CHAPTER 15 TEST REVIEW RECONSTRUCTION AND THE NEW SOUTH Multiple Choice Questions 1. Reconstruction of the South after the Civil War was viewed by the victorious Northerners as A)a means by which the industrial capacity of the South could be rebuilt B)the best means by which poor whites could be given positions of power in the South C)the only way the South could be prevented from restoring their pre-Civil War society D)a necessary evil, to be done away with as soon as possible E)a chance to reestablish the power of the planter aristocracy
Answer: C Page: 401 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 2. The era of Reconstruction can best be described as A)a period of vicious and tyrannical rule of the South by the North B)a time of drastic reform C)an era of growth for the Southern middle class D)the physical rebuilding of the South E)an important first step toward civil rights Answer: E Page: 401 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 3. When the Confederate armies surrendered,
A)a peace treaty was signed between the North and the South officially ending the hostilities B)Lincoln would allow no formal peace treaty to be signed between the Confederate and federal governments C)each seceding state had to sign a separate peace treaty with the federal government D)only those seceding states that were still at war with the United States in 1865 had to sign a peace treaty E)Lincoln supported immediate readmission of Southern states Answer: B Page: 402 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: War and Diplomacy 4.
In the aftermath of emancipation, most African-Americans wanted all of the following improvements in their lives except A)independence from white control B)legal protection of their rights C)their own cultural institutions, such as churches D)the opportunity for social advancement E)desegregated schools and fraternal societies Answer: E Page: 403 Difficulty: Medium Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 5. The Amendment to the Constitution that ended the practice of slavery throughout the United States was the A)Twelfth B)Thirteenth C)Fourteenth D)Fifteenth E)Sixteenth
Answer: B Page: 403 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 6. Radical Republicans in Congress believed that reconstructing the South should include all of the following measures except A)the punishment of civil and military leaders of the Confederacy B)the disenfranchisement of large numbers of Southern whites C)the permanent occupation of the South by the Union Army D)the protection of the legal rights of blacks E)the confiscation of property from wealthy Southerners Answer: C Page: 404 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship . Republicans Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner urged that A)the government be lenient in dealing with the defeated South B)reconstruction should not include the right to vote for blacks C)President Johnson be given unchecked powers D)former Confederates be given blanket amnesty E)large numbers of Southern whites be disenfranchised Answer: E Page: 404 Difficulty: Medium Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 8. President Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction can best be described as A)mild B)harsh C)poorly planned D)popular with Radical Republicans E)radical
Answer: A Page: 404 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 9. The Freedmen’s Bureau eventually had all of the following powers except A)distributing food B)establishing schools C)settling labor disputes D)assisting poor whites E)creating a welfare system Answer: E Page: 404 Difficulty: Medium Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 10. Before the end of the Civil War, the Reconstruction plan advanced by Congress in opposition to Lincoln’s “Ten Percent Plan” was the A)Sumner Act of 1864 B)Wade-Davis Bill C)Compromise of 1864 D)Military Reconstruction Act E)Crittenden Compromise
Answer: B Page: 405 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 11. To many Northerners, the murder of Abraham Lincoln A)had little effect on the way that they viewed Reconstruction B)ensured that Andrew Johnson would present a radical reconstruction plan C)indicated that there were divisions within the Republican party D)seemed to indicate a large conspiracy on the part of the defeated South E)was believed to have been committed by someone other than John Wilkes Booth Answer: D Page: 405 Difficulty: Medium Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 12.
