This is where technology steps in. Online classes have become a trend due to its new way of exposing diverse teaching techniques as well as revealing a new cultural experience via the internet. A large number of colleges and universities around the Korea are shifting traditional face-to-face classes into fully online, merged, or web- facilitated courses.
This is partly due to the need of top-caliber academic demands needed to maintain a competitive edge in making classes more reachable to a rowing and diverse student population. Additionally, online English teaching offers new and exciting opportunities in expanding learning growth and experience especially for Korean students. In a recent undergraduate study, students preferred online courses to the traditional classroom saying that they learned more in these classes, spent more time In on these classes, and found these classes to be more difficult yet of higher quality than traditional classes.
With an increased demand for online learning as well as the need for proper English education, this study opens for he diverse educational opportunities, collecting the possibilities of teaching English In a different way, connecting the world little-by-little through the use of technology in acquiring English education. Korea is down on the list when it comes to English education, and with that, through the convenience of distant learning, this may help them in gearing up as an individual to be globally competitive in terms of using English language, as the standard of all languages in global market.
This Is a sad fact that everyone knows about, but, this doesn't mean that this problem cannot be overcome. Through, online English teaching, these impediments can be broken down, promoting a learning environment where a diverse range of pedagogical practices are often characterized by active learning student-centered pedagogical techniques, In Korea, their English education system is taken very seriously. Because of the lack of the availability of native speakers to teach SSL and grammar-oriented classes, Koreans look to online education, private tutors or top private language institutions labeled as 'Hawkins' or 'English academies'.
There is a high demand for the availability of English Instructors. Because of that, there Is a boom of private institutions around the country as well as all over the world, because the needs for these instructors are unusually high. Because of this high demand, parent's of Korean students learning the English language have expectations that are so high, to the extent that the students' motivation and Interest to learn Is diminished. As this progresses on, students learning SSL will favor online classes more due to the fact that it is the most convenient way to learn. And because of there is a large number of
English Instructors online, the chances of acquiring quality English education Is huge. The first part Is a brief overview of English education In Korea. This Is followed by a summary on how online lessons are conducted in teaching English as a second language (SSL). Also, this paper gives an insight on the difficulties Korean students the general situation of the English language in Korea and secondly, to describe online teaching techniques and how it affects Korean learners of English. This study only encompasses the use of technology in teaching English language with a limited target of interest, which are, the Korean students.
These includes a theoretical background study about the English education in Korea, the use of diverse approaches in online teaching and a comparative study of traditional face-to-face classes and the online classes. At the end of this study, this paper will prove that online classes for Korean students learning SSL are not only conventional but highly effective for students of all ages. Nun-gong (2008) supposed that it was during 1883 when English language education was first introduced in Korea. This was when the Jones government opened an English language school to train interpreters.
And ever since that day, English became the most popular foreign language to learn in Korea. Choc (2004) claimed that English language has become a required foreign language to learn in the Korean educational system, from secondary school onwards since the Korean War during the ass's. Learning the English language has become very important to Koreans, day by day up to the present. In 1997, globalization begun its impact, thus, making the Korean nation keep up with developments. In accordance to this, the learning of English language was incorporated into the curriculum of primary school students.
From an article entitled "South Korea Seeks to Strengthen English Education" (2008), to Koreans, learning the English language is a very important and serious matter. South Koreans President-elect [at the time]- Lee Mug-Back proposed to hire thousands of new English teachers to secure and improve English education. This is because during the past few decades, there have been few fluent English speakers, even among Korean college graduates. Therefore, the proposed plan [at the time] intends to hire English-speaking professionals, investing 4 trillion won (US $4. Billion) into strengthening and improving the English educational system in Korea. His intentions have been made clear that he wants to improve and restructure the nationwide system of ALE (English Learning Elective). The main reason for implementing the English Education Policy is to promote national competitiveness in an increasingly globalization economy. After President Lee Mug-Back announced that the government has decided to strengthen the English education in Korea, the market for English lessons went up and since then, SSL trends have gone in that direction.
The country then opted for more "English only' class discussions. Since the election of President Lee, Seoul experimented with Math ND Science classes taught in English, in fact, since 2010, all English class discussions in Korean high schools have been taught in purely English. Although the Korean government's goals in strengthening English education in the country is done with good purposes, Korean-English classes face much difficulty in acquiring knowledge not to mention fluency of this said course.
Since the English language is taught to Korean students starting in primary school up to when the students finish university or college, it is inevitable for students and teachers alike not to face challenges during the time span given as they learn SSL. Choc (2004) alleged that initial learning of the English language for Koreans begins at primary school for four years during years 3 to 6. In these crucial stages of learning, the young students are exposed to a these first years of SSL learning, the aim of the class is to encourage the children's interest in learning the English language as well as the culture.
