Public Speaking Midterm Study Guide This exam covers all material covered in readings and class lectures/activities. The chapters from the Lucas text covered on this exam are: 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 14. Remember items may be included on the exam even if they were not specifically identified on this study guide. The exam is worth 100 points and will consist of both multiple choice, true/false, and short answer questions. The aim is to test your comprehension of the material covered in class more than your memorization of terms. The exam will begin promptly at the beginning of class on
THURSDAY, FEBRURARY 23rd Chapter 1 What are the similarities and differences between public speaking and conversation? • Similarities o Organizing you thoughts logically o Tailoring your message to your audience o Telling a story for maximum impact o Adapting to listener feedback • Differences o Public speaking highly structured o Public speaking requires more formal language o Public speaking requires a different method of delivery Identify parts of the Speech Communication Process as they relate to public speaking. • Organize • Taylor • Max impact • Adapt to listener feedback
What are ways to help manage speech anxiety? • Experience • Prepare • Positive thinking • Power of visualization • Know nervousness is usually not visible • Don’t expect perfection How does cultural diversity affect public speaking situations? • Adapt towards audience Additional key terms: speech anxiety – nervousness before a speech cultural diversity – different beliefs in different cultures ethnocentrism – the belief that ones own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures Chapter 2 What are the ethical obligations of public speakers? • Goals ethically sound • Full preparation Honesty • Avoid name calling • Ethical principles What are three ethical obligations of a good listener? • Attentive • Avoid pre-judgment • Maintain the free and open expression of ideas What are examples of abusive language, and how can it affect the relationship between speaker and audience? • Avoid name calling • It dehumanizes and imply that other groups don’t deserve respect What does it mean to make sure your speech goals are ethically sound? • Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines What are the types of plagiarism?
How can they be avoided? • Global – steeling another persons whole speech • Patchwork – stealing ideas from many • Incremental – failing to give credit • Use o Quotations o paraphrases Chapter 4 What is the difference between a general and specific speech purpose? Give examples of each. • General • Specific What is the central idea of a speech? What are other terms used for this? • The ideal that your speech centers around • This can be a “topic” What aspects make for a strong central idea? • Things you want to know about • Things you do know about • Narrow a broad topic Chapter 6
What are different types of sources to gather supporting material from? • Librarians • The catalogue • Periodical databases • Newspapers • Reference works • Search engines • etc How do you determine if the sources you use are credible or worth using? • Authorship • Sponsorship • Regency Be aware of the recommended tips for doing productive research Chapter 8 Why is speech organization important? • To achieve a particular result with a particular audience What are the five main organizational patterns? Be able to recognize them in a speech. • Chronological • Spatial - directional • Causal – cause and effect Problem-solution order • Topical order – logical consistent subtopics What are recommendations for preparing your speech main points? • Keep main points separate • Try to use the same pattern of wording for main points • Balance the amount of time devoted to main points How are supporting points different than main points? • Support versus overarching What are the four types of connectives and how are each used throughout a speech? Be able to recognize them in a speech. • Transitions • Internal previews • Internal summaries • Signposts – first second third Additional Key Terms: Balance -
Strategic organization - Main points – the major points developed in the body of a speech most speeches contain from two to five Supporting material – the material which supports the main points Connective – how to connect the main points Transition – a word of phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another Internal preview – statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next Internal summary – a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker’s preceding point or points Signpost – first, second, third
Chapter 9 What are the four elements of an effective introduction? Be able to recognize them in a speech. • Get attention and interest • Reveal topic • Establish credibility and goodwill • Preview body of speech What are different styles/examples of attention getters in an introduction? • Relate topic to audience • State importance of topic • Startle audience • Arouse curiosity of audience • Question audience • Begin with a quote • Tell a story Why is it important to keep your audience in mind? If you can’t relate the speech to your audience, no one will listen and no point will be gotten accross Why and how do you establish credibility? • Allowing the listeners to perceive you as having been qualified to speek on a given topic • Let the listeners know WHY you have credibility o Experience o Research o Passion What are the purposes of a conclusion? • Reinforce the central idea • Make sure you get the audience to walk away remembering something What are the differences in the way your conclusion and introduction are structured? Conclusion wraps up what the audience should know after listening to speech In the conclusion, how can you reinforce your central idea? • Relist • “I want you to remember” • “now that you know” What are the four things a conclusion should have? • Reinforce central idea • 5-10% of entire speech • worked out language of conclusion in detail • confident conclusion Additional Key Terms: Credibility – the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic Preview – sets up what the speech is going to be about Attention getter – gets audiences attention
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Thesis statement – the claim you are trying to make Internal summary – the points youre going to make within the main points Chapter 10 What are the differences between the Preparation/Full-Sentenced Outline and the Speaking Outline? • Full sentenced is everything you want to say word for word • Speaking – just key points you may need (YOUR NOTES) Why is it important not to read/use your full-sentence outline as speaking notes? • This way you can get used to taking the main points and not just let it be “read” or “memorized” Additional Key Terms: Bibliography – what you use to show what sources you have elivery cues – directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how they want to deliver key parts of the speech Chapter 12 What are the elements of good speech delivery? • voice o volume o rate o pitch o inflections o pauses o variety o pronunciation o articulation o dialect What are the four methods of delivery and when are they appropriate? o Manuscript o Memory o Impromptu – little or no preparation o Extemporaneously – rehearsed presented from brief notes Which verbal factors impact the effectiveness of a speech? Which non-verbal factors impact the effectiveness of a speech? Kinesics • Gestures • eyecontact What are some aspects for preparing for and managing the Q & A session with the audience? • Form answers for possible q’s • Practice delivery • Approach with positive • Listen carefully • Direct answers to entire audience • Honesty • Stay on track Additional Terms: vocal variety, vocalized pauses, manuscript, extemporaneous, impromptu Chapter 13 What are the different kinds of visual aids? • Objects • Models • Pictures • Drawings • Graphs • Charts • Transparencies • Video • Multimedia • speaker What are the advantages of using visual aids effectively? Add spice to the speech Be able to identity tips for preparing and presenting visual aids. • They could not work • Advane • Simple • Large • Easy to read • Limited fonts • Color • Avoid chalk • Visual aids visible • Don’t pass • Display va only while discussing Chapter 14 What are the types of Informative Speeches? • Objective • Processes • Events • concepts What are the goals/guidelines of Informative Speaking? • Don’t overestimate what the audience knows • Relate the subject directly to the audience • Don’t be too technical • Avoid abstractions • Personalize ideas Class Lectures most found in Ch. 5) What is audience-centeredness? • Aware of audience • Center speech around audience How can you adapt your speech to your audience before the speech? During it? What is demographic audience analysis, and what are the major categories within demographics? • Age • Gender • Sexual orientation • Racial and cultural background • Religion • Group membership What are the major aspects of situational audience analysis? • Size • Setting • Disposition towards topic o Interest o Knowledge o Attitude **NOTE: Be prepared to utilize your speech organization skills.