In 1864 France overthrew the Mexican government and declared Mexico an empire. That lasted until about 1867 when the U. S. Threatened to send troops into Mexico to fight against the French. Between 1910 and 191 5 heavy fighting was attributed to the Mexican Revolution. The end of the revolution marked the beginning of many social changes which led to the construction of the Mexican Constitution of 1917. The next 60 years is known for Industrial expansion, rapid population growth and political domination which slowed down around 1980.
Since 1980 Mexican Government has tried to turn Mexico Into a new and prosperous first roll country but has struggled due to unexpected political and economic events. Ill. Geographical setting A. Location Mexico is located in North America bordered on the south by Belize and Guatemala, the U. S. On the north (California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas), the North Pacific on the west and the Gulf of Mexico on the east. Mexico Is 761 ,601 square miles. The capital, Mexico City, Is located in the south central part of the country. (Eduardo, 2010) B. Climate tropical and the temperate zones (or north and south).
The northern states are cooler in the winter months while the southern states are fairly constant year round forever the temperature varies depending on the elevation. In the southern region, areas with an elevation up to 3,281 Ft. Have an average temperature of about 78. 5 ;F. Temperatures here only vary between summer and winter. The average temperature between 3,281 Ft. And 6,562 Ft. Is about 64. 4 ;F. Northern regions at this elevation experience huge swings from winter to summer while the southern regions stay fairly constant. The areas above 6,562 Ft. Have an average temperature of about 46. 9;F.
Although Mexico City is at 7,546 Ft. The average temperature there is about 59;F with pleasant summers and mild winters. The rainy season is between June and mid-October. Once again the rainfall varies depending season and location however average rainfall totals are between 23. 6 and 39. 4 in per year in most of southern Mexico including Mexico City. The wettest part of Mexico (the southern region of Tobacco) receives about 78. 7 in of rainfall per year. Mexico frequently experiences hurricanes between June and November. Usually hurricanes on the Pacific Coast are less violent than those on the east coast.
Jacobson, 2011) C. Topography Mexico main geographic feature is the great highland central plateau. It averages 4,000 Ft. N elevation to 8,000 Ft. In the center part of the country. The plateau is lined with two mountain ranges, the Sierra Madder Oriental (extending for 840 miles) on the east and the Sierra Madder Occidental (extending for more than 780 miles) on the east. These two ranges have an elevation of about 10,000 Ft. With some volcanic peaks reaching over 16,400 Ft. There are no essential inland waterways except for the ROI Grandee which covers about 1,300 miles.
Lake Chapel is located in Calico state and is the biggest lake in the country covering 651 square miles. (Samuel, 2011) 'V. Social institutions A. Family 1. The nuclear family The nuclear family is the common household unit. In 1995 about 75% of all family households were nuclear. Households consist of about 5 members. Among the poor urban families you will find households consisting of parents, children, grandparents and sometimes other relatives. Many times in the rural areas you might encounter different nuclear families that live close to each other and mutual resources. (Bart, 2008) 2.
The extended family members live far away they frequently find reasons to get together and have fun. Regularly extended families will get together for a meal during the weekend but usually congregate for religious reason. The nuclear and extended families are the focus for trust, solidarity, and support. 3. Dynamics of the family a. Parental roles- Men and women have distinct traditional roles however they are not limited by any formal rules or laws. Men are usually the head of the family and are responsible for working and disciplining while the women usually stay home and take care of the children, husband and house. Bart, 2008) b. Marriage and courtship- Mexicans have the freedom of choosing who they marry. People usually marry after several years of engagement. The average marriage age is approximately 24 years for men and 22 years for women. 4. Female/male roles As stated previously men and women have their distinct roles. The men in the workplace are the boss of the house while the women take care of the kids, the home and their husbands. Traditionally men are very bossy and controlling (referred to as machismo in Mexico). Today men are still the boss of the house however they are much less bossy and controlling then in earlier times.