Instead of using the term Reconstruction for his program for the South, Andrew Johnson called it A)realignment B)readmittance C)restoration D)redemption E)reclamation Answer: C Page: 405-406 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 13. The unique feature of President Andrew Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction was A)amnesty for former Republicans B)individual pardons for wealthy Southerners C)ratification of the abolition of slavery D)appointment of provisional governors E)suffrage for all male ex-slaves Answer: B Page: 406 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 4. Radical Reconstruction officially began when A)Lincoln was assassinated B)Congress reconvened in December, 1865 C)Andrew Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 D)blacks were given the vote in the South E)Jefferson Davis was released from prison Answer: B Page: 406 Difficulty: Medium Themes 8: Politics and Citizenship and 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 15. The purpose of the Black Codes was to A)guarantee white supremacy in the South B)protect newly freed blacks C)prevent former slaves from moving to the North D)guarantee black civil rights
E)promote wider voting rights in the South Answer: A Page: 406 Difficulty: Medium Themes 8: Politics and Citizenship and 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 16. During 1865 and 1866, Northern opinion grew hostile toward the South because of all of the following developments except A)the passage of the Black Codes B)the election of former Confederates to Congress C)the bloody race riots in several Southern cities D)the assassination of a number of Southern Republican governors E)the reluctance of Southern conventions to abolish slavery
Answer: D Page: 406-407 Difficulty: Hard Themes 8: Politics and Citizenship and 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 17. The first Civil Rights Act passed by Congress in 1866 A)all of the answers below B)declared blacks to be citizens of the United States C)empowered the federal government to intervene in a state’s affairs to protect civil rights D)was vetoed by President Johnson E)restricted former Confederate officials’ ability to hold office Answer: A Page: 406 Difficulty: Hard Themes 8: Politics and Citizenship and 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 9. The first official definition of citizenship was included in A)the Civil Rights Act of 1866 B)President Johnson’s 1867 Address to the Nation C)the Fourteenth Amendment D)the Fifteenth Amendment E)the Emancipation Proclamation Answer: C Page: 406 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 20. All of the following actions by Andrew Johnson angered Congress except A)the veto of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 B)the appointment of a Southerner to the Supreme Court C)the dismissal of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton D)the veto of the Freedmen’s Bureau Act
E)the consistent resistance of radical Republican ideas Answer: B Page: 407, 409 Difficulty: Medium Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 21. The Republican Congress responded to the establishment of Black Codes in the South by A)nominating Charles Sumner for president B)extending the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau C)withdrawing Union troops from the South D)offering to back off passage of the Civil Rights Bill E)jailing governors from every Southern state Answer: B Page: 406 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 22.
The former Confederate state that escaped most of Radical Reconstruction was A)Texas B)Tennessee C)Kentucky D)Florida E)Alabama Answer: B Page: 407 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 23. The Congressional Reconstruction Acts of 1867 A)formed the Freedman’s Bureau B)divided the South into military districts C)excluded blacks from voting D)allowed former Confederates to hold public office E)excluded white Southerners from voting Answer: B Page: 408 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 24. The provisions of the Fifteenth Amendment gave the right to vote o A)Chinese B)women C)Indians D)blacks E)former Confederate leaders Answer: D Page: 408 Difficulty: Medium Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 25. The Tenure of Office Act was designed to A)protect the jobs of Congressional aides B)initiate civil service reform C)limit the number of times a Congressman could be reelected D)prohibit the president from removing cabinet members without the Senate’s approval E)encourage the election of black public officials Answer: D Page: 408 Difficulty: Medium Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 26. When Andrew Johnson was impeached, the House had
A)recessed for the summer B)accused him of a crime C)convicted him of a crime D)removed him from office E)refused to accuse him of specific wrongdoing Answer: B Page: 409 Difficulty: Medium Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 27. After the House impeached Andrew Johnson, his trial in the Senate ended in A)a conviction B)an acquittal C)a deadlock D)his resignation E)his removal from office Answer: B Page: 409 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 28. Republican Reconstruction governments were supported by all of the following groups except A)scalawags
B)redeemers C)freedmen D)carpetbaggers E)Southern African-Americans Answer: B Page: 409–410, 421 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 29. Black freedmen attempted to exercise their rights by all of the following methods except A)participating in politics B)organizing their own religious groups C)striving to obtain an education D)serving as delegates to constitutional conventions E)advocating their colonization in Africa Answer: E Page: 410–411 Difficulty: Medium Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 30.
