You must produce a product/ revive, then price it to sell it, promote it and there must be a place/market to sell it. There are several different ways of categorizing the mix and the marketing mix has an infinite amount of combination of mixes. For a product to be successful, the final combination of the core product along with price, promotion and distribution need to work together. It can be said that Pitfall has successfully blended their marketing mix; this can be confirmed by the response from their targeted market according to the analysis done by NYPD Market Research Company.

NYPD analysis of the segment shows its homeland growth: Sale in the department stores, national chain, shoe chain and athletic specialty/ sporting goods channel rose from $17 million in 2008 to a staggering $145 million in 2009. "It's no surprise then that Pitfall - branded footwear has hit a nerve with customers. " Marketing mix consists of everything the firm can do to influence the demand for its product, Kettle and Armstrong (2001 :67). The many possibilities can be collected into four groups of variables known as the ups: product, price, place and promotion. PRODUCT Pitfall possesses "a scientific substantiation of the fitness claim.

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The Pitfall sandals are said to increase leg, calf and glutei muscle activity, improve muscle tone and stimulates aspects of barefoot walking but with more muscle load, among other benefits. Pitfall states that its products are biomedical engineered to help tone and tighten leg muscle while you walk in them. These perks can be attributed to Pitfall's manufacturing process. Pitfall is made out of unique, global, patent-bending Microwaveable technology. Its triple-density EVA middle increases the time your muscle are engaged every single time you take a step. Price

Although the case study is silent about the pricing of Pitfall it is stated that "those who pony up their hard earned cash for this type of footwear have particular requirements of the brand they ultimately rely on to tone their tootsies. " According to Michael Can't (2010:165) "Price is an important element because it generates revenue... The marketer will need to establish the price sensitivity of the target consumer and establish the basic price on the basis of costs, demand for the product and the basis of competitive pricing structures. Promotion Pitfall was the first in the toning sandal category and got a really good leg in there.

While there's always going to be some competition, Pitfall Just plan on doing it better and continuing to listen to their customers. " Pitfall uses an integrated marketing and advertising campaign that includes bus wraparounds, subway cards, outdoor billboards, phone kiosks, and print advertising in both the U. K. And the United States. There's cross-promotion via Kilgore other empires as well: Visitors can purchase Pitfalls directly on the Bliss website, and moisturizer shoppers can read news about the footwear brand on the Soap and Glory site.

Pitfall also uses social media extensively, which the brand mainly employs through Faceable where they have product name competitions, spot the Pitfall bus, ask Where have your Pitfalls been this weekend? And so forth. Pitfall has more than 7,800 fans on their Faceable page. The brand also sponsors individual Pitfall pages all over the world. As of June 2010 Pitfall had 37,500 and counting, Philippines fans on Faceable page. Ironically, despite 'Fit' being a swear word in Swedish, that Just made Pitfall a more interesting and intriguing concept," in Scandinavia.

Pitfall keep the conversation going with its mainly female audience through Faceable and Twitter where the company try to involve people and ask them what they want, e. G. Which shoe they like best or which color? " Pitfall also make use of social media in order to convince customers to like something by showing it to them over a period of time, which is a great social experiment they do on Faceable: Show them a product that's maybe a little radical, and at first everyone hates it. Then show it again in a month, and half of them want it. Finally, show it one more month later, and 90 percent of them say, Where can I get it now?

Women are Pitfall's core demographic however the brand started branching out to include men's footwear and children's footwear. Women are often the decision makers in the family, and they tell their husbands, You really need to get a pair of these. ' With regards to children, Pitfall realized that they been overlooking a demographic that might need such a shoe more than any other segment for the reason that when children's feet aren't put into the right positions as they're growing and developing, it's actually a more serious problem than in an adult's foot, consequently Pitfall developed multiversity sandals for children.

