What are the usual answers? ->Development is a process of economic growth. They key to quick and efficient development is building a strong economy. As income and GNP rise, human development will follow.
What's the author's answer? ->Development is larger than just conventional theories of economic growth. The purpose of development is to create an environment for people to enjoy long healthy lives, where they are able to make choices. This is often forgotten in the pursuit of economic growth. The purpose of development is to enlarge all choices, not just income. There is not a direct link between economic growth and human progress.
What kind of evidence? ->The author uses charts showing levels of economic growth and human development to prove that there is not a direct link between economic growth and human progress. They instead have to be tackled separately. The author also uses balance sheets of human development to contrast progress to deprivations. Finally, the author uses the HDI index as a tool to calculating human progress.
What are the usual answers? ->The article is debating Warren's conception of development which "jumps to the unwarranted conclusion" that industrialization and development are the same thing. The general idea is that an increase in the strength of the economy and other economic aspects like GNP and GDP indicate development. The author also counters the idea that a transference of workers from agriculture to industry is an indicator of development. Lastly, he debates the idea that this flow of capital from the center to the periphery will cause the levels of development to even up and imperialism to disappear.
What's the authors answer? -> The author places emphasis not on the result of industrialization, but how industrialization takes place. The productivity of labor is one of the important aspects in development which can be attend two ways, by making larger quantities of instruments available to the worker or by increasing the worker's skill by education or training. The driving forces of development are mechanization and education. The utilization of mechanization in both the agriculture and industrial sectors are important to development, not simply the transference of a nation's emphasis from agriculture to industry. The author is arguing against the notion that agriculture is "backwards" and industry is the only way to development.
What kind of evidence? ->The author addresses Warren's data and looks at it from a different perspective. This data involves information regarding manufacturing and agriculture sectors including wages, employment, exports, and imports. He also looked at specific countries and discusses GNP and labor forces.
What are the usual answers? ->Gershenkron sought to challenge the ideas that all countries develop similarly, that there was one route to develop. He sought to challenge linear theories which only focus on one country. Many theories also blame advanced countries for the problems of development, but he challenges these assumptions and provides through historical examples that industrialization occurred in any number of ways.
What's the author answer? -> He details that the differences in industrialization processes of Britain, Germany and Russia in particular. He details the importance of states, banks, and factories in the process of industrialization and differentiates the importance of each in the categories of early industrialization, moderate industrialization, and late industrialization. He argues that a country will have different experiences depending on its degree of economic backwardness when industrialization begins, however, he denies the idea of prerequisites.
What kind of evidence do they bring? -> Historical study of these states
What are the usual answers? ->The geographical scope of globalized production in important to understanding these commodity chains.
What's the authors answer? ->Big buyers shape production networks. The author specifically looks at the case of retailers in the US like Walmart and Kmart and their effect on global commodity chains. The increased buying power of these companies has enabled them to outsource to other countries, places like China, and control the location of these commodity chains. These buyers however, are sensitive to political factors and therefore state strategy also has an effect on these commodity chains. The author reviews the organization of international industries into producer driven and buyer driven chains. The locations of these new production frontiers are shaped by big buyers and demonstrate how transnational production systems are sustained and altered by retailers and branders.
What kind of evidence? Historical and comparative approach by referencing the past history of retailers and commodity chains. Evidence induces in depth interviews with managers of overseas companies, manufacturers, and retailers. Also included are detailed charts diagraming the commodity chains. There is also data pertaining to particular retailers, their sales and incomes. Lastly, there is information on the locations of industry around the world.
What are the usual answers? ->According to the principles of the international division of labor, labor must either be transported towards capital or capital must be transported towards labor. However, the author argues that this is not feasible on a large scale and in this area due to the many difficulties of immigration and emigration.
What's the authors argument? Industrialization can solve the problem of excess labor in eastern and south eastern Europe. The author opts for an alternative way to industrialization rather than simply industrializing on its own. Instead, he suggests that this area is fitted into the world economy which would preserve the advantages of the international division of labor. It would be based on substantial international investment or capital lending. Though there is no historical precedence for this, the author proposes that a massive international investment in this are would greatly benefit the world market by decreasing this excess labor.