During Reconstruction, no Southern black was elected to A)the U. S. Senate B)the U. S. Congress C)a state governorship D)a state lieutenant governorship E)the U. S. House of Representatives Answer: C Page: 410 Difficulty: Easy Themes 8: Politics and Citizenship and 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 31. The most positive accomplishment of Reconstruction in the South was A)improving public education B)eliminating corruption in state governments C)securing civil rights for blacks D)reducing the power of the Southern elite E)resolving racial prejudice in the South
Answer: A Page: 411 Difficulty: Medium Themes 8: Politics and Citizenship and 9: Reform 32. During Reconstruction, educational reform was promoted by all of the following groups except A)the Freedmen’s Bureau B)private Northern philanthropic organizations C)Southern Democrats D)Northern Republicans E)Southern African-Americans Answer: C Page: 411 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 33. By the end of Reconstruction, the majority of Southern blacks A)owned their own land B)worked for wages C)were tenant farmers D)had migrated to the North
E)moved to cities in the North Answer: C Page: 411-412 Difficulty: Easy Themes 8: Politics and Citizenship and 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 34. During Reconstruction, the per capita income for Southern blacks A)increased substantially B)increased moderately C)remained about the same D)decreased substantially E)decreased gradually Answer: A Page: 412–413 Difficulty: Easy Themes 8: Politics and Citizenship and 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 35. The crop lien system that developed in the South during Reconstruction involved all of the following factors except
A)it forced the farmers to rely on the growth of cash crops B)it contributed to the decline of Southern agriculture C)it featured high interest rates D)blacks worked fewer hours than they had during slavery E)it was administered primarily by country banks Answer: E Page: 412-413 Difficulty: Hard Themes 8: Politics and Citizenship and 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 36. Ulysses S. Grant is considered to have been A)a good, but not quite great, president B)a failure as president C)a good president who had bad advisors D)an adequate, if unimaginative, president
E)a president who diminished corruption in Washington Answer: B Page: 414 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 37. Grant’s administration developed substantial opposition because A)he vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1867 B)he opposed the Reconstruction policies of Congress C)he tried to destroy the party bosses and their machines D)he allowed corruption to develop in his administration E)he ordered the withdrawal of troops from the South Answer: D Page: 414–415 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship
38. A key factor in Ulysses S. Grant’s victory in the presidential election of 1868 was A)his experience as a party boss during the Civil War B)Grant’s new popularity with white Southerners C)the huge black vote for Grant in the South D)the lack of bitterness expressed in the campaign E)Grant’s long career of political experience Answer: C Page: 414 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship
39. The Credit Mobilier scandal involved
A)fraudulent construction contracts for the Union Pacific Railroad
B)illegal tax stamps for whiskey distillers
C)bribery by employees of the Indian Bureau to retain their jobs
D)favorable interest rates for land speculators
E)illegal sale of government bonds
Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship
40. The Panic of 1873 A)lasted for eight years B)affected the South more than other sections of the country C)finally ended with the recall of all greenbacks from circulation D)was the worst depression that the United States had experienced up until that time E)resulted in the election of Ulysses S.
Grant Answer: D Page: 415 Difficulty: Medium Theme 5: Economic Transformations 41. The supporters of greenbacks wanted to A)raise the value of the dollar B)increase the value of debts C)inflate the currency D)keep the country on the gold standard E)decrease the amount of currency in the economy Answer: C Page: 415 Difficulty: Hard Theme 5: Economic Transformations 42. The Specie Resumption Act of 1875 provided that greenbacks would be A)replaced with war bonds B)inflated to help debtors
C)declared illegal D)redeemed for gold certificates E)designated as currency in the South only Answer: D Page: 415 Difficulty: Hard Theme 5: Economic Transformations 43. The Alabama Claims were monetary claims by A)Americans against the British B)Americans against the French C)the federal government against the state of Alabama D)whites against blacks who expropriated their land E)blacks who demanded war reparations Answer: A Page: 416 Difficulty: Medium Theme 5: Economic Transformations 44.
To intimidate and subjugate newly freed blacks during Reconstruction, Southern whites used all of the following tactics except A)whites forced the blacks into ghettos so that they could be better controlled B)whites formed secret and quasi-secret organizations that used terror to prevent the blacks from voting C)local merchants denied credit to blacks who voted Republican D)planters refused to rent land to Republican blacks E)redeemer governments encouraged the end of black suffrage
Answer: A Page: 416 Difficulty: Medium Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 45. The split in the Southern branch of the Republican Party in 1872 resulted in A)the third party Dixiecrats B)many white Republicans leaving the South C)the election of a Democratic president in 1876 D)many white Republicans eventually joining the Democratic party E)black Republicans becoming a minor force in the party Answer: D Page: 416 Difficulty: Medium Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 46.
By the early 1870s, Ku Klux Klan violence against African-Americans was A)increasing rapidly throughout the South B)directed out of KKK national headquarters in Sharpsburg, Maryland C)directed exclusively and personally by Klan leader Nathan B. Forrest D)spreading into the North E)on the decline Answer: E Page: 417 Difficulty: Medium Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 47. In the presidential election of 1876, the Republicans hoped to get the problems of the Grant administration behind them by nominating A)Samuel J.
