proved different types of product or service
under different industries.

Resources and time available are taken into consideration before
taking this number of companies. Equally sample method selected was based
on convenience, availability, resources available, the study area was
subjected because of the reason above.

Through this each element in the population has an equal chance of
being selected. A Simple random sample does not only give equal chance of
being selected but also makes it easier for all sizes of companies big or
small to be choosen.

|BEDIA |4|
|DOTEL |1|
|TOTAL |25 |
The sample has given regard to representations writhin the different
industries, those that offer services and those that offer tangible

The questioneer is a device for gathering answers to questions by
using a form that the respondent fills by himself. The questioneer is the
self administered type.

The questions are structured direct questions, and were presented
directy to the respondents. However, the questioneers were distributed to
the companies that were obvious to be under taking somepromotion

-opener question
this type of question has nothing to do with the problem at hand. For
introducing with the respondent's privacy it comes at the beginning. It is
used so that the research starts from general to specific.

This type of questioner usually gives a free hand type to the
respondent to express his view about what is requested of him. Question
like, do you think this product is good?. The respondent is free to choose
any response deemed appropriate withing the limit implied by the question.

Multiple choice
This one usually gives restrictions to the respondents an the
process of answering the question, it usually gives choices to the
respondents to choose from them.

For the propose of easy interpretation of the data by the reader, the
collected data is presented in a tabular form using simple statistical
percentage to analyse the data. Higher percentage being the majority and
lower percentage the minority of the responses with regard to questions
asked to collect the findings of the study with the objectives thus
enabling arriving at conclusions and recommendation
4.1In this chapter the data collected would be analysed and interpreted.

How ever, the opener question will not be relevent for the study and will
not be part of the analysis because they are not relevent to the objective
of the study, but they are zations to be studied.

25 questionnaires were drawn and distributed to the 25 selected
companies. All the 25 questionnaires were completed by the respopndents and
submitted to the reserchers. So the analysis is based onthe25
questionnaires and all percentages will be in respectofthe25
questionnaires. The companies selected include:-
1. P.Z
2. Borno supply company
3. Hassaniya supermarket
4. Kawu supermarket
5. Giwa united company
6. Nasco group
7. LBN(lever brothers nigerian limited)
8. Butu ventures
9. Polytechnic bookshop
10. Ramat consultant services
11. Nigerian bottling company
12. Mandau company (retailers)
13. Santana furniture factory
14. Grahms furniture factory
15. Neital shoe factory
16. Premier commercial bank
17. UBA
18. Savannah bank
19. Habib nigerian bank
20. Ramat farm products
21. Ramat motel
22. Structor Nigerian limited
23. Read newspaper
24. Gambo photographic
25. Borno express transport company
The table below presents the data analysis in form of the responses
and the percentage of the response. As usual the response are the 25
selected companies.

The table below presents product/service offered to customers
|Questions |Numbers of respondent |Respondents|
|What do you offer to |9|36 |
|customers. Tangible|8|32 |
|products service both |8|32 |
|products and services |||
|TOTAL|25 |100 |
Table 1
From the responses, 36% of the companies selected offer tangible
product to customers, while 32% offer services and the other 32% offer both
tangible products and services.

However, it will be observed that the greater percentage of the
companies offer tangible products as far as Maiduguri Metropolitan is
concerned, this is obvious taking into consideration the proliferation
supermarkets and other types of distributors both wholesalers and retailers
offering different types of products coupled with very few manufacturing

The first 32% offer services to the customers and the 32% offer both
services and tangible products, this can be seen from the banks and
insurance agencies and other organization.

|Question |Number of respondents |Respondents in |
|Do you promote your|||
|products? |||
|Yes we do |25 |100 |
|No we don't|-||
|TOTAL|25 |100 |
The table above Presented the respons on the companies that promote
their products, out of the 25 companies selectad all of them show positive
response, the percentage is 100%
|Questions |Number of respondent |Respondents in |
|Which promotional mix |||
|do you use|||
|Advertising|14 |56 |
|Personal selling|5|20 |
|Sales promotion |6|24 |
|Publicity |0|0|
|All of the above|-|-|
|TOTAL|25 |100 |
The table above presents the promotional mix used by the companies.