What evidence? -> Mostly this article is theoretical, however, the author does present stats on employment and capital in this area.
What are the usual answers? -> Nationalism usually hinders the process of globalization; globalization (laissez faire ideals) weakens the strength and autonomy of the nation state
What's the authors answer? -> Key political economy concepts are tied to national terms, so these are important concepts that direct attention to nationalism. The current discourse overlooks the intertwined relationship between the ideology of nationalism and the current roles, practices and functions of the state. According to List, there are four characteristics of the process of economic development indispensable to the political economy; collective nature of economic activity, the fragmentation of interests and identities in a developed country, the need for long-term investments, and the cultural nature of productive powers. Those aspects all become more important with the rise of globalization. Economic development on a global scale will increase the need for coordination, cooperation, and investment which will improve the national economy. The concept of the nation state as the protector and nurturer of national productive powers are still valid; the nation state will still play an important role.
What is the evidence? -> The author makes several comparisons of important theories like Adam Smith and Friedrich List. Their theories support his. Utilizes historical case studies.
What are the usual answers? A very broad explanations of industrialization is usually given, often tied to the economy and economic development.
What's the authors answer? Cameron takes a case study approach and discusses various factors of each country. He hi lights four indicators of development: population, resources, technology, and institutions.
What evidence is there? His work is based around case studies, specifically Russia, Britain, Belgium, France, and Germany.
What are the usual answers? Debt is causes by banks, economic crisis, inability to pay back loans, and borrowing excessively.
What's the authors answer? The author divides the causes of debt into two major categories politics and development. The principal use of international loans and the ease of increasing exports fall under development and institutional forms of intermediaries and global politics fall under the politics category.
What evidence is there? Country specific data and historical examples.
What are the usual answers? Markets are seen as self-correcting and they are allowed to operate freely. Typical causes are a particular trigger event which creates a huge shock to the system.
What's the authors answer? Latin America faces a prolonged period of meager access to foreign loan capital markets which will force a turn to import substation. Therefore, debt is controlled by the elites in the Latin American system which results in destruction of relations between Latin American countries. The author argues that the debt crisis is not a result of a trigger event, but rather than build up of these previously stated problems.
What evidence is there? Historical analogies and case studies to provide a long-tern view of these challenges.
What are the usual answers? The focus on production have been restrained to US industries and the author wanted to expand this input-output study.
What's the authors answer? The author argues that the technological nature of the production function (labor intensive or capital intensive) for the major commodities initially selected for commercial production influences the potential for further development. The development of labor intensive of capital intensive industries in a country can effect migration and early distribution of income which in turn can effect further economic development. These differences are useful to understanding the differences between plantation style agriculture and small farm agriculture in the world.
What is the evidence? Cities previous study on labor and capital requirements for US industries.
What are the usual answers? The most popular explanation lies in the international economic system, specifically in the processes of economic exchange. The first henry rests on the labor they of value and distinguishes between "lower" and "higher" ranking goods, according to the direct labor required to produce them. This theory assumes that trade between advanced and backwards societies involves the exchange of goods of different rank and when the exchange takes place, surplus is being transferred from the less to the more developed country. Basically, this argument assumes a trade imbalance between the core and periphery. The other side of typical thought believes that the international market as a mechanism that operates to the disadvantage off the poorer countries. The result is a steady polarization of the world economy. The problems lie with unequal rates of return, income elasticities, and competitive disadvantage of new industries in the peripheries versus the established industries of the core. Basically this argument believes that the international system is geared toward core countries. Other explanations include the idea that the nation-state perpetuates non-productive spending amongst elites (military technology).
What's the authors answer? Janos cites a "culture of consumption" that is created in the core countries that perpetuates this divide. Basically, that peripheries want to import these western luxury goods and less capital is invested into the local economy resulting ins stagnation in periphery countries. Due to disadvantages of the market (less technology in later industrializers) this stagnation makes it very difficult for periphery countries to catch up to the core. Janos also predicts that the use of oppressive force or rebellion will be the unchecked result of this culture of consumption.
What evidence is there? Janos cites specific data including wages, sate expenditures, yield of crops, and national incomes of workers.
