The extent to which a country can establish and retain a state of 'Total War inevitably leads to victory. In World War 1, the allied forces ability to achieve this resulted In their success. The production of munitions and American funding, resource allocation and the British Blockade, gave the allies a clear advantage on the home front. The utilization of the superior weaponry and manpower as well as improved tactics on the battlefront gave the allies an upper hand In this war of attrition.
The final loss of German morale on both the home and battlefronts, directly influenced by lied propaganda, the arrival of the Americans and Germany's political instability, led to the cessation of the war and thus, allied victory. The allied and German home fronts became Increasingly varied as the war progressed. The Allies effective way of producing munitions, their effective allocation of resources between civilian and military need and British Blockade, placed them above their enemy. This therefore displays the allies' successful application of 'Total War'.
With the introduction of the 'Ministry of Munitions' In Britain, 1915, under the control of Lloyd George, the British government was able to take over the industries ND transform over 218 factories into arsenals. This greatly increased the number of weapons manufactured and thus the allies' chances of winning the war of attrition. As source C depicts, both Britain and France together were able to produce approximately 7618 tanks and 126,131 aircraft, whereas Germany only built 20 tanks and 48,537 aircraft.
American Funding into the British home front increased the rate of munitions being manufactured. As the war continued, economic factors became a serious Issue and gaining entrance to the American market Indicated survival. The Allied forces were able to sustain a balance between providing resources to the soldiers and the public. The German U-boat campaign affected food supplies in Britain. Although prices on food rose around 110%, the government was able to control the effects and retain an equal distribution of supplies.
Germany however, did not maintain such a balance. The British Blockade, Imposed on Germany was successful as it barred the North Sea area. This reduction in resources resulted in food prices rising 446%. Most of the supplies were sent to the battlefront, while little were kept at home. As source C shows, by 1918, there had been over 3,022,000 civilian deaths caused by starvation and disease. The allies' ability to retain their home front is shown through the production of munitions, the effective distribution of supplies and the British Blockade.
This, as well as Germany's inability to achieve stable home conditions, directly contributed to the allied forces eventual victory. By utilizing the weaponry produced on the home front, superior manpower as well as improved tactics, the allied forces were able to persist with the war of attrition and ultimately claim victory over the Germans. At the beginning of 1918, a more effective command structure was initiated In the Allied armies. Many of the aristocratic officers were superseded by relatively low-ranking officials.
They developed new tactical ideas, including infiltration tactics that incorporated all areas of the 1 OFF Von Hindering also highlighted in his book 'Out of my Life', that the allied tactics were effective and skillful, which supports the improvement in the latter strategies. Machine guns such as the Vickers machine gun portrayed in source B were used throughout the war. As the war progressed, tactics in relation to machine guns altered; they were placed in nests rather than along trench lines. From this, the Lewis machine-gun was developed which was handheld and therefore aided in offensive strategies.
Tanks were a new British invention and were viewed as a more offensive weapon. However it was not until the Battle of Cambric on 20th November 1917, that the tactics changed in relation to tanks. They had to be used in large numbers to produce a desirable result. These strategies were then consolidated in 1918. The allies also adopted the use of Gas, it being one of the most feared weapons. Source B depicts the use of gas masks. As gas was used frequently, allied soldiers would often wear their masks as a precautionary measure, especially when firing machine guns, like the source shows.
The allied forces superior manpower aided in the war of attrition that WWW had become. The allies could gain troops from a number of nations as by the end of the War, over 32 countries were supporting them. Germany was by then fighting alone. As source C displays, despite the fact that the allies had more military deaths than that of the central powers, their population was around eight times larger, thus allowing this high loss of life. The Allied forces essentially had more personnel, weaponry and munitions supplies.
This, along with their ability to develop tactics and engage all elements of the battlefront, supported the perpetuation of 'Total War' and the allies' victory. The loss of German morale on both the home and battlefronts greatly affected the outcome of the war. This diminution of confidence was directly related to allied propaganda, the entrance of the Americans to WWW and the political instability of Germany. The lack of food supplies due to the British Blockade and increasing casualty lists begun to make an impact on German morale.
This, combined with the allies' use of propaganda as a war weapon, aided in the latter victory. Airplanes were used to drop brochures in the enemy trenches, which included information on how strong the Allied forces were. This was so effective that it was even suggested by Ultrasound, German Commander, that it sabotaged their 'belief in ultimate victory. British Propaganda was also aimed at the Americans. Although they were funding the allies, the Americans believed that the war was a European conflict and that they should remain relatively neutral.
However, with the commencement of the German IS- oat campaign, the sinking of the Louisiana and Germany's announcement of unrestricted submarine warfare on all merchant ships, America declared war on Germany on April the 6th, 1917. Source A shows America's Uncle Sam and Britain's Britannic 'Side by Side', indicating the close association between these two countries. This relationship significantly affected the outcome of the war. With the American Expeditionary Forces (FEE) fighting alongside the Allies, they gained extreme morale boosts. The Americans symbolized hope and increased manpower, which aided the allies in the war of attrition.
The continuous deployment of American troops throughout 1918 combined with allied modified tactics and weaponry, including the German army. Over 16,000 troops were captured in the first hours of the allied offensive and it was viewed as the worst defeat in WWW. Bulgaria departing from the war on the 29th September, 1918, indicated that the Germans would soon be seeking an armistice. The German home front directly influenced the failure of the battlefront. With around 100,000 strikes per month in 1918 and political uprisings, the resignation of the Kaiser was imminent. Mutinies within the German Ana and
President Wilson only agreeing to discuss terms with a democratic government led the Kaiser to abdicate and enable the social democrats to gain power. The German home and battlefronts had collapsed. Wilson 14 points formed the basis of the peace agreements that occurred on the 1 lath hour of the 1 lath day of the 1 lath month. The war had ended. Through the use of propaganda, the arrival of the Americans and the political instability of Germany, German morale was diminished on both the battle and home fronts. They had lost the drive for victory, thus allowing the Allies to triumph.
Victory is a cumulative effect; weaponry, the military, the economy and psychological factors all contribute. This statement of 'Total War' achieved by the allies, aided by their stable home front and the utilization of superior tactics, weaponry and manpower on the battlefront, pushed them to success. The effect of the American arrival, allied propaganda on Germany in addition to their political volatility and lack of resources ultimately dispirited the German nation; they were unable to preserve both battle and home fronts. This, therefore resulted in Allied victory and the conclusion of WWW.