The assessment of HRS begins with environmental analysis, under which the external (PEST) and internal (objectives, resources and structure) are analyzed to assess the currently available HRS inventory level. After the analysis of external and internal forces of the organization, it will be easier for HRS manager to find out the internal strengths as well as weakness of the organization In one hand and opportunities and threats on the other. 2. Demand Forecasting HRS forecasting Is the process of estimating demand for and supply of HRS In an organization.
Demand forecasting Is a process of determining future needs for HRS In ERM of quantity and quality. It is done to meet the future personnel requirements of the organization to achieve the desired level of output. 3. Supply Forecasting Supply is another side of human resource assessment. It is concerned with the estimation of supply of manpower given the analysis of current resource and future availability of human resource in the organization. It estimates the future sources of HRS that are likely to be available from within an outside the organization. 4. Matching Demand And Supply It is another step of human resource planning.
It Is concerned with bringing the recast of future demand and supply of HRS. The matching process refers to bring demand and supply In an equilibrium position so that shortages and over staffing position will be solved. In case of shortages an organization has to hire more required number of employees. 5. Action Plan shortages of human resource.. The major activities which are required to execute the HRS plan are recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, colonization etc. Finally, this step is followed by control and evaluation of performance of HRS to check whether the HRS planning matches the HRS objectives and policies.
Question 2. What are the factors affecting recruitment? What are the sources of recruitment? Answer : Recruitment- is defined as a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them apply for Jobs in the organization. Recruitment is defined as, "a process to discover the sources manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce. The following are the 2 important factors affecting Recruitment:- 1) INTERNAL FACTORS Recruiting policy Temporary and part-time employees Recruitment of local citizens Engagement of the company in HRS Company's size Cost of recruitment Company's growth and expansion 2) EXTERNAL FACTORS Supply and Demand factors Unemployment Rate Labor-market conditions Political and legal considerations Social factors Economic factors Technological factors SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT: The sources of recruitment may be broadly divided into two categories: internal sources internally sources : Internal Sources: Persons who are already working in an organization constitute the 'internal employees may elocutionists the internal sources. Whenever any vacancy arises, someone from within theorization is upgraded, transferred, promoted or even demoted. External Sources: External sources lie outside an organization.
Here the organization can have the services of :(a) Employees working in other organizations;(b) Jobs aspirants registered with employment exchanges;(c) Students from reputed educational institutions;(d) Candidates referred by unions, friends, relatives and existing employees;(e) Candidates forwarded by search firms and contractors;(f) Candidates responding to the advertisements, issued by the organization; and(g) Unsolicited applications/ walk- Question 3. What are the main objectives of training? Explain on-the Job and off the job training. I Answer: Training : Organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or instructions to improve the recipient's performance or to help him or her attain a required level of knowledge or skill.
Main Objectives of Training Programmer : I) To impart to new entrants basic knowledge and skills, it) To assist the employees to function more effectively in their present position by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing in them the skills required in their fields, ii) To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them as a part of their career progression to occupy more responsible positions. Iv) To broaden the minds of the senior managers by providing them opportunities for interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correct the narrow outlook that may arise from over specialization. (v) To impart customer education. Trainings in an organization can be divided to two broad types: trainings and 2. Off-the-Job trainings 1 . On-the-Job On-the-Job trainings - are given to the employees while they are conducting their regular works at the same places. In this way they do not lose time while they are training or learning.
After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed about the details. Their progress. On-the-Job training techniques include orientations, Job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships, assistantships, Job rotation and coaching. Off- the-Job training - techniques include lectures, special study, audio visual conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instructions, and laboratory trainings. Most of these techniques are too costly. Methods of trainings an be basically divided to four types, namely, a. The telling method b. The showing method c. The role playing method d. The discussion technique Question 4. Define performance management.
Write a brief note on 360 degree appraisal. Answer: Performance Management- is a process for establishing a shared workforce understanding about what is to be achieved at an organization level. It is about aligning the organizational objectives with the employees' agreed measures, skills, competency requirements, development plans and the delivery of results. The emphasis is on improvement, learning and development in order to achieve the verbal business strategy and to create a high performance workforce. Meaning of 360 degree appraisal - 360-degree feedback is a feedback process where not Just your superior but your peers and direct reports and sometimes even customers evaluate you.
Its main objective usually is to assess training and development needs and to provide competence-related information for succession planning not promotion or pay increase. Also called multi-rater assessment, multi-source assessment, multi-source feedback. Feedback from multiple sources : The six parties involved in 360 degree appraisal are :- 1. Top Management The top management normally evaluates the middle level managers. However, in a small organization, they also evaluate the performance of the lower level managers and senior employees. 2. Immediate Superior The immediate superior is in a very good position to evaluate the performance of his subordinates. This is because they have direct and accurate information about the work performance of their subordinates. . Peers / Co-workers Peer or colleagues also evaluate each other's performance. They work continuously with each other, and they know each other's performance. Peer evaluation is used costly in cases where team work is important. 4. Subordinates The Subordinates can also evaluate the performance of his superior. Now-a-days students are asked to evaluate the performance of their teachers. 5. Self Appraisal In the self-appraisal, a person evaluates his own performance. He should be honest while evaluating himself. This results in self-development. 6. Customers Customers can also evaluate the performance of the employees who interacts with them.