A primary level English class usually accommodates a number of more or less forty pupils. Approximately, the class discussion is around 40 minutes and the course is taken once or twice a week. Within this span of time, the children learn English through ones, games and basic expressions in English using multi-media learning materials. Because of the class size and the amount of time given, the interaction between teacher and pupil becomes difficult. In Korea, secondary education consists of three years in middle school and three years in high school. The class sizes, during these stages, are restricted to 35-40 students.
Because many schools cannot afford this, oversized classes have become a result. Students during these stages learn English as one out of three major subjects, including Korean and Mathematics. Acquiring a DOD grade during these stages are crucial since secondary school in Korea is widely considered to be a preparatory for entering higher education. Because of this notion, students in this stage tend to become very exam conscious. On a similar note, English teachers become focused on the skills needed to answer the exam questions, by exerting much emphasis on reading and grammar.
This results to students rarely having conversation sessions even though they take the course three to four times a week. Although the teachers have acquired basic knowledge on English grammar and reading, a good number of them are not fluent speakers. Geysers ; Futures (2007, p. 81) argued that using the computer as a medium for education is familiar and comfortable to many teachers. For students, doing activities on the computer is more eagerly done. Numerous computer programs are available to increase the productivity of the student.
There are programs that serve a tutorial function and are usually designed around the specific content. But the most valuable programs are the ones that facilitate the students' inquiry about the topics. Online learning refers to web-based training, e-learning, distributed learning, internet-based learning, web- eased instruction, cyber learning, virtual learning, or net-based learning. Keening and Kid (2010) defined online learning as a subset of distance education that embraces a wide set of technology - including applications and learning processes comprising computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, etc.
This type of new education is also focused on computer-based learning platforms, not Just online contexts. Online learning recognizes the value of the unplanned and the self- directness of the learner to maximize incidental learning and improve performance. Online learning provides the student a diverse type of environment that includes immunization technologies and real-time information. Using evolving information and technologies, asynchronous communication and real-time information, online teaching and learning environments are unbound and dynamic.
Online learning environments include diverse range of pedagogical practices and are often characterized by active learning student-centered pedagogical techniques. Online teaching wouldn't be a successful one without technical equipment and expertise, with that, Salter ; Hansen (n. D. ) reasoned that one of the problems arising in teaching online is the absence of technical support. Insufficient hardware ND software might delay the process of learning, as one is required to have both of knowledge to handle in revolutionized education to a whole new level through technology experiments.
And as the receiver of the illustration, the students, who plays the second vital role in the online teaching realm. Online teacher couldn't be called a successful one if the student/learner didn't anticipate all the ideas that were disseminated during the period of teaching. Levels, Paella and Greater (n. D. ) argued about the students' laziness, the learners' procrastination, the undying issue of the students from all gees, which can contribute to the effectively of learning.
The probable reason for that is that although students in traditional classes may procrastinate, at least they are immersed in the material on a daily basis. Students in a web-based class may not expose to any of the class material not unless it's the day of exam. Also the limited orientation for the students should count in the negative side for them. The students might be "shocked" with the new ways of course delivery as well as the process of teachings. The orientation serves as the background information for the students so hat they will be acquainted with the course they enroll in for the whole duration.
Generally, understanding the differences between traditional face-to-face learning environment and online learning environment, and the process of being able to shift from one modality to the other, will give faculty members the ability to design better online course and focus more on course delivery. Faculty members may also mandate to change the nature of the content to be taught, their role as faculty member and the needs and requirements of the students. Copula, Ritz and Rooter (2002) have identified three faculty roles: cognitive, effective, and managerial.
The cognitive role is connected with the mental processes of learning, information storage, and thinking. The affective role is influenced by the relationships between students, faculty, and the classroom environment. The managerial role relates to class and course management. There are numerous faculty tasks linked with designing and teaching online courses. These tasks start during the growth phase of the course and continue until the course is conveyed. According Anderson (2001 , p. 29-35), these tasks employed during the development phase focus on the instructional design and organization of the course.
These tasks include setting the curriculum (I. E. , constructing curriculum resources), designing methods (I. E. , reposing lecture summaries, mint-lectures, personal intuitions, and other modified interpretations of course content), establishing time constraints (I. E. , timeliness for group activities and project work), and establishing "netiquette" (I. E. , providing guidelines and tips modeling appropriate etiquette and effective use of the medium). Conveyance of online courses also encompasses some type of communications between students, content, and technology. These tasks are categorized by Copula t al. 2002) as cognitive, affective, and managerial. Cognitive tasks include answering to queries; editing questions and replies to interrogations; thinking, reasoning, and examining information; and helping students to engross in preparing and recovering information. Affective tasks comprise behavior related to inducing students' relationships with the instructor and with other students in the virtual classroom environment. Managerial tasks during the delivery of the course include getting inspiring and organizing students to participate in the course, and monitoring and assessing student learning outcomes.
Before stretching the learning to its maximum length, considering the learners needs and apprehension should be in mind in order for them to fully comprehend and absorb what they have learned. To quote See and Villa (2010), "An organization cannot be ready unless its people are ready. " The faculty should cater their anxieties and must be sympathetic with the online learning in order to preserve a work-life balance so that the students can fully accept a new diversion in adding learning experience, as it develops and progress until such it will become the pioneering medium of learning.
