Ketene O usually the energy in the body is provided by the carbohydrates consumed. But when thru is lack of carbohydrates as seen in prone rich diets, the energy is derived from the fat metabolism. The fat metabolism products (stones) accumulate In the blood and are released In the urine called kettleful. RUB O if present indicates bleeding (hematite) Blurring O if present may indicate hepatitis ,cirrhosis, gallstones depending on the amount present. Test details Sample collection : Mid stream urine Is collected as a sample. Discard the 1st part of urine stream. Sample should be an early morning sample. Observation:

Dour - odorless or slight "nutty"odor. Tests : Specific gravity : Use a refractors. Urine Specific gravity is calculated against the specific gravity of distilled water (specific gravity of water = 1) open the flap at the end of the refractors and put a drop of urine on to the glass plate and close the flap. Hold it high under the natural light. Reading : Look for the point where the contrast line (difference between the dark and light areas) crosses the scale Measurement : 1 . 003-1 . 030 pH : 5-7 Urine is slightly acidic in general. Test using Litmus paper / pH test strips. Glucose Not present in the normal urine.

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Test using Benedicts solution. Take the sample and add into it ml of Benedicts solution in a test tube. Heat the test tube for a few minutes and observe the color change. If you see a red/orange/green/yellow precipitate the test shows presence of Glucose. Protein : Not present in Normal urine. Heat coagulation test: fill 2/3rd off ml Test tube with the urine sample. Heat the upper part in the flame. It will be turbid or hazy due to the presence of protein or phosphate. Now add few drops of 5% acetic acid into the heated part of the urine. If the coagula haziness persists or is augmented it is due to the presence of protein. It disappears it is due to the presence of phosphate. Ketene : not present generally Ketene strips are available. Dip the strip and check for the color change. Compare this color change with the grade shade chart available. Orb's : Check for the presence of Red blood cells in the urine sample under the microscope. Today we use a plastic stick to perform the urinalysis. It has a series of absorbent paper pads attached to it containing chemicals that react to the substance present in the urine. The substance in the urine will change the color on the pad. The color change is Read on a color chart provided.