According to the case study, Pitfall's marketing mix involved three AS: Product, place and promotion. From the buyer's view the ups can be considered as sac's. See the relation below: Customer's Solution Price Product Customer's cost Place Convenience Communication Literature, R. F. Wisped free encyclopedia, 2011, proposed a sac's model which is more consumer oriented and attempts to better fit the movement from mass marketing to niche marketing. Customer's Solution: Value solution to a problem. ;In a busy woman's lifestyle, there seem to be no time for exercise. Women feel teeter when they are proactive and they like to be in shape. ;It is not only woman who have issues with their knee, heel and lower back pain. ;The children's feet need to be put into the right position as they are growing and developing. ;From a customer's point of view Pitfall has a solution to these problems. Customer's Cost: Customers are more interested in more than the price; they are interested in the total cost of obtaining the product, using and disposing of the product, Maniocs Workbook ).

Pitfall's customers pony up their hard-earned cash for this type of footwear 2011 : that has particular requirements of the brand they ultimately rely on to tone their tootsies. Convenience: Customers want their product to be as conveniently available as possible. With Pitfall customers also have an option to purchase the product directly on the Bliss website. Communication: Customers want two ways communication. Pitfall uses Faceable and Twitter to keep the conversation going with its main female audience. Men are also writing to Pitfall through social media.

Conclusion The case study illustrates that Marcia Kilgore successfully applied the Letterboxes Co's to influence trade channels and final consumers. Pitfall set on an ambitious mission to provide a stylish shoe that would both tone and perhaps also alleviate common foot issues. An effective marketing program blends all of the marketing mix elements into a coordinated program designed to achieve the company's marketing objectives by delivering value to customer, Kettle and Armstrong (2001:68). Question 2 Explain how Pitfall divides a market into segment and how the firm chooses the most attractive target market.

Market segmentation divides a market into distinct group of buyers on the basis of deeds, characteristics, or behavior who might require separate products or marketing mix, Kettle and Armstrong(2001 :64) Companies cannot connect with all... ,Kettle and Keller,(2009:247). Kettle and Keller (2009:248) confirms that a market consist of a group of customers who share a similar set of needs and wants. It is the marketer's task to identify the segment and decide which one(s) to target Maniocs workbook, (MM 13).

Due to the fact that buyers are many, widely scattered and their needs and buying practices vary, it is not wise to compete in the entire market. Rather, it is advisable for company to identify the market that they can serve best and profitably. As stated in the Knotty's. Com website, an organization needs to "choose the segment that fits best with the organization's objectives. " This is further emphasized by Stoker and Armstrong (2001:245) who states that Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment's attractiveness and selecting one or more segment to enter.

Kettle and Armstrong (2001:245) further highlights that there are three major steps in target marketing, biz market segmenting, market targeting and Market positioning. There is no single way to segment a market therefore it is necessary for marketers to try different segmentation variables to find the best way to view the market structure. The major variables for market structure are: geographic, demographic, cryptographic and behavioral. Pitfall divided its market segment into cryptographic and demographic segments.

CRYPTOGRAPHIC: Fit flop has managed to psychologically convince buyers to like their brand. When asked what would have the greatest impact on their decision to purchase a pair, 65% of respondents stated that "a scientific substantiation of the tiniest claims" was number one. DEMOGRAPHIC: Pitfall's main focus was demographic and it based its market on gender and age. Gender: Pitfall wants to offer a solution to the time starved female population to squeeze a workout in when their normal daily schedule would not otherwise allow it. The aim is to make it easier for them to tone their lower body.