However, 14 respondents of the 25 companies use advertising representing
about 56%. Howevr, 5 respondents ;or 20% use the personel selling, 6
respondents or 24% use sales promotion while non of the companies use
publicity frequently and no company combines all at the same time.

The table below presents the justification for the companies to
promote their products.

|Question |Number of respondents |Respondents in |
|Any justification for |||
|promoting the products|||
|Yes |24 |96 |
|No |1|4|
|TOTAL|25 |100 |
24 of the respondents agreed that there is justification for
promoting their products which represents about 96% and 1 respondent
thought there is no basis for promoting representing about 4%.

However, when the reason for the justification of the producten was
asked, the greater percentage indicated that the reason was for creating
awareness and another that the reason was for creating awareness and
another substantial number said it was to get a greater substantial number
said it was to get a greater market share.

No reason was given by the respondent who indicated there is no

The table below indicates how the effectiveness of promotion will be

|Question |Number Of Respondent |Respondent in|
|Effectiveness of|||
|promotion will be|||
|measured through:-|||
|Increase in sales|8|32 |
|Increase in patronage |3|12 |
|By dealers and/or|10 |40 |
|retailers |4|16 |
|Don't know|-|-|
|TOTAL|25 |100 |
The effectiveness of the promotion undertaken can be measured through
various ways 8 0f the respondent or 32% though it will be measured through
increase in sales, 3 respondents or 12% respondent it will be through
increase in market share, 10respondents or 40% throughincresein
patronage, 4 respondants or 16% of them responded the measurement will be
through dealers and/or retailers.

The responses below indicate which of the promotional tool is mostly
used. However, the frequent use is important aspect in considering the
promotional expenditure.

|Questions |Number of respondents |Respondents in |
|The promotion used|||
|mostly by companies. |||
|Advertising|11 |44 |
|Personal selling|4|16 |
|Sales promotion |8|32 |
|Publicity |2|8|
|TOTAL|25 |100 |
Out of the respondents 11 or 44% indicated that advertising is mostly
used 4 or 16 responded that personal selling is preferred, sales .promotion
was indicated by 8 or 32% of the respondents while the rest 2 or 8%
indicate publicity. It will be seen that greter percentage totalling 44%
agreed that advertising 15 used most, 32% indicated sales promotion,
personal selling and publicity were choosen by 16% and 8% respectively.

|Promotional tool that |||
|is faster |||
|Advertising|15 |60 |
|Personal selling|2|8|
|Sales promotion |5|20 |
|publicity |3|12 |
|Total|25 |100 |
Advertising reach the customers taster s can be seen from the
responses above 15 or 60x of the respondents choose advertising. Which 2 or
8% agreed personal selling as faster, 5 or 205 preferred sales promotion
and the rest 3 or 12% are for publicty. Hower, is will generally be agreed
that advertising is faster, it taken into consideration the greater use of
mass media which cover large, heterogeneous, disperse, audiences over a
period of time which is often very short.

The table below show the responses of the sample selected if their
marketing objectives is increase market share.

|If market share is the|||
|objective the tool|||
|preferred ||72 |
|Advertising|18 |8|
|Personal Selling|2|8|
|Sales Promotion |2|12 |
|Publicity |3||
|Total|25 |100 |
To get a greater market share 18 of the total responders representing
72% preferred advertising, 2 or prefer personal selling, willing, while
sales promotion is choosen by 2 or 8% of the respondents and 3 or 12%

Advertising obviously if undertaken through mass medie will cover a
very greet area, thus there is prospect for greater market share.

The table below indicates the response for profit maximization and
the promotion tool to be used and the one most preferred.

|If profitability is|||
|the objective. |||
|Advertising|8|32 |
|Personal Selling|5|20 |
|Sales promotion |10 |40 |
|Publicity |2|8|
|Total|25 |100 |
The respondents mostly prefer sales promotion if they have profitability as
objective 10 or 40% of the respondents. Advertising is choosen by 8 or 32%,
5 or 30% agreed with personal selling while the rest 2 or 8% prefer

Sales promotion comes in many forms and it has special ability to stimulate

The table below shows response for acquisition of new customers as

Table x
|Acquisition of new|||
|Advertising|12 |48 |
|Personal Selling|8|32 |
|Sales Promotion |3|12 |
|Publicity |2|8|
|Total|25 |100 |
It will be observed that if the aim is acquisition of new customer, the
respondents agreed that advertising will be preferred mots by 12 or 48%,
personal selling was preferred by 8 32% sales promotion was preferred by 3
or 12% and publicity was preferred by 2 or 8% of the respondents.

