You are specifically asked to discuss the various meanings, concepts of and ideas on Public Administration as a field of study and practice. Some well-known definitions of Public administration: " By public administration is meant, in common usage, the activities of the executives branches of national, state & local government" -Herbert A. Simon "Public administration is the direction, coordination & control of many persons to achieve some purpose or objective" - L. D. White "Public administration is the action part of the government, the means by which the purposes & goals of the government are realized.
John H Carson "Public administration Is the art & science of management as applied to the affairs of state. " -Wald Public administration is carried out by public servants who work in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government, and perform a wide range of tasks. Public administrators collect and analyze data (statistics), monitor budgets, draft legislation, develop policy, and execute legally mandated government activities. It can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy. It Is the management of affairs of the government at all levels cantonal, state, local.
It is a branch of the wider field of administration dealing with machinery & procedures of government activities. A systematic ordering of affairs & the calculated use of resources aimed at making desired things happen. The goals of the field of public administration are related to the democratic values of improving equality, Justice, security, efficiency, effectiveness of public services usually in a non-profit, non-taxable venue; In view of various definitions of public administration, It Is cleared that public administration Is concerned not only with the how of the government but also with the what.
The "hover is the process or processes, while the "what" is the subject matter. The essential components of the public administration are planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting & budgeting. From the above discussion on the meaning of public administration, It may be concluded that It deals with the study of: 1. The executive in action I. E. Public bureaucracy; 2. Policy making 3. Non-governmental agencies like political parties, interest groups, mass movement, terrorism, seeking to mold government's action ; behavior; 4.
Corporate sector, at any rate that of It which Is dependent on governmental funding; ND 5. Both the process of administration : the substantive concerns. The major purpose of Public Administration is to serve the public and, in specific cases, public satisfaction are the ends that public administration. It has to operate strictly according to law, rules ; regulations. Adherence to law brings in a degree of royalty ; operation In the public sector. The actions of Public especially at higher levels of government, is exceedingly complex.
There are many pulls and pressures, many minds have to meet and discuss, consultations go on in several rounds of meetings before decisions are taken. What is public and administration in Public Administration? The use of word "public" in public administration restricts the area of administration. However defining the restricted area is debatable issue. There are two views regarding it: a) It refers to the study of the government (legislature, executive or judiciary) or b) it is restricted to the executive. In any case it means government. It is a population of individuals in association with civic affairs, or affairs of office or state.
Administration is the organization ; use of man ; material to accomplish a purpose. It is the specialized vocation of managers who have skills of organizing ; directing men ; materials. The conduct of the affairs of government which is the function of the political state in exercising its governmental duties. Is PA different from Public Management? The terms management and administration may be used interchangeably, but as per current usage in management profession, that is more a case of inappropriate usage of these term rather than the terms having the same meaning.
Public Management is a term appropriate for all activities undertaken to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of any kind of work. In contrast the word administration is used primarily for work concerned with maintaining discipline and order. Thus the work of government and many other public institutions is called administration. Thus functions such as maintaining and operating facilities along with associated operations like attendance recording are usually called office administration.
Thus we may say that the administration forms to part management function. All that is administration is also management. But all that is management is not administration. Administration is a subset of management. Administration is most often concerned tit determining goals, objectives, and purpose while management functions to achieve the goals set by the administration. Administration determines policy, procedures, goals and objectives while Management carries follows or carries out the policy, procedures, goals, and objectives set by administration.
Administration is concerned about the determination of objective and major policies while Management puts into action the polices and plans laid down by administration. Administration is usually a top-level authority while Management is usually a middle- level authority. Administration has long been connected with government office, litany organization, or educational organization while Management has long been connected with business enterprises in the private or non-profit sectors.
Administration has been traditionally seen as making decisions based on politics, public opinion, or government policies while Management has been traditionally seen as making decisions based on personal values, opinions of managers, or the value to the bottom line profits. Administration handles the business of the organization while Management handles the relationships among employees. 1. Determination of Objectives. 2. Thinking and determinative functions. 3. Take ajar decisions about over enterprise. 4. Planning and organizing functions involved. 5. It coordinates finance, production and distribution. I 1.
Plans and actions 2. Doing and executive function 3. Takes decisions within the framework set by the admit. 4. Motivating and controlling functions also involved. 5. It uses organization for the achievement of the targets fixed by administration. No doubt, administration and management will be used interchangeably in some situations. For individuals currently exploring or having already obtained a Masters in Public Administration, there will continue to be evolving definitions as more public administration Jobs Join forces with non-profit and private enterprise to meet their goals and objective efficiently.
We may even find ourselves in a unique position to shape those definitions for local community, state, or national organizations. Any public service venture does require components of both administration and management to accomplish the mission. Public service organizations and non-profit groups as well as private businesses will continue to Join forces. The most important point to remember is to not get so concerned over agreeing on an exact definition hat you lose track of the goals the platform that public service has to offer that can make a real difference in our communities.