B. Education 1 . The role of education in society Education is important in Mexico however not as emphasized as it is in the U. S. Weather you attend a private school or a public school says a lot about a family and their social class. Private schools are very expensive and only the really wealthy families go there while public schools are known for having a lack of supplies, teachers, and organization. Basic education is divided into three steps; Primary School (primary), Junior High (secondary) and High School (preparatory). A. Primary school (Primary) - Primary school encompasses grades 1-6 (ages 6-12).
Many schools offer a bilingual education system from the beginning where things are taught in Spanish for half of the day and a second language for the other half of the day. In the Primary School the main focuses are Spanish, mathematics geography. Sadly many students drop out even at the primary level especially in the rural areas for the necessity to work or the lack of emphasis on education. B. Junior High (secondary) - Junior high encompasses grades 7-9 (ages 12-15). More specialized subjects are taught at this level including Physics, Chemistry and World History.
Once again many students drop out at this level as well for the same 15-18). There are two options for high school, you can either go too traditional high school for three years that prepares you for college or you can enroll in what is called bachelors which provides training and education in the 2-3 years and leads straight into a Job. By the end of High School, to some degree, students have specialized in a certain subject. (McLaughlin, 2009) 2. Literacy rates Literacy rates have experienced significant growth within the last 10 years in Mexico.
The following chart shows the literacy rate totals and by age and gender demographics. (Duncan, 2011) C. Political system 1. Political structure In the year 2000 Mexico finally achieved true democracy with the Election of Vaccine Fox. Before then Mexico was dominated by the Authoritarian Partied Revolutionary Institutional (PR') until Vincent Fox was elected, the first president to not be part of the PR'. Mexico has a Presidential system with Legislative, Executive and Judicial branches. The President is elected for 6 years without the option off re-election.
The Chamber of Deputies has 500 members who are elected for 3 year terms. 300 of these members are elected by majority in single member districts and 200 are elected by proportional representation. The Senate has 128 members that are elected for 6 years. Each state has 3 senators, elected by the state, and 32 senators that are elected by proportional representation. There are no possible re-elections for federal deputies and senators. Mexico is a federation of 31 states and one Federal District. Each state elects its own governor and legislature. (Myers, 2007) 2. Political parties Mexico has more than two dominant political parties.
In Mexico there are three large political parties the PRI (Partied Revolutionary Institution), the PAN (Partied Action National), and the PROD (Partied De la Revolution Democratic). Other smaller political arties survive in segregation or by forming local alliances with any of the other three. After the election in 2003, Mexico had six nationally recognized political parties. National recognition was only given to those parties that secured representation in Congress. Only the PR', the PAN and the PROD have congressional representation and a share of the national vote.
The above map represents the State Governments by Party. (Hernandez, 2008) 3. Stability of Government drug cartel could be stronger than the government. Mexico is currently struggling due to the massive growth of the drug cartel which has already supplanted the overspent in many regions. (Hawley, 2010) 4. Special taxes In 1986 a comprehensive tax reform legislation was enacted which has dramatically changed taxes in Mexico. It was an attempt to make it compatible with the tax systems of Mexico most important trading and investment partners and with those of countries competing with Mexico for foreign investment.
The principal taxes payable by individuals and by corporations operating in Mexico and, in certain cases, by foreign companies, are those levied by the federal government. They are as follows largely a part of but not limited to: Federal Taxes Taxes on income, including a minimum tax based on assets held added tax * Import and export taxes * Payroll taxes, principally the 1% percent tax on salaries, social security and contributions to the National Workers Housing Fund. Local Taxes * On real property * On salaries (payable by the employer) and * On acquisition of real property.
Taxes on corporate income: * Federal Income Tax 35% * Minimum Tax 2% * No sales tax on corporate net income Other Taxes * value Added Tax (VAT) * Compulsory Profit Sharing 10% 5. Role of local government Thirty one states of Mexico are administrative divisions by the constitution, which rants them those powers not expressly vested in the federal government. Each state has a constitution, a governor elected for six years, and a unicameral legislature, with representatives elected by district vote in proportion to population.
