Internet
network of network that connects billions of computer users globally

WWW
World Wide Web; subset of the Internet dedicated to broadcasting HTML pages and the means by which we access information over the Internet

Server
computer that receives the request and returns the data to the client

Client
computer that asks for data

IP address
Internet Protocol; set of 4 numbers separated by the periods; means by which computers connected to the Internet identify each other

Secure Socket Layer
to check if website is secure, make sure http:// changes to https://

B2B (Business to Business)
transactions occur when a business buys and sells goods and services to other businesses

B2C (Business to Consumer)
transactions take place between businesses and consumers

C2C (Consumer to Consumer)
transactions occur when consumers sell to each other through sites such as eBay, Craigslist and Etsy

Web Browser
allows you to view web pages, i.e. Internet Explorer, Firefox, etc.

URL
websites address; Uniform Resource Locator; comprised of several parts protocol, domain, top-level domain, and paths (or subdirectories)

Protocol
set of rules used to retrieve the document

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
protocol that allows files to be transferred from a web server so that you can see it on your computer

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
used when you have large files to upload or download

Domain Name
identifies the site's host, the location that maintains the computers that store the website files

Top Level Domain
suffix in the domain name after the dot

Search Engine's Spider
constantly collects data on the web, following links in websites and reading web pages

Internet Backbone
main paths of the internet along which data travels the fastest; collection of large national and international networks

ISP (Internet Service Providers)
Computing devices or networks connect to Internet using these

IXP (Internet Exchange Point)
Used by service providers to connect directly to each other, reducing cost and latency time

POP (Point of Presence)
Bank of routers and switches through which many users can connect simultaneously

Client/server model
clients are devices such as computers, tablets, and smartphones that use browsers to request services such as web pages

Circuit Switching
a dedicated connection is formed between two points (i.e. two people on phones), and connection remains active for the duration of the transmission

Packet Switching
communications methodology that makes computer communication efficient; does not require a dedicated communications circuit to be maintained; data is broken into smaller chunks

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
Responsible for preparing data for transmission, but IP actually sends data between computers on the Internet

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
Created for transfer of hypertext documents across the internet (hypertext documents have text that is linked to other documents or media)

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Used to transfer computer files from one host to another over a TCP based network

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
Responsible for sending e-mail along the Internet to its destination; part of IP suite

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
Belongs to TCP/IP suite; takes a pool of IP addresses and shares them with hosts on the network on an as-needed basis; assigns each user an IP address for the duration of the session

Dynamic addressing
computer is assigned a temporary address from an available pool of IP addresses; more common

Static addressing
means IP address for a computer never changes and is most likely assigned manually by a network administrator or an ISP

DNS Server
acts as phone book for Internet; enable computer to find out the IP address of a domain by looking up its corresponding domain name

Root DNS server
knows location of DNS servers that contain master listings for TLD

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