Table XI
|To maintain existing |||
|Advertising|8|32 |
|Personal Selling|8|32 |
|Sales Promotion |7|28 |
|Publicity |2|8|
|Total|25 |100 |
To maintain existing customers 8 or 32% use advertising, another 8 or
32% use personal selling. However, the gap is not very different as another
7 or 28% use sales promotion and only 2 or 8% use publicity.

However, almost all the promotional tools are important in maintaing
existing customers, only publicity
|Promotion |||
|News|11 |44 |
|Buss/Commercials|11 |44 |
|Total|25 |100 |
Television programmes to be associated with promotions, 11 or 44%
prefer News, another 11 or 44% prefer Business/Commercials. While 2 or 8%
prefer spree and 1 or 4% prefer other programmed like Drama.

Most of the companies prefer News Programmes because it carries
greater unmber of viewers. Business/Commercials equally is important for
promotion as many business executives are attracted to such prgrammes.

Because sports does not attract as many viewers as News and Commercials the
percentage is much lower.

Table XIV
|RADIO Programmes | ||
|That attract promotion. | ||
|| ||
|News |4 |16 |
|| ||
|Musical|18|72 |
|| ||
|Sports|1 |4|
|| ||
|Others (specify) |2 |8|
|Total |25|100 |
The above table presents responses for programmes to associate with
promotion of it is undertaken through Radio. 4 or 16% prefer News, Musical
is preferred by 18 or 72% of the respondents, while 1 or 4% prefer sports
programmes and 2 or 8% prefer other programmes.

Because greater percentage of people prefer to listen to music
through the Radio, Promotions will be greatly attracted by music and the
least is sports commentaris are made.

The table below indicates the type of promotion that appeals to
customers most.

Table. XV
|Most appealling |||
|promotion tool. |||
|Imitative |3|12 |
|Motivational|20 |80 |
|Total|25 |100 |
These types of advertisements demands a little explanation especially those
respondents withlittleknowledgeofmarketingcommunicationor
advertising. Arguments because are those which for arguments because of the
contents of the message. While command type of advertisement is that which
calls or gives commanding wards to the customers, e.g Drink Fanta Orange.

While immitative is the one in which important personality or music
attached to the message content. Motivational advertisement are those that
make the listener motivated by the message contents mostly in the adverts
for Alcohol and Cigarettes.

From the response 20 or 80% prefer motivational advertisement, 3 or
12% prefer immitative and only 2 or 8% of the respondentsprefer
argumentative and neu at all prefers commend type of adverts, they are good
only for well known products like coke, mercedez etc.

|Promotion that entails|||
|Less cost.|||
||3|12 |
|Sales promotion |||
||11 |44 |
|Personal Selling|||
||9|36 |
|Publicity |||
|Total|25 |100 |
Cost is very important in considering the marketing activity to be
undertaken. From the responses of the above table only 2 or 8& of the 25
respondents choose advertising to be with less cost. 3 or 12% prefer sales
promotion to entail less cost, 11 or 44% responded personal selling to
entail less cost and 9 or 36% prefer publicity to be with less advertising

The tablie below show the responses on success promotion on whether
it depends on the number of promotion tools employed.

Table XVII
|Whether Promotion|||
|success depends on the|||
|unmber employed.|||
|Yes |||
|No |16 |64 |
|Don't Know|4|16 |
|No Response|3|12 |
|Total|25 |100 |
From the responses 16 or 64% agreed that the tools of promotion tools
employed. While 4 or 16% disagreed with the rate of promotion as cause of
success and 3 or 12% not certain about the issue the issue and 2 or 8% did
respond at all.

|Customer Segmataion|||
|Before promotion|||
|Yes |6|24 |
|No |14 |56 |
|No Response|5|20 |
|Total|25 |100 |
Customer segmentation is the act of dividing the customers into
different demographic or geographic Units whereby every customer is reached
separately with different marketing mix elements.

From the responses of the above table 6 or 24% responded positively
to customer segmentation before promoting their products. While 14 or 56%
of the respondents out of 25 said on and 5 other representing 20 did not
respond. However, greater percentage do not segment their customers before
promotion is undertaken.