Usually sessions of the legislature are held annually, however some sessions may be called by the governor or the permanent committee. Bills may be introduced by legislators, by the governor, by the state supreme court, and by municipalities. In addition to the 31 states, there is also one federal district comprising Mexico City, whose governor serves as a member of the cabinet. Many state services are supported by federal sponsorships. The main unit of government is the municipality.
Mexico 2,378 municipalities are governed by municipal presidents and municipal councils. State budgets are approved by the respective state governors. (Freedmen, 2010) D. Legal system 6. Organization of the Judiciary system Mexico contemporary legal system emerges as a result of the 1910 revolution. Although originally influenced by the legal systems of Spain, France, and the United States, Mexico has been able to structure and maintain a unique legal system that incorporates distinct Mexican components.
Some examples of the unique Mexican components are: the institution of "Impart," established to protect the constitutional rights of individuals and companies against violations from public authorities; the notion of "social rights" found in Article 123 of the Constitution enumerating the rights of workers as a social class; and the collective land tenure system of the "Oxide," whose original objective was altered by an amendment to Article 27 of the Constitution in 1994. The main differences from the United States are; Mexico has no jury trials, no application of the principle of stare decides, no class action suits, no Bar
Exam for Mexican attorneys, no professional regulation of attorneys by state or local Bar Associations, no discovery, no elected Judges, legal education is at the undergraduate level and consists of five years; and "notaries" (Notaries P;blocs). Mexico is in the process of modernizing its legal system, mainly in the areas of foreign investment, commercial transactions and international trade. As a result of the substantial increase of business and trade since NONFAT became effective in 1994, certain Mexican legal areas, which were under the exclusive control of the Federal Government, are now being updated and privatized.
This closer commercial relationship recently developed by Mexico with the United States has led some to suggest that the Mexican legal system is being subject to a process of "Americanization. 7. Code of Mexico Mexico is a Federal Republic, divided in three powers there is one president, one legislative and the Judicial Power. 8. Participation in patents, trademarks, and other conventions (Dialectical Property) Since 1991 , the Industry Property Law (LIP) and Copyright Law (LAD) assure foreign investors the same protection that exists in industrialized countries, and is usually to found in the legislations of most of the developing countries.
The goals of the LIP include motivating research and development to help innovation, and to encourage foreign investors to bring technology to Mexico. The law gives specific protection to patents, trademarks, industrial and trade secrets, utility models, industrial designs, sound recordings, commercial names and appellations of origin. Patents are protected in Mexico for a period of 20 years from the date of filing. Certain products, variations and microbiological, are all eligible for patents. Patents are protected in Mexico for a period of 20 years from the date of filing.
Patents will be issued for all processes and products, including chemicals, alloys, pharmaceuticals, foods, beverages, and biotechnology and plant varieties. Inventions patented abroad and not yet produced or imported in to Mexico, also qualify for national patents. Trademarks are protected in Mexico for a period of 10 years, renewable for successive 10-year terms. No previous use in commerce is required, and a simple document is considered sufficient proof of use for renewal. Formal approval is no longer necessary in franchise agreements, including the transfer of technical and managerial know-how.
The tatterdemalions form is recognized as a trademark and protection is granted to collective trademarks. The LAD, as amended in December 1996, recognizes copyright in literacy, scientific, technical, Juridical, pedagogical, photographic, pictorial, musical, architectural and cinematographic works, and expressly recognizes computer software as a copyrightable work. Mexico is a signatory of the Universal Copyright Convention and the Bern Convention. The Law does not require works to be registered in Mexico to secure copyright protection. It establishes an optional registration procedure.
Computer software may be registered by depositing the first and last ten pages of a written version of the source or object code with the Copyright Office. (White, 2010) E. Social organizations 9. Social classes Wide gaps in wealth, social status, and educational levels exist across different regions of Mexico. In the sass many definite classes of well-educated and affluent elite arouse These classes are a complete opposite of the vast majority of the rural and urban poor, many of who still live in poverty and related socio-economic hardships.
