Pregnancy, the state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. This condition can be indicated by positive results on an over-the-counter urine test, and confirmed through a blood test, ultrasound, detection of fetal heartbeat, or an X-ray. Pregnancy lasts for about nine months, measured from the date of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP). It is conventionally divided into three trimesters, each roughly three months long.

When gestation has completed, it goes through a process called delivery, where the developed fetus is expelled from the mother’s womb. There are two options of delivery: Cesarean section and NSVD or normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. A cesarean section is a surgical incision through the mother’s abdomen and uterus to deliver one or more fetuses. NSVD or normal spontaneous vaginal delivery is the delivery of the baby through vaginal route. It can also be called NSD or normal spontaneous delivery, or SVD or spontaneous vaginal delivery, where the mother delivers the baby with effort and force exertion.

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Normal labor is defined as the gradual subjugation and dilatation of the uterine cervix as a result of rhythmic uterine contractions leading to the expulsion of the products of conception: the delivery of the fetus, membranes, umbilical cord, and placenta. Laboring cannot that be easy; thereby implicating that there are processes and stages to be undertaken to achieve spontaneous delivery. Through which, Obstetrics have divided labor into four (4) stages thereby explaining this continuous process.

STAGE 1: It is usually the longest part of labor.It begins with regular uterine contractions and ends with complete cervical dilatation at 10 centimeters. This stage is broken down into three (3) phases: the Early phase, where the contractions are usually very light and maybe approximately 20 minutes or more apart from the beginning, gradually becoming closer, possibly up to five minutes apart; the Active phase, where contractions are generally four or five times apart, and may last up to 60 seconds long. Cervix dilates with 4-7 cm and initiates a more rapid dilatation.

It is known that to get through active labor, mobility and relaxations are done to increase contractions; and the Transition phase, where it is definitely known as the shortest phase but the hardest, contractions maybe two or three times apart, lasting up to a minute and a half, about approximately 8-10 cm of cervical dilatation. Some women will shake and may vomit during this stage, and this is regarded as normal. Most of the time, women would find a comfortable position to acquire complete dilatation.

STAGE II: This stage lasts for three or more hours. However, the length of this stage depends upon the mother’s position (e. . ; upright position yields faster delivery). Once the cervix has completely dilated, the second stage had begun. This stage ends with the expulsion of the fetus.

STAGE III: This stage focuses on the expulsion of the placenta from the mother. Placenta exclusion is much more easier than the delivery of the baby because it includes no bones, and this is during this stage that the baby is placed on top of the mother’s womb.

STAGE IV: No more expulsions of conception products for this stage as this is generally accepted as POST PARTUM juncture. This phase is from the placental delivery to full recovery of the mother.

Labor and delivery of the fetus entails physiological effects both on the mother and the fetus. In the cardiovascular system, the mother’s cardiac output increases because of the increase in the needed amount of blood in the uterine area. Blood pressure may also rise due to the effort exerted by the mother in order expel the fetus. There could also be a development of leukocytes or a sharp increase in the number of circulating white blood cells possibly as a result of stress and heavy exertion. Increased respiratory may also occur. This happens as a response to the increase in blood supply in order to increase also the oxygen intake.

Braxton Hicks contractions, or also known as false labor or practice contractions. Braxton Hicks are sporadic uterine contractions that actually start at about 6 weeks, although one will not feel them that early. Most women start feeling them during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. True labor is felt in the upper and mid abdomen and leads to the cervical changes that define true labor. With delivery imminent, the mother is usually placed supine with her knees bent (ie, the dorsal lithotomy position). An episiotomy (an incision continuous with the vaginal introitus) may be performed at this time.

Episiotomy may ease delivery of the fetal head and allow some control over what may otherwise be an uncontrolled perineal laceration. However, many providers no longer perform routine episiotomy, since it may increase the risk of rectal injury and are larger than the spontaneous laceration. The labor and birth process is always accompanied by pain. Several options for pain control are available, ranging from intramuscular or intravenous doses of narcotics, such as Meperidine (Demerol), to general anesthesia. Regional nerve blocks, such as a pudendal block or local infiltration of the perineal area can also be used. Further options include epidural blocks and spinal anesthetics.