What are the usual answers? Emphasize policies and practices.
What's the authors answer? The author suggests that powerful elites reinforce these inequalities by exploiting non-elites by industrializing paired categories that reinforce their positions atop social hierarchies. High inequality enables powerful actors to impose institutions and policies that prioritize private and club goods benefiting the powerful over public goods benefiting everyone. The problem is under provision of public goods diminishes collective welfare. High domestic inequality allows elites to resist changes that enhance development and social welfare but threaten their interests. The author proposes two ways in which inequality can be overcome. 1) The powerful come to see that it is in their interest to implement reforms whose benefits are more inclusive 2) the balance of power shifts in a manner that enhances the relative power of other groups.
What evidence is there? analysis of political organizations and elites. Data on income inequality.
What are the usual answers? Linear approaches to unprecedented economic growth in this area often are associated with cultural values, social institutions, a strong states, geopolitical factors, and the world economic system.
What's the authors answer? The author argues that the role of labor is extremely important and is neglected in the study of economic growth in this area. The labor sector is either genderless or male. The article puts forward the many disadvantages that the labor system in the Asia pacific creates for women. They have been incorporated into the labor force, but they have not received equality. They are also concentrated in a few industries and are stuck in the lower end of the occupational structure. As more middle class women enter into the labor force, migrant women from poorer neighboring countries fill their domestic labor needs. The role of women in the workforce has migrational consequences as well as social and economic consequences as well.
What evidence do they bring? The authors cite numerical data including wage distributions, percentages of male and female employees, and gender differences in industries.
What are the usual answers to this? Discussions focus on macro-level conditions that might lead officials to form independent preferences or reduce societal groups from having influence. Oftentimes, a link is drawn between the emergence of an autonomous state and the failure of the national bourgeoise to achieve hegemony. Also, certain military arguments arise stating that the state will act autonomously to mobilize national defense.
What's the authors answer? The author describes the beginnings of an autonomous sector in the Brazilian state and notes some of the characteristics of a government agency needs in order to act autonomously (meritocratic recruitment to insure competence of personnel, sources of funding protected from rivals within government, and incentive structure for bureaucrats which makes achieving their personal goals consistent with achieving agency goals). The author argues that insulating agencies is crucial to economy development because it improves their performance. Basically, the author points to politicians, party activists and bureaucrats as the individuals most capable of undermining state capacity instead of the typical interest groups or unionized workers.
What evidence do they provide? Case study of Brazil
What are the usual answer? The debt is at the center of Brazil's economic problems.
What's the authors answer? The author thinks this issue requires an analysis of the interests of the country's influential social groups. Sectors of society have an important role in the international economy because they pressure the state. The debt crisis in Brazil led to regime and policy change. Trends in national political systems are far less directly determined by domestic and international economic affairs than are trends in national economic policy. The international economy interacts with domestic forces to mold national economic trends and policies in predictable ways.
What evidence do they bring? Case study of Brazil utilizing its history and data including debt, participation of industry, financial institutions, economic indicators, etc.
What are the usual answers? much analysis is individual in this region
What is the authors answer? Understanding N.E Asia and their political economy can only be approached from a systematic look at each country in comparison to the others. The author hi lights similarities between each of the countries which he believes are regional phenomenon. The cases of Taiwan and Korea are exceedingly similar and have much to do with the post war economy and policies of Japan. Assessment of regional concepts.
What evidence is there? industrial and economic data from each country
What are the usual answers? Usually assumed that capitalist and socialist industrialization are different.
What's the authors answer? Authors analysis focuses on the relationship between the state, the peasantry, and the landed class in the struggle to control and channel agricultural surplus and on state mechanisms to transfer resources from agriculture to industry and from private sector to the state. The comparison of these two processes reveal important similarities in the initial stages of industrialization. Notably, the elimination of the land lord and tenant classes and the restructuring of rural social relations laid the foundations from state0directed industrialization. The differences in development hi light the importance of initial economic backwardness in the process of economic development.
What evidence is there? Historical analysis and data of China and Taiwan, specifically data on agriculture production, sector distribution and other ag data