Yen Pam Summary for Journal of Consumer Research- Article "How Males and Females Differ in Their Likelihood of Transmitting Negative Word of Mouth" Word-of-mouth (WHOM) is the informal communication by consumers about their evaluations of goods and services to other consumers. Negative WHOM (NOON), typically arising from a dissatisfactory consumption experience. The given Information the article found was that consumers may be more likely to transmit NOON to those to whom they have strong ties. Research also shows that WHOM between strong ties (e. G. Emily members and close friends) Is more common and more persuasive than between weak ties. Similarly, research suggests that consumers are less likely to complain about a service provider with whom they have strong (as opposed to weak) ties. On the other hand, people may be less likely to transmit NOON if they are concerned that doing so will hurt their image in the eyes of the NOON recipient. Individuals are likely to consider the personal benefits and costs when deciding whether to engage in NOON as well as the impact on the recipient off message.
The perceived social costs of NOON are likely to be heightened when consumers have high-image-impairment concern. In addition, for strong ties in society, the social bond between individuals will offset the effect of image-impairment concern on NOON. For weak ties, image-impairment concern will increase; therefore there will be less NOON. Based on the given information, the article then did another experiment in order to find out the difference of Joint effect of image-impairment concern and tie strength on NOON transmission between males and females.
A marketing research therefore id a sample from its online panel, using 425 surveys of consumers experiencing negative product or service performance. Participants in this study are a diverse cross section of US consumers. The results strongly support hypothesis. As predicted, they find a significant three- way Interaction among tie strength, image-impairment concern, and sex. For more specific, for females, the effect of image-Impalement concern on NOON transmission likelihood Is stronger for weak ties than for strong ties.
In contrast, for males, there Is no relationship between Image-Impalement concern and tie strength on NOON remission likelihood. The researcher also wants to find out whether the difference between males and females In NOON Is based on the reason that males have a higher relative concern for self than females or not. Therefore, they created two more studies. Study two was conducted in order to see whether the joint effect of image-impairment concern and tie strength depends on whether consumers have a greater relative concern for others or for self or not.
Study three was to confirm the consistency between study For study 2, the sample was taken from 151 undergraduates from University of Texas, San Antonio, participated for course credit. The researcher found out that the Joint effect of image-impairment concern and tie strength depends on whether consumers have a greater relative concern for others or for self. When consumers have a greater relative concern for others, they will be affected by the tie strength and image- impairment concern. On the other hand, when consumers have a greater relative concern for self, they won't be significantly affected.
Self-construal is the extent to which people perceive themselves to be linked (or not) with other people. People with an independent self-construal are more likely to have a relatively strong concern for self, while those with an interdependent self-construal are more likely to have a relatively strong concern for others. In the study 3, the researcher wanted to see the Joint effect of tie strength and image-impairment concern holds true for consumers with an interdependent self-construal but not for those with an independent self-construal.
AS market research firm, The Response Center, used probability sampling from its online panel of US adult consumers to obtain 300 usable surveys of consumers experiencing negative product or service performance. Consumers in this panel are different from the consumers surveyed in study 1 . The study proved that for consumers with an interdependent self-construal care more about their image and relationship strength, while consumers with an independent self-construal care less.
Because there is consistence in study 1, 2, 3, the researcher therefore can claim that females and consumers with an interdependent construal will tell NOON more with people who are close to them, or with whom they don't concern much about keeping hey image; while males and individuals with an independent self-construal concerning about themselves will tell equal amount of NOON, regardless of how their image looks like or on how they are close to people.
However, the article also mentioned that their studies may be conceptually related to a variety of contexts such as public and private consumption, individual and group decision, etc.. Results from their studies may also provide insight into the impact of culture on NOON transmission. To the extent that cultures differ in the degree to which they may be more self-focused or other-focused, NOON transmission may vary as well.