Nursing Health

History Nursing health history is the first part and one of the most significant aspects in case studies. It is a systematic collection of subjective and objective data, ordering and a step-by-step process inculcating detailed information in determining client’s history, health status, functional status and coping pattern. These vital informations provide a conceptual baseline data utilized in developing nursing diagnosis, subsequent plans for individualized care and for the nursing process pplication as a whole. In keeping the private life of my patient and in maintaining confidentiality, let me hide for with the pseudonym of Patient P. Patient P was born on December 19, 1992. She was born to parents from Surigao Del Norte, but she didn’t actually live with them. She was technically abandoned to the relatives, but those people could not essentially foster her. She stayed at the Department of Welfare and Social Development or DSWD and spent her 15 years of existence. Her education was funded mainly by volunteers and charitable foundations.

At the same time, she compensated for it by means of helping in chores and accomplishing tasks in the said foundation. She grew up with other abandoned children with questions in her mind. But to that, she never completely disclosed herself. Patient P is a victim of sexual abuse. She was raped and was unable to resist because of her innocence. She doesn’t talk that much. Often times, she paces back and forth inside the ward, sits silently on her bed and sometimes quietly stares outside the window. When tried to ask about what she knows of her family, she could only turn silent, and somehow implies to ask the next question to her.

But when chance punched, I grasped it and coiled directly to my point. Unfortunately, hesitancy was felt from the kind of thing that was wanted to be discussed. The issue was not forced until her watcher, which has no relation to her, revealed the reason behind her pregnancy. According to Patient P’s watcher, it was on a cold night in September 2007, when Patient P came home from school: Upon nearing the center, a man, which she identified as a newcomer to the center, blocked and harassed her brutally. She struggled to let go from the ruthless hands of the unaccustomed man.

Patient P was threatened that if she’d make any noise, she’d get killed. Ill-fatedly, she was held powerless to the man, and the crime had happened. Fortunate enough that she wasn’t killed, she thanked the Lord for sparing her life. Although alive, she felt very much unfair about her situation. She could only tell, “Kabata pa kaayo nako nahimong inahan, nganong nahitabo man pud ni.. ” . Patient P conceived the baby and bore it for 9 months. For the first trimester, she couldn’t believe and accept her fate, and sometimes thought of slight curses to the person who did the crime.

But somehow, she felt a jot of excitement of a having a baby unexpectedly. She even verbalized, “Wa naman koy mabuhat. Nahitabo nato. Basin makasala pa kog ipalaglag nako ang bata.. Wala man siya’y sala. ” According to Erik Erikson’s Developmental Task of adolescence, from the age of 10 to 18 years old, Patient P belonged to the IDENTITY versus ROLE CONFUSION, which proposes that the adolescent is newly concerned with how he or she appears to others. Development mostly depends upon what is done to us. From here on out, development depends primarily upon what we do.

And while adolescence is a stage at which we are neither a child nor an adult, life is definitely getting more complex as we attempt to find our own identity, struggle with social interactions, and grapple with moral issues. On June 29, 2008, Patient P complained of extreme abdominal pain. On the same date was her EDC or expected date of confinement. The age of gestation is 39 weeks by LMP. Her LMP was September 2007, exact date unrecalled. She was admitted to Butuan Medical Center at around 2:40am with blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg. She was examined by Dr.

Bombeo and found out that she was fully dilated. By 2:45am, 5 minutes after her admission, doctor’s orders were carried out:

  • #1 D5LR I Liter started @ 20 gtts/min
  • TPR q 4°
  • NPO
  • CBC blood typing; hbsAg requested
  • Labor watch By 2:55am, she was endorsed to DR wheelchair.

With the next 5 minutes, she was admitted in the ER accompanied by the staff, positioned on the DR table with final preparation done. Around 3:36 am, she delivered an alive, 6 lbs 13 oz and 49 centimeters in length baby girl with these statistics:

  • Head Circ: 32 cm
  • Chest Circ: 30 cm
  • Abd Circ:20 cm

Extemporaneously, the baby cried with the same breathing time of 3:36am. Patient P’s placenta was expelled spontaneously by 3:47am with blood pressure of 130/80. Oxytocin 10 units was infused to IVF; Methergine I amp IVTT; her uterus was firm and contracted and was admitted to ward via stretcher. During her labor, she was anesthetized with Lidocaine HCl 5cc. After her delivery, she was admitted to the Ob ward with repaired episiotomy. Post partum doctor’s orders were as follows which was carried out:

  1. DAT (Diet as Tolerated)
  2. Ice pack over hypogastrium
  3. Perineal care Oxytocin 10 U infused to IVF and;
  4. Methergine I amp IVTT.
  5. Cephalexin I amp IVTT
  6. Mefenamic Acid 500mg I cap TID
  7. May room in
  8. Breastfeed per demand Patient P’s temperature was monitored until stable.