The NYPD study found that awareness about toning footwear is higher among women (62% to men's 37%), and that women were twice as likely as men to own a pair of toning shoes (6% to 3%),however there's been an upswing in men purchasing this type of footwear. Consumers can head over to the "Our Range" section on the Pitfall site and select the "gender" tab for appropriate selection. Age: Inspired by her five and half year old son Kilgore started looking into the structure of children's feet and was dismayed that they been overlooking a demographic that might need such a shoe more than any other segment. When children's feet aren't put into the right positions as they're growing and developing, it's actually a more serious problem than in an adult's foot," she explains. Pitfall therefore created a multiversity sandal which stimulates as if the child is barefoot n soft ground. Pitfall identified segments within the overall market and then chose the ones that best fit with the company's objectives and goals. The product aims at bringing a solution for a woman with a busy lifestyle to keep fit. As stated in their tagging "Get a workout while you walk" Pitfall developed a marketing strategy that appeals to the selected target. It's no surprise then that Pitfall - branded footwear has hit a nerve with customers. " As affirmed in Knotty's. Com website "to an organization, a market can only exist if the solution sought by customers are ones that the company can attics with their offerings. " Every marketer's dream is to discover some huge untapped or undeserved segment of customers and develop a killer offering for them. But segmentation strategies often fail because marketers cast their nets too widely and try to capture overly large, amorphous customer groups.

By trying to satisfy them all, companies end up creating watered-down offerings that fail to wow a core group of loyalties. Marker, Tot and Du Kit (2007:33) Pitfall wanted to create a great-looking sandal that double-task as a lower-body toner-?the aim was to make it easier for the time-starved female population to squeeze a workout in when their normal daily schedules wouldn't otherwise allow it. Furthermore, a pain-free, affordable option to keeping in shape was on the agenda. Women are Pitfall's core demographic.

Organizations that excel at segmentation enlist their customer's help to anticipate shifts in direction and get a Jump on their competitors, Marker, Tot and Du Kit (2007:36). Pitfall uses social media extensively. Nerdy early in our life cycle, men started writing to us saying, 'My wife loves her Pitfalls-?what about miner. Pitfall realized it wasn't Just women who had issues with knee and heel and lower back main. The company tested a few men's sandals a couple of years ago, and it's been growing ever since. While there's always going to be some competition, Pitfall plans on doing it better and continuing to listen to their customers.

Pitfall used what is called Design Target - "the group that your company comes to understand so completely that when you design products and services for them, they sat 'This is absolutely perfect for me'. " Marker, Tot and Du Kit (2007:33). In the NYPD study that asked what impacted consumers' toning shoe purchases, 64 percent of respondents indicated "a brand name I know and trust. The Design Target is the "bull's eye" and can strongly influence other consumers. "Women are often the decision makers in the family, and they tell their husbands, You really need to get a pair of these. Pitfall's market segment is measurable:"Sales in the department store, national chain, shoe chain, and athletic specialty/sporting goods channels rose from $17 million in 2008 to a staggering $145 million in 2009", substantial:"women are Pitfall's core demographic Women are often the decision makers in the family, and they tell their husbands, You really need to get a pair of these;" accessible: "There's cross- rumination via Kilgore other empires as well: Visitors can purchase Pitfalls directly on the Bliss website, and moisturizer shoppers can read news about the footwear brand on the Soap and Glory site," differentiable:"the brand started branching out to include men's footwear in 2008 and children's footwear in 2010," and actionable: "We use social media quite extensively," says Anemia. "We'll have product name competitions, spot the Pitfall bus, ask Where have your Pitfalls been this weekend? And so forth. " Question 3 Discuss how Pitfall brand equity is managed and which branding strategies are used o develop Pitfall offerings to various customers.

A brand is a product or service that adds dimensions that differentiate it in some way from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need, Kettle and Keller (2009:276). As the company's major enduring asset, a brand needs to be carefully managed so that it does not depreciate, Kettle and Keller (2009:293). The fundamental asset underlying brand equity is customer equity. This suggests that the proper focus of marketing planning is that of extending loyal customer lifetime value, Kettle and Keller (2009:302). To build as much brand equity as possible, it is important that marketers choose brand elements, biz Memorable: Pitfall is easily recalled and recognized. Brand can signal a certain level of quality so that satisfied buyers can easily choose the product again, Maniocs workbook (2011 :129).