In between these two classes is the middle class whose conditions have to changed much even in the cities. The worst off are the rural landless poor who live on low daily wages. They are in direct contrast to a growing breed of wealthy farmers who own most of the agricultural land and resources and therefore garner most of Mexico agricultural income. (Hillier, 2009) 10. Clubs, other organizations Mexico has many distinct clubs and organizations from athletic clubs to networking groups.
Most of the clubs and organizations in Mexico are founded along the lines of nationality, and they generally give special attention to the needs of newcomers to Mexico. (McIntyre, 2009) 1. Race, ethnicity, and subcultures The largest ethnic group in Mexico is the Messiest who are of mixed Spanish and Messiest is the indigenous population who largely retain their sense of distinct identity. The Mexican government recognizes 56 different indigenous groups and these cultures that have survived largely because of their rural isolation.
These people are generally poor and their main wealth is traditional and spiritual and their way of life filled with communal customs and rituals. The largest indigenous group is the Nah, descendants of the Aztec. There are at least 1. 7 million Natural beakers. There are approximately 1 million Maya speakers, 500,000 Capote's, 500,000 Mixtures, 260,000 -rotators and 130,000 purchases. (Paulsen, 2008) F. Business customs and practices In Mexico City, business hours are generally 10:00 a. M. To 8:00 p. M. , with time out for a lengthy lunch between 2:30 and 5:00 p. M.
In the north, particularly in Monterrey, work hours conform more to U. S. Practice. Factories also tend to get started earlier. Breakfast, usually beginning at 8:00 or 8:30 a. M. , has become a popular meal for business meetings and lasts no more than one hour. When inviting Mexican contacts or a meal, keep in mind that a breakfast is a setting for getting down to business, whereas a lunch is more of a social event. Because lunch is the main meal of the day, it tends to be much longer, social in nature and quite filling. At times, an important business lunch can last into the early evening.
Dinner is generally a lighter meal eaten after 9:00 p. M. And is not considered an appropriate time for business. Mexicans usually have three names. On a business card, these are presented in the following order: first name, paternal family name and maternal family name. In addressing someone, you should use the paternal family name. For instance, Sir. Pablo Gomez Ortega would be addressed as Sir. Gomez. Increasingly, Mexicans are abbreviating their maternal family name. In such cases, the name would appear as Sir. Pablo Gomez O. In other cases, the maternal name is dropped altogether.
Take the lead from your Mexican contacts before switching to a first-name basis. Most first-time visitors to Mexico try to crowd in too many appointments per day. As a rule of thumb, make no more than four appointments a day. Don't get down to business immediately. "Small talk" is important. It shows that you're not in a hurry and that o are interested in your Mexican host. It can also lead to a long friendship and business relationship. Mexican companies, many of which are family run, are extremely hierarchical. Decision-making is not usually delegated.
Make sure that you get to know the real decision-maker in a company. V. Religion and aesthetics Religion plays an important role in Mexican culture and the majority of the population is Roman Catholic. The Mexican Catholic Church's most important symbol is Muenster Senora De Guadalupe, a dark-skinned version of the Virgin Mary who appeared too Mexican Indian in 1531 on a hill near Mexico City. Today her name is invoked in religious ceremonies, political speeches and literature. Indian Christianity is closely related to ancient beliefs.
The early missionaries won over the indigenous celebrated. Acceptance of the new religion was helped by the appearance of the Virgin of Guadalupe in 1531. In the traditional Indian world almost everything has a spiritual dimension - animals, trees, rivers, wind, rain, sun and hills have their own gods or spirits. And these may be invoked in ancient ceremonies for their own purposes. A very small percentage of other religions are also practiced in Mexico including Protestantism and Judaism. Roman Catholic: 76. 5%, Protestant: 5. 2% (Pentecostal 1. 4%, other 3. %), Jehovah Witness: 1 . 1%, other 0. 3%, Unspecified: 13. 8%, none 3. 1%. (Paulsen, 2008) B. Aesthetics 1 . Visual arts (fine arts, plastics, graphics, public art, colors, etc. ) Mexico is known for its folk art traditions. The art before Columbian art thrived over a wide timescale, from 1800 BC to AD 1500. Certain artistic characteristics were repeated throughout the region, namely a preference for angular, linear patterns, and three-dimensional ceramics. Notable handicrafts include clay pottery from the alley of Cacao and the village of Tonal.