On the following day, June 30, 2008, doctor’s order was to secure HBsAg result. Patient P’s baby was admitted to NICU because of frequent vomiting and fever. The staff continued to monitor her vital signs and administered prescribed medications. As a student nurse, I also did my assessment towards my patient’s condition. Upon assessing, I was able to take and record her vital signs: T = 37. 3°c • 82 bpm • 21 cpm • 120/70 mmHg Patient P wasn’t able to take a bath because of her beliefs. Since she has an episiotomy wound, she is at risk for infection. I made my independent nursing interventions. I explained to her the importance of proper hygiene to prevent the occurrence of infection. Emphasis on eating foods rich high protein to promote wound healing was imparted. She verbalized, “Sakit man akong totoy mam. ” So, I encouraged her to let her baby continuously suck to both breasts when received back from NICU, that is to relieve her engorgement.

Also, I instructed her to increase fluid intake at least 8 oz per hour to facilitate increase in milk production, and to eat nutritious foods such as fruits and vegetables to nourish her baby well. On July 1, 2008, doctor’s orders were noted:

  1. Continue meds
  2. Repeat hemoglobin
  3. MGH after IE and if hemoglobin is OK By 1:25 pm:
  4. Defer MGH
  5. Secure and transfuse 4 units FWB/wg (fresh whole blood) properly crossmatched
  6. Antamine I amp 10,000 units
  7. BT (blood transfusion) On the same day, I did my Physical assessment to Patient P and a brief history about her case.

I aided her in securing her blood by persistently going with her to the blood bank. Patient P was advised to take adequate rest in fear of hypotension due to her low hemoglobin, 59G/L. So, it was me and her watcher who was always on the go. I continued to administer her medications per prescription:

  • Cephalexin 500mg I cap TID
  • Mefenamic Acid 500mg I cap TID July 2, 2008, doctor’s order was to follow up 4 units of blood.

Patient P was reinserted with IV D5LR. On July 7, 2008, Patient P was transfused with 4 units of fresh whole blood, baby was already on mother’s side, and were about to go home.

She was seen with the health workers facilitating her discharge from the hospital.


Physical examination follows a methodical head to toe format in the Cephalocaudal assessment. This is done systematically using the techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation with the use of materials and investments such as the penlight, thermometer, sphygmomanometer, tape measure and stethoscope and also the senses. During the procedure, I made every effort to recognize and respect the patient’s feelings as well as to provide comfort measures and follow appropriate safety precautions.

A. General Physical Assessment Patient is a 15 year old female, stands 5’4, with pulse rate of 82 beats pre minute, respiratory rate of 21 breathe per minute and a temperature of 37. 3 °C. She is conscious and coherent upon interaction but answers only the questions she is comfortable with. Most of the time, she is pacing inside the ward and appears withdrawn. B. Assessment of the Head Head is round in shape. Hair is long, thick and coarse, straight and evenly distributed. Scalp is smooth and white in color, minimal lesions were noted. Dandruff and lice were seen. C. Assessment of the Eyes

Her eyes are symmetrical, black in color, almond shape. Pupils constricts when diverted to light and dilates when she gazes afar, conjunctivas are pink. Eyelashes are equally distributed and skin around the eyes is intact. The eyes involuntarily blink. D. Assessment of the Ears Ears are clean, no ear wax was noted and approximately of the same size and shape. Patient can hear normally when spoken softly. E. Assessment of the Nose With narrow nose bridge, there were discharges noted upon inspection. No swelling of the mucous membrane and presence of nasal hairs were seen. F. Assessment of the Mouth.

She has a complete set of teeth with minimal dental caries noted. Oral mucosa and gingival are pink in color, moist and there were no lesions nor inflammation noted. Tongue is pinkish and is free of swelling and lesions. Lips are symmetrical, appears pale without bits noted upon observation. J. Assessment of the Neck Lymph nodes noted. Neck has strength that allows movement back and forth, left and right. Patient is able to freely move her neck. H. Assessment of the Lungs and Thoracic Region No reports of pain during the inhalation and exhalation. Absence of adventitious sounds upon auscultation.

