Spanish Armada was defeated by England. What was the religious significance of the English victory?
There was a belief that "God was on the Protestant side. "The significance of religious in English victory in 1588 was to acknowledge the English Catholics who inspired the Spain and their opponents. Religious was the main issue of conflict between Spain and England.
After bearing six children, Mary Forth died. After Winthrop's second wife died, he married, at age thirty, Margaret Tyndal, who brought a substantial dowry to the marriage. But what greater benefits did Margaret bring to Winthrop?
When John left to New England in 1630, Margaret would send love letters to him. Then she suprised him by moving to New England with him in 1631. She gave him support for survival and character for their love letters
While holding that sin was inevitable, Puritans insisted that each person do his or her best to obey God's laws. According to Puritans, what was the relationship between God and the governments instituted by people? What evidence suggested to Winthrop that the English government was "under the shadow of God's wrath"?
Puritans believed that they could be a blessed people - chosen by God to set an example for others. Theyve been preached that God's wrath would fall swiftly upon a people who strayed from His divine path. In this case, Puritan society must be unified
Charles I, who became king in 1625, demanded the obedience of Parliament. Why did Puritans become hostile to the new monarch? Why did reformers place their hopes in Parliament?
The Puritans feared the king would return England to Catholicism. Parliament could eventually lead a way for the English to break away from the Pope and Roman Catholic Church.
Morgan concludes that Puritans who regarded Charles's reign was wicked had three options: to overthrow Charles, to "separate" from the Church of England and withdraw into their own church, or - as Winthrop concluded - to leave England altogether "without repudiating its churches and the Christians in them." Why did Winthrop take the third option?
Separating from the church can be dangerous in England possibly resulting in execution. Instead of taking that risk, he took another risk of starting his life over in the New World where he certainly can be free.
When Winthrop was deciding whether to depart to Massachusetts, what reasons did he advance for leaving and for staying? How did he resolve his chief objection to departing - that by leaving England he would be weakening the effort to purify the Church of England?
John Winthrop left England because of the economic uncertainty and because he lost his job as an attorney due to political problems. His reasons for staying would be the risk of the journy to the New World becoming a failure because he knew about the failure of the early pilgrims.
What was the significance in moving the meetings of the Massachusetts Bay Company from England to Massachusetts itself?
It was as a religious experiment designed to free them from religious persecution by the corrupted Church. England was failing economically too and the puritans saw no future hope staying in England.
How did he persuade Puritans to join the expedition to Massachusetts?
After King Charles dissolved Parliament, many concerns from the people were raised.
Despite Winthrop's plans, the first 1,000 settlers were woefully unprepared for what they encountered in Massachusetts. What were their problems? Why did Winthrop move the original settlement from Salem? Where did they finally settle and why?
Harsh cold winters whiped out 88 men. only a few could afford to mantain a family. Samuel Maverick has settled in Salem and Winthrop believed if one man can do it, everyone could do it. He finially settled in Charelstown because the peninuslas provided room, protection, and had caves to settle into.
How did immigration ultimately ensure the financial health of the struggling colony? How did the General Court cope with the wage and price spiral cause by the influx of English immigrants and money?
As the colony expanded, business expanded. Colonist could sell lumber and crops to new arriving immigrants and made money off of it which saved the colony as a whole. With more money ment the Court must tax more and they did.
What was the ecclesiastical difference between Presbyterians and Congregationalists Why did congregationalism more readily fall prey to separatist impulses? Why were ministerial associations themselves regarded as suspect?
Congregationalists believe that there should be no central church organisation and each congregation should be independent, Presbyterians believe that there should be a central church organisation.
How did the leaders ensure that the government would retain a commitment to Puritan values?
They limited the right to vote to people who have only became members of the Puritan Church. non puritans were humiliated and executed.
According to Morgan, what were Winthrop's strengths and weaknesses as a leader?
Winthrop was very skilled in law and business. he treated his puritans like they were his own. often times things would get out of hand and many people would die under lack of supplies however he would his money from his own fund to help out
How did Winthrop justify payment of taxes to people who regarded such payments as a form of bondage? How did the 1632 decision of the General Court to allow freemen to elect the governor and the deputy governor address such concerns? Two years later, why did the freemen refrain from re-electing Winthrop as governor?
Winthrop did not want to allow freeman to have a role in taxation because there were so many of them however the court ruled winthrop out and allowed freemen to meet quarterly to legislate and tax. Afterwards Winthrop had been recieving more complaints about his administration and was demoted to assistant.
Morgan regards Hutchinson's views - her Antinomianism - as a form of nihilism. What does this term mean and how does it apply to Anne Hutchinson and her controversy with the ministers and the General Court?
it means life is viewed without a specific purpose, meaning, or value. it goes along with how there is no such thing as predistination and strictly goes against calvinism that said that god created everything
What personal matters complicated Winthrop's life in the 1640s?
Winthrop almost became bankrupt, however was helped by congress and was given land. he started failing health. died in his sleep age 61
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