topical organization
organization of the natural divisions in a central idea according to recency, primacy, complexity, or the speakers discretion.
arrangement of ideas from the most to the least important
What are the 5 organizational patterns?
(1) topical (2) chronological (3) spatial (4) casual and (5) problem and solution
What are the three principles?
primacy, recency, or complexity
arrangement of ideas from the least to the most important
arrangement of ideas from the simple to the more complex
chronological organization
organization by time or sequence
spatial organization
organization based on location or direction
cause-and-effect organization
organization that focuses on a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects
problem-solution organization
organization focused on a problem and its various solutions or on a solution and the problems it would solve
soft evidence
supporting material based mainly on opinion or inference; includes hypothetical illustrations, descriptions, explanation, definitions, and analogies
hard evidence
factual examples and statistics
name three types of sign posts that can hold your speech together
transitions, previews, and summaries
a verbal or nonverbal signal that a speaker is moving from one idea to the next
numerical order .. first, second, third..
Name some verbal transitions
in addition to.. also, not well, in other words.. also, in summery, therefore
Name some nonverbal transitions
change in facial expression, a pause, an altered vocal pitch or speaking rate, or a movement
a statement of what is to come
internal preview
a statement in the body of a speech that Introduces and outlines ideas that will be developed as the speech progresses
internal summary
a restatement in the body of a speech of the ideas that have been developed so far
an illustration or story
name some of the 10 ways of introducing a speech
illustrations or anecdotes, startling facts or statistics, quotations, humor, questions, references to historical events, references to recent events, personal references, references to the occasion, references to preceding speeches
rhetorical question
a question intended to provoke thought rather than elicit an answer
the quality of a conclusion that makes a speech "sound finished"
What's the purpose of the speech conclusion?
to summarize the speech and to provide closure
what are some techniques for an effective closure?
use and of the techniques for an effective intro, refer to the intro of your speech, issue an inspirational appeal or a challenge
preparation outline
a detailed outline of a speech that includes main ideas, sub points, and supporting material, and that may also include specific purpose, intro, blueprint, internal previews and summaries, transitions and conclusion
using geographic shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, sub points, and supporting material of a speech relate to the central idea and to one another
standard outline form
numbered and lettered heading and subheadings arranged hierarchically to indicate the relationships among parts of a speech
How do you revise your speech?
review your specific purpose, consider your audience, keep only the best supporting material, look at your intro and conclusion, ask a listener to help you cut
delivery outline
condensed and abbreviated outline form which speaking notes are developed
what are the two types of speech outlines?
preparation outline, and delivery outline