Respiratory rate 21 breathes per minute from the normal range of 16-20 breaths per minute. I. Assessment of the Heart Patient has an audible heart sound. PMI is heard between 4th - 5th intercostals space. Heart is pumping well with a pulse rate of 82 bpm from the normal rate of 60-100 beats per minute. J. Assessment of the Abdomen Abdominal movement as with respiration, presence of peristalsis during auscultation. Presence of rashes and lesions. K. Assessment of the Upper Extremities Skin:White in color; presence of marks/scars of wounds in the arms, neck and legs.

Skin is smooth, moist and soft to touch. Hands: Medium in size with 5 fingernails in each side. Nails are short, small dusty particles are present. Arms:Able to move through active ROM. Able to extend arms in front or push them out to the side. L. Assessment to the Lower Extremities Size of the feet is undefined with lines on the sole, presence of scars and lesions. Ten fingers are present. Nails are clean and short. Patient is ambulatory. M. Assessment of the Genitourinary With episiotomy dry and intact, urinates 2-4 times a day and has not defecated yet since her delivery.

N. Assessment of the Perineum With episiotomy intact, absence of lesions and swelling. O. Neurological Assessment Behavior – Patient is silent but is conscious and coherent upon interaction. She sits and walks if she wants to. Motor Functioning -Able to move extremities through active ROM. Able to extend arms front and resist active as pushed down/up on his hands. Reflexes -reflexes were present such as the blinking reflex and deep tendon reflex. Sensory Functioning – Patient’s sensory system is intact, she was able to distinguish touch, pain, hot and cold.


Our overview of the reproductive system begins at the external genital area— or vulva—which runs from the pubic area downward to the rectum. Two folds of fatty, fleshy tissue surround the entrance to the vagina and the urinary opening: the labia majora, or outer folds, and the labia minora, or inner folds, located under the labia majora. The clitoris, is a relatively short organ (less than one inch long), shielded by a hood of flesh. When stimulated sexually, the clitoris can become erect like a man's penis.

The hymen, a thin membrane protecting the entrance of the vagina, stretches when you insert a tampon or have intercourse.


The Vagina The vagina is a muscular, ridged sheath connecting the external genitals to the uterus, where the embryo grows into a fetus during pregnancy. In the reproductive process, the vagina functions as a two-way street, accepting the penis and sperm during intercourse and roughly nine months later, serving as the avenue of birth through which the new baby enters the world .

The Cervix The vagina ends at the cervix, the lower portion or neck of the uterus. Like the vagina, the cervix has dual reproductive functions. After intercourse, sperm ejaculated in the vagina pass through the cervix, then proceed through the uterus to the fallopian tubes where, if a sperm encounters an ovum (egg), conception occurs. The cervix is lined with mucus, the quality and quantity of which is governed by monthly fluctuations in the levels of the two principle sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone.

When estrogen levels are low, the mucus tends to be thick and sparse, which makes it difficult for sperm to reach the fallopian tubes. But when an egg is ready for fertilization and estrogen levels are high the mucus then becomes thin and slippery, offering a much more friendly environment to sperm as they struggle towards their goal. (This phenomenon is employed by birth control pills, shots and implants. One of the ways they prevent conception is to render the cervical mucus thick, sparse, and hostile to sperm. )

Uterus The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of humans. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina; the other is connected on both sides to the fallopian tubes. The uterus mostly consists of muscle, known as myometrium. Its major function is to accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose. The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo, develops into a fetus and gestates until childbirth.


The Fallopian tubes or oviducts are two very fine tubes leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus. On maturity of an ovum, the follicle and the ovary's wall rupture, allowing the ovum to escape and enter the Fallopian tube. There it travels toward the uterus, pushed along by movements of cilia on the inner lining of the tubes. This trip takes hours or days. If the ovum is fertilized while in the Fallopian tube, then it normally implants in the endometrium when it reaches the uterus, which signals the beginning of pregnancy.


The ovaries are the place inside the female body where ova or eggs are produced. The process by which the ovum is released is called ovulation. The speed of ovulation is periodic and impacts directly to the length of a menstrual cycle. After ovulation, the ovum is captured by the oviduct, where it travelled down the oviduct to the uterus, occasionally being fertilised on its way by an incoming sperm, leading to pregnancy and the eventual birth of a new human being. The Fallopian tubes are often called the oviducts and they have small hairs (cilia) to help the egg cell travel.