Those who said yes mostly attributed the reason for identification
and classification, thus, being specific rather than being general in
sending the message.

As indicated by the responses above the time that the promotion
reaches the customer fast were indicated. While 3 or 12 of the total 25
respondents prefer morning, 2 or 8% said it reaches the customers faster in
the Afternoon. However, 20 or 80 of the 25% respondents said the fastest
time that promotion reach the customers are in the evening.

Obviously, greater percentage of people at least in Nigeria are exposed to
either Television, Radior or Newspapers and Magazines mostly in the evening
after working hours during relaxing period.

Table XXI
|Promotion that entails|||
|High cost.|17 |68 |
|Personal Selling|4|16 |
|Sales Promotion |2|8|
|Publicity |||
|Total|25 |100 |
From the responses 17 or 68% agreed that advertising entails high cost,
while 2 or 8% choose personal selling, sales promotion was preferred by 4
or 16% and only 2 or 8% choose publicity as entails high cost.

However, if the rate at which advertising is used is considered, and
the greater coverage it does is observed, it will obviously have the
greater cost.

The implications drawn from our survey of relevance of promotion in
marketing will be observed here. The study covered the four promotional
tools of marketing: namely Advertising, Personal selling, sales promotion
and publicity. How these tools are used by companies offering products
and/or services on also studied.

The time each tool is used, when it is used, the purpose for
which it is used, the cost of using the promotional tool, how fast it
reaches the target to which it is directed are all studied. Equally the
channels used in sending the promotional content, the time the message is
sent, the type of media to be considered, type of promotion that enables
achieving the aim fast are all observes.

As the study indicated greater percentage of the firms studied offer
tangible products to their customers, an equal proportion also offer
products and services. All the companies promote their products and more
than half of them use advertising as the promotional promote their products
or services.

A grater percentage also measure the effectivess of the promotion
through increase in patronage which a substantial number measure it through
increase in sales. In addition to the greater under using advertising as
the promotional tool, for the intention used. Those with achieving market
share as their objective also prefer advertising for the purpose. Inspire
of the greater usage of advertising it entails high cost among all the
promotional tools.

Personal selling, sales promotion and publicity are also used as tools
of promotion by the companies. A greater proportion also use sales
promotion. Advertisements are carried out in the Television andRadio,
evening, evening time is preferred in Television and it is to be associated
with news programmes and commercials most of the time. If Radio is used
musical programmes are most preferred and most companies prefer National
Television for advertising their products and/or services.

A higher promotion do not segment either their customers or
market before promotion their products. For acquisition of new customers,
greater market share, maintain existing customers, advertising is most
prefer-able. While for profitability purpose sales promotion is most
preferred. The use of two or more tools enables achieving the aim and
Television is the best medium.

At the outset the study focussed in the relevance of promotion in
marketing (an investigation on why companies promote their products.) For
the purpose of this study the companies that are observed to be regularly
promotiong their products were selected.

Specifically 25 companies withern Maduguri Metropolitan were selected
for the study, for the same purpose 25 questioneers were designed and all
of the companies responded.

The selected companies included:-
1. Paterson Zochonics
2. Borno Supply Company (BOSCO)
3. Hassaniya Supermarket
4. Kawu Supermarket
5. Giwa United Company
6. Nasco Group
7. Laver Brothers Nigeria Limited
8. Butu Ventuers
9. Polytechnic Bookshop
10. Ramat Consult Services
11. Nigerian Bottling Company (Maiduguri Depot)
12. Mandau Company (Retailers)
13.Santana furniture factory
14.Grahms furniture factory
15.Neital shoe factory
16.Premier commercial bank
18.Savannah bank
19.Habib nigerian bank
20.Ramat farm products
21.Ramat motel
22.Structor Nigerian limited
23.Read newspaper
24.Gambo photographic
26. Borno express transport company
The analysis was done on the basis of the questionneer drawn and the
responses made. All the companies interviewed do promote their products and
most of them use one promotional tool or the other at a time.

Promotion is undertaken mostly to get more patronage from customers
though creating awareness, other purposes includeprofitabilityand
increasing market share. Equally promotion is undertaken to maintain
existing customers and for acquisition of new customers.

Advertising, however, is the most preferred for promotion though it is
the most expensive interms of cost. Equally a greater percentage agreed
that personal selling is the cheapest of the entire promotional tool. The
motivational type of advertisement is most preferredwhilecommend
advertisement is not choosen by greater percentage of the respondents.