Tilden B)James G. Blaine C)Rutherford B. Hayes D)Horace Greeley E)Charles Sumner Answer: C Page: 417 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 48. The terms of the Compromise of 1877 included all of the following provisions except A)awarding all twenty disputed electoral votes to Hayes B)withdrawing all remaining federal troops from the South C)supporting internal improvements in the South D)giving Republicans control of federal patronage in the South E)keeping the presidency with the Republican party
Answer: D Page: 418–420 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 49. The Compromise of 1877 resulted in the A)election of Samuel J. Tilden B)impeachment of Andrew Johnson C)establishment of a strong Southern Republican party D)end of Reconstruction in the South E)adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment Answer: D Page: 418–420 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 50. By the end of the Reconstruction period, all of the following developments had occurred except A)blacks had improved their economic conditions
B)the legal foundations for the “Second Reconstruction” had been established C)Southern whites had regained control of their state governments D)the country had failed to establish racial justice E)most national leaders had become willing to infringe on the rights of states Answer: E Page: 420–421 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 51. The revisionist view of Reconstruction challenged the traditional view of Reconstruction that was advanced by A)William A. Dunning B)W. E. B. Du Bois C)C. Van Woodward D)Kenneth Stampp E)Eric Foner
Answer: A Page: 418–419 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 52. Current historical thought considers Reconstruction to have been A)a total failure B)an unfortunate period with no real successes or real failures C)much more successful than first thought D)only successful in the upper South E)largely successful in almost every respect Answer: C Page: 418–419 Difficulty: Hard Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 53. During the Second Reconstruction that occurred in the 1860s and 1870s, blacks benefited from legislation passed during Reconstruction that is known as the A)Black Codes
B)Jim Crow Laws C)Ex parte Milligan D)Emancipation Proclamation E)Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments Answer: E Page: 421 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 54. Southern politics after Reconstruction was dominated by A)free blacks B)Republicans C)Democrats D)carpetbaggers E)scalawags Answer: C Page: 421 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 55. Of the following groups, the least likely to become “Redeemers” were A)the old aristocracy B)industrialists and merchants C)poor whites D)blacks E)white Democrats
Answer: D Page: 421 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 56. The “Readjusters” demanded that A)Andrew Johnson resign as president B)Union troops remain in the South C)the Grant administration be prosecuted for corruption D)conservative Southerners be given ultimate power in the South E)Southern state governments put more money toward state services Answer: E Page: 421 Difficulty: Easy Theme 8: Politics and Citizenship 57. Post-Reconstruction industry in the South A)suffered from a stagnant railroad industry
B)doubled its share of manufacturing between 1880 and 1900 C)decreased due to the high wages paid to workers D)far surpassed that of the years before the Civil War E)became the equal of Northern manufacturing Answer: D Page: 421–424 Difficulty: Hard Theme 5: Economic Transformations 58. The industrial work force of the South A)was highly unionized B)contained many blacks C)included a large number of women D)enjoyed a high standard of living E)paid low prices for consumer goods Answer: C Page: 424 Difficulty: Medium Theme 5: Economic Transformations 59. Industrial workers in the New South were
A)predominantly white men displaced by the war B)predominantly women C)members of the growing middle class D)predominantly freed blacks E)made up of nearly equal numbers of all these groups Answer: B Page: 424 Difficulty: Medium Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 60. In the 1870s and 1880s, Southern agriculture exhibited all of the following general characteristics except A)new machinery and farming techniques appeared quickly B)back country farmers became less self-sufficient C)all forms of tenant fanning increased D)absentee ownership of land increased
E)there was a reliance on a few cash crops Answer: A Page: 424–425 Difficulty: Hard Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 61. The crop-lien system of agriculture had all of the following results except A)tenant farming by both whites and blacks increased B)an increasing group of farmers fell further into debt each year C)“furnishing merchants” controlled credit D)subsistence farming remained a mainstay of economic culture E)reliance on cash crops decreased Answer: E Page: 424–425 Difficulty: Hard Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 62.