GENERIC NAME:CEPHALEXIN CLASSIFICATION: Anti-Infective ACTION: Inhibits DNA synthesis by inhibiting DNA gyrase in susceptible gram negative and gram positive organisms INDICATIONS: Infectious diarrhea, respiratory tract infection, infection on the skin structures, bones and joints

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Hypersensitivity to drug or other fluoroquinolones


  • CNS: Headache
  • CV: Orthostatic Hypotension
  • EENT: Blurred Vision GI: Nausea and Vomiting, Diarrhea, constipation
  • OTHER: Taste INTERACTIONS: Oral anticoagulants: Increased anti-coagulant effects


• Advise Patient not to take drugs with dairy or Caffeinated products

• Inform physician if allergies or rashes abruptly develop


ACTION: Inhibits reuptake of serotonin norepinephrine

CNS INDICATIONS: Moderate to moderately severe pain

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Hypersensitivity with drugs, acute intoxication with alcohol, physical opioid dependence


  • CNS: dizziness
  • CV: Vasodilation
  • EENT: visual disturbances
  • GI: Nausea and Vomiting
  • GU: urinary retention
  • Tell patient that drug works best when taken before pain becomes severe
  • Recommend abstinence from alcohol when taking medication
  • Caution patient that drug can cause dependence

PROBLEM LIST | | | | |Problem # |Nursing Diagnosis |Date Identified |Date Evaluated | | | | | | |1 |Risk for infection r/t traumatized |June 30, 2008 |July 1, 2008 | | |skin tissue 2? o episiotomy | | | | | | | | | |Interrupted breast feeding r/t infant| | | | |illness | | | |2 | |July 1, 2008 |July 1, 2008 | | |Situational Low Self-Esteem r/t | | | | |perceived failure at life events 2? | | | | |to rape trauma | | | |3 | |July 1, 2008 |Not Evaluated |


For at least four weeks of duty, I have encountered several constraints with regards to the implementation of interventions.

It was not that easy specially that what I am dealing with are lives, lives through which if jeopardized, can either put me in an obnoxious situation or be blameworthy for any complications. Three days of multi-tasking and time management, the OB-NURSERY ward exposure has taught me how to appropriately handle pregnant and post partum women. The idea of caring for mothers and newborns which is not in my lineage is hard. Hard, because some of the patient’s are uncooperative and non compliant. It isn’t that smooth to establish an interacting relationship specially that most of the patient’s admitted in the institution has a low educational attainment. Therefore, I cannot expect them to fully comprehend the instructions I have imparted.

However, it was a marvelous experience since I was exposed to various kinds of maternal paragons and procedures which weren’t return demonstrated yet. Fortunately, there is our clinical instructor who persistently supervised us and assisted us to make it through with just minimal errors. Now, let me get this straight. This is my first time to manage an individual case study. Adding to that is the fear of making a physiologic structure of my opted case. One false move and I am screwed. I have learned to thoroughly assess my patient to comply with the requisites. Also, I have acquainted myself with regards to establishing rapport with my patient to have a trusting relationship. Some patients do not totally disclose themselves because they may find it privacy invading.

I have learned to be patient and control my feelings of anger or annoyance towards the patient; to respect and accept their beliefs and values without judging them; to communicate with them therapeutically; to be accurate and systematic when it comes to charting to avoid errors and reprimands. Basically, it’s the feeling of confidence you have in yourself that will facilitate accomplishment and error-free implementation of nursing care. If you are confident enough to perform the procedures, then the client will develop trust and confidence to you. The nurse has a lot of responsibilities to take in, thus, confidence is a very important factor. The exposure wasn’t centered mainly to rendering care.

It was also focused to building and developing intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships. I call it, personal growth. To adjust and adapt with the environment is a humongous task! It’s not that easy. But mingling with other people helps you identify your strength and weaknesses, and it aids in modifying what is somehow negative in our attitudes. To sum this all up, it was a SUCCESS! Thanks be to GOD. The next time that I’ll render care and perform procedures, I will try to do my best to attain satisfaction and accomplishment.


The materialization of this case study wouldn’t be possible without the aid of the following folks: To the Almighty Father for the strength given in realizing and fulfilling the duties and the study; to beloved parents who have always been supportive all throughout the start of the duty until the end, the toils and efforts; to dear comrades and colleagues who have been extending all out help during the rough scenarios, specially to Miss Sheila Marie Adorador for aiding me in realizing the case study; and to my groupmates for the overwhelming support, help and camaraderie, for being cooperative and indulging, that helped me augment my learning and somehow sharpened my skills. To our ever lenient but strict clinical instructor, Mr. Paul Ritchie Pelos, for simplifying what used to be incomprehensible, tricky and complicated concepts, for assisting us in the various procedures we have performed, and for being kind to us despite our immaturity