History Main article: History of the Philippines Archeological discoveries show that humans existed in the Philippines around 40,000 years ago. [14] The Negritos, a pre-Mongoloid ethnic group that migrated from mainland Asia, settled in the islands about 30,000 years ago. Another ethnic group known as the Malay people, a group of Malayo-Polynesian speaking people originated from the populations of Taiwanese aborigines, and settled in the Philippines approximately 6,000 years ago. They would populate the regions now known as Malaysia, Indonesia, the Pacific Islands, and Madagascar.

Spanish rule brought political unification to an archipelago that later became the Philippines, and introduced elements of western civilization such as the code of law, printing, and the calendar. [27] The Philippines was governed by Mexico City from 1565 to 1821, before it was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican revolution. The Manila Galleon which linked Manila to Acapulco travelled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th century. The Spanish military fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges, specially from the British, Chinese pirates, Dutch, and Portuguese.

Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the inhabitants to Christianity, and founded schools, universities, and hospitals. In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced education, establishing public schooling in Spanish[28]. Between the 1700s and 1800s, the Philippines opened its forts to world trade. The economy increased, and many criollos, and mestizos became wealthy. The influx of Spanish settlers secularized churches, and government positions traditionally held by the criollos. The ideals of revolution also began to spread through the islands.

Criollo insurgency resulted in the Novales, and the revolt in Cavite El Viejo in 1872 that would lead to the Philippine Revolution. The Philippine Revolution began after colonial authorities executed three priests, Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (known as Gomburza), who were accused of rebellion. [29] This would inspire a Propaganda movement, organized by patriots Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, and Mariano Ponce, to write a newspaper, La Solidaridad, demanding political reforms.

The failure of this organization led Rizal to return to the Philippines and establish La Liga Filipina. After publishing works such as Noli Me Tangere, and El Filibusterismo, he was exiled to Dapitan, where he met Josephine Bracken. [30] He was executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. [31] Andres Bonifacio, meanwhile, established the Katipunan in 1892 that sought independence from Spain. [32] After the Cry of Pugadlawin, Emilio Aguinaldo, challenged his position as the leader, splitting it into two factions, the Magdiwang, and the Magdalo.

Aguinaldo was able to take control of the leadership from Bonifacio, who was executed afterwards, and establish a revolution in El Viejo, Cavite, leading to the formation of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. [33] A ceasefire was agreed at the Treaty of Biak-na-Bato, which led to the revolutionary leaders to depart for Hong Kong, in exile, ending the revolution on May 17, 1897. [34] Former politician, Manuel L. Quezon in his inauguration as President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines during the American period.

The Spanish-American War began in Cuba in 1898, and reached the Philippines after the United States fought Spain in the Battle of Manila Bay. After returning from exile, Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Malolos, Bulacan on June 12, 1898, and established the Primera Republica Filipina or the First Philippine Republic the following year. Meanwhile, the islands were ceded, together with Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam, to the United States for $20 million dollars, during the Treaty of Paris. This would lead to the Philippine-American War which led to Aguinaldo becoming captured on March 23, 1901.

The war (along with the Moro Rebellion) would continue until 1913, producing more than 1,500,000 casualties. The Philippines' status as a colony changed when it became a Commonwealth in 1935. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when Japan invaded. Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1944. On July 4, 1946, the United States granted Philippine independence. [3] The Philippines faced political instability that plagued the country. Since 1946, remnants of the Hukbalahap rebel army continued to roam the rural regions, disgruntled after the government had rejected their contribution during World War II.

Attempts at reconciliation was established by former President Ramon Magsaysay. In the 1960s, the nationalistic policies were initiated by Diosdado Macapagal, that included recognition of the legacies of Aguinaldo, and Jose P. Laurel. The 1960s were a period of economic growth for the Philippines which developed to be one of the wealthiest in Asia. Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Barred from seeking a third term, he declared Martial law on September 21, 1972, under the guise of political conflict, and resurgent Communist, and Islamic insurgencies, and governed by decree, along with his wife Imelda Marcos.

Returning from exile in the United States, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. , was assassinated at the Manila International Airport (also called the Ninoy Aquino International Airport) on August 21, 1983. In 1986, the People Power Revolution occurred. The people gathered, and protested in EDSA, upon the organization of the Archbishop of Manila founded by Priest Jaime Cardinal Sin. It was to oppose the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. After losing the election to Corazon Aquino, who became the first female president, and the first female President in Asia.

Marcos, and his allies departed to Hawaii in exile. A statue of the Virgin Mary was built on the EDSA Shrine, after the People Power Revolution. The return of democracy, and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a Communist insurgency, and an Islamic separatist organization. The economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. Ramos, who was elected in 1992. [35] However, the economic improvements were negated at the onset of the East Asian financial crisis in 1997.

The 2001 EDSA Revolution led to the downfall of the Philippine president, Joseph Ejercito Estrada. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo took leadership in 2001 following the impeachment of the Estrada government. World War II From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "WWII" redirects here. For other uses, see WWII (disambiguation). World War II, or the Second World War[1] (often abbreviated WWII or WW2), was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including all of the great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.

The war involved the mobilization of over 100 million military personnel, making it the most widespread war in history. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Over seventy million people, the majority of whom were civilians, were killed, making it the deadliest conflict in human history.

The start of the war is generally held to be September 1 1939, with the German invasion of Poland and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by most of the countries in the British Empire and Commonwealth, and by France. Many countries were already at war before this date, and many who were not initially involved joined the war later, as a result of events such as the Marco Polo Bridge Incident (fought between Nationalist China and Japan), the German invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa), and the attacks on Pearl Harbor and British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia.

In 1945 the war ended in a victory for the Allies. The Soviet Union and the United States subsequently emerged as the world's superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 45 years. The United Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The acceptance of the principle of self-determination accelerated decolonization movements in Asia and Africa, while Western Europe itself began moving toward integration. Background Main article: Causes of World War II In the aftermath of World War I, a defeated Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles. 2] This caused Germany to lose around 14% of its territory, prohibited the annexation of other states, limited the size of the German armed forces and imposed massive reparations. Russia's civil war led to the creation of the Soviet Union which soon was under the control of Joseph Stalin. In Italy, Benito Mussolini seized power as a fascist dictator promising to create a "New Roman Empire. "[3] The Kuomintang (KMT) party in China launched a unification campaign against regional warlords and nominally unified China in the mid-1920s, but was soon embroiled in a civil war against its former Chinese communist allies.