In discussing the origins of segregation, historians offered all of the following interpretations except A)the refusal of blacks to vote for members of the white elite led to the loss of all their rights B)Jim Crow laws merely made legal what was already being done informally C)segregation arose because whites sought to placate blacks by providing facilities that otherwise would not have existed at all D)Jim Crow laws represented a shift in race relation caused by fear that blacks would become a political power E)segregation emerged naturally and inevitably out of the abolition of slavery
Answer: A Page: 428–429 Difficulty: Hard Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 63. In The Strange Career of Jim Crow, C. Vann Woodward argued that A)the North used harsh “bayonet rule” in the South during Reconstruction B)laws of the 1890s institutionalized segregation in the South C)strict segregation existed immediately after the Civil War D)the rise of Populism had little effect on Southern politics E)Southern blacks preferred segregation over social democracy
Answer: B Page: 428 Difficulty: Hard Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 64. Historian Leon Litwack A)linked the rise of segregation to the growth of Southern cities B)believed that white supremacy was not a factor in Southern politics C)believed that radical Reconstruction failed to address black suffrage D)showed that segregation existed in the North before the Civil War E)argued that segregation was just as bad in the North as in the South Answer: D Page: 428 Difficulty: Hard Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 5. After Reconstruction, the South began to reassert white supremacy by all of the following means except A)voting restrictions B)capitalizing on Congressional apathy C)segregation D)terror and intimidation E)anti-lynching laws Answer: E Page: 427–430 Difficulty: Easy Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 66. Most members of the black middle class that developed in the South in the late 1800s worked as A)government employees B)doctors, lawyers, nurses, or teachers for other blacks C)owners of small farms
D)employees of businesses owned by white Northerners E)managers of textile mills Answer: B Page: 425-426 Difficulty: Medium Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 67. According to Booker T. Washington, the ideal of black education was to A)allow blacks to integrate into white society on an equal basis B)force white universities to desegregate classes C)teach blacks how to take an active role in politics D)teach blacks technical skills so they could get jobs in agriculture or trades E)encourage a class of black professionals in the North
Answer: D Page: 426 Difficulty: Medium 68. Southerners deprived black Americans of their civil rights by all of the following means except A)passing Jim Crow laws B)using violence and intimidation C)prohibiting black schools D)restricting the meaning of Constitutional amendments E)segregating most public facilities Answer: C Page: 427–430 Difficulty: Easy Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 69. In the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the U. S. Supreme Court allowed to stand the practice of A)all of the answers below B)separate but equal public facilities
C)disenfranchisement on the basis of race D)permitting the descendants of people who voted in the past to vote in the future E)separation of powers in state governments Answer: B Page: 427 Difficulty: Medium Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 70. Southerners deprived black Americans of their right to vote by all of the following means except A)grandfather laws B)property qualifications C)poll taxes D)residency requirements E)literacy tests Answer: D Page: 427 Difficulty: Easy Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 1. The process of depriving African-Americans of the right to vote in the South A)was opposed by the Ku Klux Klan B)was begun in all the Southern states immediately after Reconstruction ended C)consisted of such regulations as literacy tests and poll taxes D)was declared illegal by the Supreme Court although this declaration was not enforced E)was not supported by members of the Democratic party Answer: C Page: 427 Difficulty: Hard Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 72.
Lynching in the South after Reconstruction resulted in A)declined from pre-Civil War days B)more than 80 percent of the lynchings in the entire nation, even surpassing the Far West C)lynchings being used as the predominant form of “law enforcement” in the South, for blacks and whites D)caused almost no stir until well into the 1900s E)vigorous anti-lynching prosecutions by the federal government Answer: B Page: 428-430 Difficulty: Hard Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America 73. Prior to the Civil War, minstrel shows
A)provided entertainment only for slaves B)featured mostly African-American performers C)provided a forum for black portrayals of authentic African-American culture D)contained ridiculous and ignorant portrayals of African-American culture E)included few racial themes or stereotypes Answer: D Page: 422-423 Difficulty: Medium Theme 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America [pic] 74. The lithograph commemorates the Louisiana state constitutional convention in 1868 at which time the majority of delegates were A) Free black men
B) Scalawags C) Carpetbaggers D) Copperheads E) Slaves Answer: APages 410, 419Difficulty: Easy Themes 3: Culture and 11: Slavery and Its Legacies in North America [pic] 75. This photo is probably of A) Dresden after the bombing of World War II B) Washington D. C. after it was burned in 1814 C) New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina in 2005 D) Richmond after its capture by Union forces in 1865 E) San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake Answer: DPage 402Difficulty: HardTheme 12: War and Diplomacy