Promotion is mostly carried out through the television most preferably
in the evening and associated with news or commercials. The most preferred
TV station is the National TV. If promotion is undertaken through Radio, it
is to be associated with musical programmes. More than 2 promotion tool can
also be used at the same time.

In the past chapters efforts have been made to find out the relevance
of promotion in marketing and why companies promote their products. This
question cannot be answered without actually understanding the type of
promotional mix used when and why.

Inspire of the fact that an observation has been made. There is
no place that we allocate so much resources without justification for the
purpose for which they are Referring to advertised. Inspire that out of the
25 companies selected that responded positively to promotiongtheir
products or services and went on to state the reasons where particular type
of promotional tool is choosen.

However, drawing conclusion from our analysis we can say promotion is
very relevant in marketing to achieve certain vita needs. Our of the 25
respondents, 24 or 96% agreed that the justification exist for promotion
their products. Other reasons stated for promotion the products and/or
services is for greater patronage, customer awareness, increase in market
share, profitability, retaining existing customers and acquisition of new
customers. 18 or 72% of the respondents agreed that promotion can increase
market share if advertising is used. Equally 10 or 40% preferred sales
promotion as the objective to increase profitability.

Out of the 25 questions drawn for the questioneer, 9 gave the 4
promotion tools (advertising, personal) selling, sales promotionand
publicity as the average 142 times, personal selling 63 times, sales
respectively. And publicity were choosen 67 and 37 times respectively. Form
this finding it is clearly visible that advertising is the most used form
of promotion and the next one is sales promotion, closely followed by
personal selling, products or services. The most predominantly used medium
is the television and National Television is most preferred which the
programes to be associated with the promotion message are either News or
Business or Commercial Programes because that carry equal percentage (44%).

If Radio is used, the message is to be associated with musical programmes.

Finally, if the findings and analysis is seen the role of promotion in
marketing cannot be overemphasized. Promotion only brings awareness of the
existence of goods and services, but the marker can use it in different
occassions to achieve different aims using different promotional tools as a
guide. The main objective of any business organization is to achieve
profitability and it can be seen that it will be achieved through
undertaking the right promotional mix.

Some of the basic aims in marketing obviously include capturing of
greater market share,profitability,retainingexistingcustomers,
acquisition of new customers etc. From the and important aspects of
marketing can services. So in view of the above promotion is evidently a
great aspect to be taken into account when
The marketing ix elements are considered. Good product, with better
price, distributed to the buyers door step cannot mean anything much
important to the buyer if at least a little aspect of communication is not
done which is also part of one promotional tool.

Evidence from this research findings has unveiled father,the
important, the importance of promotion in marketing and why it should be

A greater percentage of marketers should undertake their promotions
through advertising if they have the financial means.Despitethe
popularity of advertising it covers agreater dispersed and hetergeneous
audiences over a short period of time especially if it is presented through
television or radio.

Marketers also set objectives before undertaking any activity if the
objective is to increase market share, accusation of new customers,
maintain existing customer, advertising has to be used, and if the
objective is profitability sales promotion is preferable.

The marketing executives should not put up a huge expenditure for
promotion without really taking some issue into account, the cost is very
important, equally the time, the medium and the objective it wants to
achieve. All these reasons will determine what type of promotional tool to
use under what circustanc. A marketer of shoe factory for example resided
in Maiduguri and focusing its target market and customers within Borno
State cannot have any justification in promoting his products in the
National Television or Radio, it will be a waste of resources.

Every promotion from customers, thus every package of promotion either
through advertising, personal selling, sales promotion or publicity has to
be the type that the ability to draw the mind of the buyer.

In sunmmary the followinga aspects should be given special regards:-
1. The cost aspect is very important, low expensive or cheap.

2. The target of the promotion should be determine, state, national etc.

3. The medium of promotiong the products or services and the time.

4. The content of the promotional package.

5. The success of the promotion is to be measured through the goal(sl)
needed be achieved, such as marker share etc.

6. Number of promotional activity to be undertaken and method that will
be used.

The study is aimed at studying the "Relevance of promotion in
marketing. An investigating on why companies promote their products). The
research is limited to the Maiduguri Metropolitan, many reasons can be
advanced to the limitation imposed on this study which can range from
financial, to time and the availability of the companies etc.