This evaluation is best because it is objective. It is also given a lot of importance because the customer is the most important person for the business. Nakedness of their employees. In addition to these six parties, appraisal can also be done by an Appraisal Panel. This panel consists of 5 to 6 different types of members. Outside Consultants are also used for conducting appraisals. In some cases, Personnel Department also conducts an appraisal of employees and managers. Question 5. What is meant by Job analysis? Explain its purpose and methods. Answer: Meaning: -A Job may be defined as a sum total of tasks, duties and responsibilities which is assigned to individual employees.
After definition of Job, HRS manager needs to undertake Job analysis. Job analysis is the starting point of recruitment and selection. It is a systematic process of collecting and studying information about the various Jobs in the organization. Purpose of Job Analysis Analysis plays an important role in following areas : * Recruitment and Selection: Job Analysis helps in determining what kind of person is required to perform a particular Job. It points out the educational qualifications, level of experience and technical, physical, emotional and personal skills required to carry out a Job in desired fashion. The objective is to fit a right person at a right place.
Performance Analysis: Job analysis is done to check if goals and objectives of a particular Job are met or not. It helps in deciding the performance standards, evaluation criteria and individual's output. On this basis, the overall performance of an employee is measured and he or she is appraised accordingly. * Training and Development: Job Analysis can be used to assess the training and development needs of employees. The difference between the expected and actual output determines the level of training that need to be imparted to employees. It also helps in deciding the training intent, tools and equipments to be used to conduct training and methods of training. Compensation Management: Of course, Job analysis plays a vital role in deciding the pay packages and extra perks and benefits and fixed and variable incentives of employees. After all, the pay package depends on the position, Job title and duties and responsibilities involved in a Job. The process guides HRS managers in deciding the worth of an employee for a particular Job opening. * Job Designing and Redesigning: The main purpose of Job analysis is to streamline the human efforts and get the best possible output. It helps in designing, redesigning, enriching, evaluating and also cutting back and adding the extra responsibilities in a particular job. This is done to enhance the employee satisfaction while increasing the human output.
Common methods of Job analysis :observation: A trained observer observes a worker, recording what the worker does, how the work is done, and how long it takes. Interview: A trained Job analyst interviews a Job incumbent, usually utilizing a standardized format. Sometimes more than one worker is interviewed, and the results are aggregated. Another variation is the group interview, where several incumbents are interviewed at the same time. Critical Incident: Behaviorally based critical incidents are used to describe work, and a Job analyst determines the degree of each behavior that is present or absent in the Job. Diary: The Job incumbent records activities and tasks in a log as they are performed. Hecklers: A worker or supervisor check items on a standardized task inventory that apply to the Job. Checklists may be custom-made or purchased from an outside vendor. Questionnaire: There are two types of questionnaires: The structured questionnaire uses a supervisors may identify as related to the Job. I Question 6. ND objectives of employee welfare measures? What are the benefits Employee welfare- means "the efforts to make life worth living for workmen. " According to Todd "employee welfare means anything done for the comfort and improvement, intellectual or social, of the employees over and above the wages paid which is not a necessity of the industry. " Benefits of employee welfare measures : 1 .
They provide better physical and mental health to workers and thus promote a healthy work environment Facilities like housing schemes, medical benefits, and education and recreation facilities for workers' families help in raising their tankards of living. 2. Employers get stable labor force by providing welfare facilities. Workers take active interest in their Jobs and work with a feeling of involvement and participation. Objectives of employee welfare measures : 1. To increase the standard of living of the. Working class: The laborer is more prone to exploitation from the capitalists if there is no standardized way of looking after their welfare. 2.
To make the management feel the employees are satisfied about the work and working conditions. 3. To recognize human values Every person has his own personality and needs to be recognized and developed. It is in the hands of the management to shape them and help them grow. The management employs various methods to recognize each one's worth as an individual and as an asset to the organization. 4. Labor Welfare helps to foster a sense of responsibility in the industry: A person works both in a group and as an individual. If the person is given responsibility he will act better or else he will be only a slave to the direction of the superiors and will not show any initiative to prove his worth, 5.
Labor Welfare improves industrial relations and reduces industrial disputes: Industrial dispute in any industry is a sign of unsatisfied employees. Labor Welfare measures act as a preventive tool to most of these disputes. 6. To retain the employees There should be fixed policies: This calls in to prepare the policies, to conduct different training programmer, to have various motivational schemes, to create interest in the Job. The employees who feel secure in an organization, backed by fixed welfare policies have less chance of looking for a Job elsewhere. 7. To show up their positive mind in the work: Positive mind refers to the development of one's attitudes. This is to change the negative attitude into positive.