In the NYPD study that asked what impacted consumers' toning shoe purchases, 64 percent of respondents indicated "a brand name I know and trust. " The Maniocs workbook, (2011:130) emphasize that brand equity is reflected in how consumers think, feel and act with respect to the brand. Branding is a powerful means to secure competitive advantage. Meaningful: The Pitfall footwear brand (whose tagging is "Get a workout while you walk") provides a stylish shoe that would both tone and perhaps also alleviate common foot issues. According to market research company NYPD Group on its "Toning/Shaping Footwear-Benchmark Study," which examined the attitudes and behaviors of both owners and non-owners of toning and shaping footwear.

When asked what would have the greatest impact on their decision to purchase a pair, 65% of respondents stated that "a scientific substantiation of the fitness claims" was number one. This indicates the name suggest something about the product. Likable: The word "Fit" in Pitfall does evoke imagery. Those who pony up their hard- earned cash for this type of footwear have particular requirements of the brand they ultimately rely on to tone their tootsies. Transferable: Since its initial offerings in the summer sandal category, Pitfall has successfully expanded into winter boots, clogs, sheepskin slippers and more glamorous sequined sandals that can be worn for more opulent occasions.

Adaptable: Upon realizing that it wasn't Just women who had issues with knee and heel and lower back pain. Pitfall tested a few men's sandals a couple of years ago, and it's been growing ever since. " Predictable: Kilgore asserts that Pitfall has successfully proven itself to its customers and will continue to do so. "First, we're not as small a company as people may think we are," she says. "We were also first in the [toning] sandals category and got a really good leg in there. And we have a hugely loyal following. While there's always going to be some competition, we Just plan on doing it better and continuing to listen to our customers. " Pitfall is not the only company that's ventured into toning territory: MBA,

Trim Treads, Rebook, and Checkers have all flooded the market with sandals, sneakers, and trainers that promise to lift your buns, give you better posture, and improve circulation however pitfall has a huge loyal following. A brand is said to have positive customer based brand equity when consumers react more favorably to a product and the way it is marketed when the brand is identified as compared to when it is not, Maniocs workbook (2011 :130). Pitfall uses an integrated marketing and advertising campaign that includes bus wraparounds, subway cards, outdoor billboards, phone kiosks, and print advertising n both the U. K. And the United States.

Brand knowledge consist of all thoughts, feelings, images, experiences and so on that becomes associated with the brand, Maniocs workbook (2011 has strong brand equity and this is confirmed by the fact that 64% of customers know and trust the brand; it has more than 7,800 fans on its Faceable page and more than 37,500 Philippines Faceable fans as of June 2010. As highlighted in the Maniocs workbook (2011 30), brand equity arises from differences in consumer response as a result of consumer's knowledge about the brand. Even though The NYPD research found that wariness about toning footwear is higher among women (62% to men's 37%), there has been an upswing in men purchasing this type of footwear.

The men's category shows the least penetration overall, but a particularly interesting finding is that once men are aware of this type of footwear, they own them at almost the same rate as women. Pitfall tested a few men's sandals a couple of years ago, and it has been growing ever since. CONCLUSION The six main criteria of choosing brand elements have been implemented by Pitfall in developing their brand equity. It is highly important to understand consumer rand knowledge because it is the foundation of brand equity. Kilgore is the driving force behind the Tweeter page. It is good that although she travels a lot she always send information to staff members to be put on line and she tells them what to write. Care should be taken when companies decide on brand extension.

Although brand extension facilitates new-product acceptance and provide positive feedback to the parent brand and company, it should be noted that, as stated in Kettle and Keller (2009:299) line extension may cause the brand name to be less strongly identified with any one product. Marketers must Judge each potential brand extension by how effectively it leverages the existing brand equity from the parent brand, Kettle and Keller (2009:300). Question 4 Explain why marketing research is so important for Floodlit. Marketing research is a systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific situation facing the company, Maniocs workbook (2011:57).

The main role of marketing research is to provide information that facilitates marketing decisions. Marketing is a science and art. Effective marketing require calculative planning and execution, thus marketing research is so important to Floodlit. People have endless wants. Wants turn to demands when one has buying power. Floodlit seeks to stimulate demands for its products and therefore it is essential for the company to conduct marketing research in order to make appropriate decisions. According to Kettle and Keller (2009:131-135), the marketing research process has six steps. Step 1: Define the problem, the decision alternative, and the research objectives.