A review of the literature has revealed that similar study has been
conducted in the area under consideration, although with different topic.

Inspite this, the need exist for the study of all ort most of the
companies that undertake promotion to enable the researcher arriveat a more
independent view by the organizations.

The study is undertaken in a very small area within this country
(Maiduguri), so any study from new on the same or similar topic can be
extended to other areas of the state, because there is tendency for
development in the future, taking into consideration the efforts government
has been making towards developing the rural areas. The study can even be
extended to other states within the county to get a clear picture of the
views acrpos the Nation.

Furthermore any person willing to conduct a research can pick any of
the promotion tool singly and make further research to ascertain its
ability in the absence to the other promotion tools.

1)A Itegboje M. Promotional challenges under SAP first National
Biennial Conference. Lagos 1987.

2) Bulama Usman Communication in Marketing perspective a
seminar paper Maiduguri. 1987.

3) Cannon Tom principles and practice. Chatham: wand J.

Mackay Limited. 1980
4) Colin Thomas Cenlson J. Fundamentsof Marketing Japan: Mc
Graw Hill book company, 1981
5) Daniel Jr. Carlton Mc. Marketing New York: University of Texas
Arlington Harper and Pub. 1982
6) Farliand Darlton Mc Marketing Fundatins and Precut
7) Forster Douglas. Mastering Marketing. London: Macmillan Press Limited,

8) Kineer, Engel, Wershaw. Promotional Strategy. Homewood Illionis;
Richard D. Irwin Incorporation 1983.

9) Kotler Phillip. Principles of Markerting London: Prentice Hall
International Incorporation.

10) Mohammed Bomoi. Consmer Durable goods. Project. Maiduguri: University
of Maiduguri Printing Press, 1988.

11) William Starton J. Fundamentals of Marketing. Japa MC Graw Hill book
company, 1981.

12) Weilbetcher W. William. Advertising. New York: Macmilan Publishing's
Company, 1979.

Money to spend on advertising.

In summary and clear understanding of the topic fig 2.3 below shows
the relationship of the promotion al mix, promotional strategy, and overall
marketing strategy. Different combinations, sales promotion and other type
of promotion are brought together into promotional mix which becomes the
promotional strategy. Each componentofthepromotionalmixthe
strategies. These individual strategies are blended needs blending with
product, price and place strategy into an overall marketing strategy.

However, management's task is to determine the forms most effective
for achieving the objectives promotion and optimize expenditure no it. No
ideal promotional mix fits all marketing situations. Many factors influence
the promotional inputs that should be incorporated in aparticular
promotion promotional mix and strategy. But the most critical are the other
component nets of overall marketing strategy (product-market, distribution,
and pricing strategies) and the relative cost of different forms of

FIGURE:3 Bomoi Quoting: cundiff/still/govoni
"fundamentals of modern marketing"
We can infer from the preceding review that companion concentrate not
only on one aspect of the promotional tool but all the are important.

However, every promotional cool ned some form of communication in
order to make the potential customer understand the important and need
of the product or service offer to him.

In order to find a suitable theory within which this work
operate, hierachy of effects model can be used the hierachy of effects
model status that:- the consumer passes through the stageof
awareness, knowledge (cognitive) liking and preference (affective)
intention to buy or conviction and purchase (behavior).

Arguments are often made an appropriate forms of advertising
objectives. Some people maintain that success can only be measured
interns of sale others contend that each element in the marketing mix
has a more specific role and that a change in sales is the result of
each component working together with the others advertising performs
the function of persuasive communication through the use of mass media
and the result should be stated in communication terms, this whole
argument is tied into the Hierarchy of effects hypothesis that
advertising and promotion work to stimulate awareness which lead to
attitude change which lead to behavior change. The Hierarchy of
effects is basically a model of consumer response to promotional
activity. the effect may be at a cognitive, affective, or behavioral
level. Figure 2.r4 presents a graphic representation of the model.

This model hypothesizes that the consumer passes through the stages of
awareness knowledge (cognitive) liking and preferences (affective)
intention to buy or conviction and purchase (behavioral).

Hierarchy Of Effects Model
Source: Promotional Strategy, Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear (1983) Richard D.

Irwin, Incorporation Homewood, I11, Nois