Colorful embroidered cotton garments, cotton or wool shawls and outer garments, and colorful baskets and rugs are seen everywhere. Mexico is also known for its pre-Columbian architecture, especially for public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures. Between the Spanish colonial era and the early 20th century, Mexican arts were largely influenced by European traditions. After the Revolution, a new generation of Mexican artists led a vibrant national movement that combined political, historic, and folk themes in their work.
The painters Diego Riviera, Joss Clement Rocco, David Alfalfa Queries became world famous for their murals, often displaying clear social messages. Ruffian Tomato and Friday Kohl formed more personal works with abstract elements. Mexican art photography largely fostered by the work of Manuel Г?leaver Bravo. Music is an important element of Mexico culture as well. As with other cultural characteristics, Mexico music combines traditional elements with colonial influences and continues to be shaped today. Corridor have been popular since colonial times; they are ballads telling stories of heroes, historical legends or even romances.
Other common musical styles include ranchers and mariachi, all of which have elements that can be seen in Mexico modern pop music. Mexico literary history runs largely parallel to its political and colonial history - from the myths of the Maya and Aztec, to the colonial writings of Spanish settlers and missionaries, to a decline in arts and literature in the 18th Century due to political upheaval, to a flowering of literature following the Mexican Revolution. (Alveolar, 2009) 3. Performing Arts are often full of musicians and dancers, while cafes and restaurants commonly host live music at all times of day.
Performances of native dance and ritual can be seen in the city's public squares, and theatre is common, often found in churches and storefronts in addition to the city's numerous small theatres. (Alveolar, 2009) 4. Folklore and relevant symbols Mexico has hundreds of different stories that teach a lesson known as "Mexican Folklore. " There seem to be a number of different stories for each individual holiday. Currently new stories and folklore symbols are still being created to teach kids specific principles. VI. Living conditions Over the last decade Mexico has made considerable progress in the country's living conditions.
Mexico is not considered a third world country though the country's living conditions are well below average. According to the COED index, Mexico ranks low in many life index topics relative to most other countries. COED also states that the average income per person is equivalent to $11,106 dollars a year. This is lower than the average COED average of $22,387. This may not seem incredibly low, yet the top 20% of the population earn thirteen times as much as the bottom 20%. 60% of the people aged 15-64 in Mexico have paid Jobs which is lower than the average 66%. A. Diet and nutrition: Food in Mexico derives from old cultural backgrounds.
These backgrounds being Mexico true indigenous people, the Aztec, Maya, and Capote. Their diet was more vegetarian eating mainly vegetables. Their meat intake was mainly from hunting of wild turkey, rabbit, deer, and quail. It wasn't till Spanish explorers landed in Mexico and introduced livestock which included cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, and chickens. 1 . Meat and vegetable consumption rates Mexico is part of many other Latin American countries that are experiencing a rapid rise of obesity and other diseases. Other diseases like chronic diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases.
According to Wolfram Alpha, the average Mexican consumes 24 pounds of beans every year, and consumes 40 pounds of beef per year. The average U. S. Citizen consumes over 90 pounds of beef per year. This is more than double Mexico consumption. (Wolfram, 2012) 2. Typical meals What we know as Mexican food is more of an American Mexican mix. What some consider true authentic Mexican food here in the United states is actually considered to be northern Mexico food. Typical meals in Mexico consist of corn and flour based substance. Other main food sources consist of been, potato, eggs, and cheese. (Food