This is the hardest step in the research process and thus the marketing manager & searcher must work closely together to define the problem carefully and they must agree on the research objectives as stated in Kettle & Armstrong (2001 :140). Management must be careful not to define the problem too broadly or too narrowly for the market researcher. Pitfall wanted to know what place exercise had in a busy woman's lifestyle and the aim was to make it easier for the time-starved female population to squeeze a workout in when their normal daily schedules wouldn't otherwise allow it. Furthermore, a pain-free, affordable option to keeping in shape was on the agenda. Step 2: Develop a research.

AS stated by Kettle and Keller (2006:105) at this stage that the manager needs to know the cost of the research plan before approving it. Depending on the objectives, the research can either be exploratory (seeking to shed light on the nature of the problem and suggest possible solutions or new ideas), descriptive (to ascertain certain magnitude), or casual (to test cost and effect relationship). Pitfall conducted an exploratory research, through a study of eight people in Malibu. Studies were also conducted with two different universities (Sailors University, Manchester, and LULUS). They made use of an incredible technologist and Pitfall have been placed on the American Pediatric Medical Association's list of approved flip flops for the summer.

According to Kettle & Armstrong (2001:141) this step calls for determining of information needed, developing a plan for gathering information efficiently and presenting the plan to marketing management. The authors further point out that the plan outlines sources of existing data and spells out the specific research approaches, contact methods, sampling plans, and instruments that researchers will use to gather data. Pitfall also entered a two-year partnership with the U. K. Overspent-funded Knowledge Transfer Partnership to better understand how their footwear can alleviate so many musculoskeletal complaints such as arthritis, scoliosis, plantar fascistic, back pain, etc. Step 3: Collect the information. It is important to collect all required data, but keep cost effectiveness in mind as stated in Steen F. R. L. N. (1998:18).

The NYPD study made the following findings: awareness about toning footwear is higher among women (62% to men's 37%), - women were twice as likely as men to own a pair of toning shoes (6% to 3%), - men's market could spell an interesting opportunity for shaping and toning footwear, - the en's category showed the least penetration overall, - an interesting finding was that once men became aware of this type of footwear, they owned them at almost the same rate as women. Step 4: Analyses the information. This is the step where the researcher extracts findings from the collected data Pitfall discovered the following additional findings: -It was not Just women who had issues with knee and heel and lower back pain. - When children's feet are not put into the right positions as they're growing and developing, it's actually a more serious problem than in an adult's foot. Step 5: Present the findings.

Kettle and Armstrong (2001 :1 53) indicates that this presentation should cover the management problems addressed and the research objectives, the information obtained, the sources of secondary or methods for collecting primary data, and the way the results will help management decision making as well as the research costs. ; The brand's footwear is "phonemically engineered to help tone and tighten leg muscles when you walk in them. ; Walking in Pitfall sandals is said to increase leg, calf, and glutens muscle activity; improve muscle tone; and simulate aspects of reboot walking but with more muscle load, among other benefits. ; Its triple-density EVA middle increases the time your muscles are engaged every single time one takes a step. ; Pitfall absorb up to 22% more shock than regular footwear. ; The multiversity effect in children's sandals simulates as if the child is walking barefoot on soft ground. The two year partnership with the U. K. Government-funded Knowledge Transfer Partnership will help Pitfall to better understand how the company can alleviate many musculoskeletal complaints such as arthritis, scoliosis, Step 6: Make the decision. Despite some doubts expressed by some members of the Medical and Fitness community about toning shoes- Pitfall stands by its claim that: Pitfall footwear has been proven to significantly reduce pressure hot spots in the heels and forefoot. Sixty five (65) percent of respondents stated that the scientific substantiation of the fitness claim of the toning/shaping shoe had a greatest impact on their decision to purchase a pair.