Birthright, Fisher, Gardner, Raff ; Woodward (2011) argued that the best teachers see potential among their students, using meaningful examples and motivate students to get them connect with their course. In an online environment type of education, interaction with the teacher becomes a vital part of learning. The teacher's strategy on teaching becomes critical as this will be the only thing that will connect them to their students. Regardless of the hard-work involved in their strategies, the course delivery becomes more important than anything in the online environment type of education.
Everything will be neglected from the preparation to the dissemination of online course due to the teaching strategy. From "How to Teach Online Lessons - And be Proud of Them" (n. D. ), so if you're trailing a certain book, most probably, starting from the basic would be a nice greeting. Beginning a simple lesson with conversations, in that way, you can connect to the students and will give them opportunity to express their thoughts in simple sentence. You can educe their ideas about the topic and move over to a narrower one.
Comprehension test would be appropriate as a way for testing their grasping skills through asking them to make sentence out of those new words. Grammar and idioms can be also taught at this time. Maddox, Johnson and Willis (2006) argued that in order for the instructor to know if the student/learner has learned the lessons, he/she must conduct a test to the student through online exams facilitated by the computers and internet. As such, reliability and validity must be part of the test. It wouldn't be preferable to adapt web-based exams to the traditional ball pen-and-paper exams where its existence has been proved as legal and consistent.
A new reliability and validity studies should be performed if the test became accustomed with an existing ball en-and-paper exams. A new test should be considered for the computerized, in such cases, where reliability and validity are concerned. Virtual classrooms and conventional classroom are not quite far from each other. Still it involves give-and- take process wherein parties, (learner and teacher) can benefit for the improvement of education. Lee (2011) quoted "The learners should be encouraged to talk about how they learn and teachers should construct learning design that will allow all students to learn. As the earth turns older, technology starts to expand its capacities. From low- laity to top-caliber gadgets, sure they can be wholesome in terms of connecting people around the globe. Maximizing their capacity and extending their uses positively by meaner of sufficing educational needs can be of a great help. Brenner in both they are contributing positively to the educational needs of the students. " In these situations, there are many platforms in which computers can be used to aid educational needs as well as their pitfalls that would differentiate them from one another.
Web-based distance learning uses electronic mail and discussion forums as another meaner of communication. Also, this method is used to transport certain activities to the learner. The teacher uses real time-chat for the most part, as far as communication is concerned. But sometimes learning and teaching becomes difficult when the student has disabilities. That's why electronic mail is an alternative way in communication. According to Hayrick (2003, p. 87), "Most web-based distance learning courses require as prerequisite that prospective students have access to electronic mail. Live chat's impulsiveness meaner hours will not be spent trawling through email correspondence making it easier for the teacher and his/her learners to immunization quickly and efficiently. Chatting in real time can mean helping their students with coping up with their hitches in the course. Distance learning with two-way video was out of reach for many institutions. Recent innovations of telecommunications technologies, such as compressed interactive video systems, have lowered equipment and transmission costs, making two-way video feasible for small colleges, businesses, classrooms, libraries and even homes.
Unfortunately, access to interactive video technology does not guarantee a valuable learning exchange. Brady (n. D. ) defined Interactive Video (V) or commonly now as live video streaming is an effective system of transporting information to far-flung distance educational locations. This is done by reducing the bandwidth obligated to send the pictures, video compression also diminishes the transmission cost. The video compression process decreases the amount of data transmitted over the lines by transmitting only the changes in the picture.
Most schemes exploits compressed digital video for the transmission of motion images over data networks. Interactive video provides a two-way video and audio communication between multiple locations at a convenient pace. Another platform that may contribute to the efficiency in online teaching is forum board or discussion board. Discussion board is a tool which permits groups to communicate online. It is quite similar to e-mail, but is separate from your e-mail account and is retrieved, deposited and systematized centrally. The entire group can read all the messages.
You can read old messages or post new messages at any time. Calla (n. D. ) claimed that forum creates a discussion environment through the use of save data posted on a specific topic for other people to see at whichever time they want. The fact that the discussion isn't actual time meaner that it seldom turns into incensed arguments as people are given time to gather information and consider their comments before replying which makes for mostly high-quality argument. From "What are the Benefits of Using Discussion Board" (n. D. , forum boards can be seen as an equalizer, creating a level playing field that allows warier students to contribute as equally as more prevailing personalities in the classroom, with no personal interaction. Some forum boards have these additional features, such as anonymity, guarantee that 'stupid' queries can be asked tit impunity. Traditionally a schools growth has been limited by its geographic area. You have enrolled them all then your school will stop growing. Online Classroom Systems do not have that limitation and Virtual Schools can expand as far as they feel comfortable with going.
Many schools of this type have students enrolled from countries around the world. Taken from "Advantages of Schools Using Virtual Classrooms" (2010), with Online Classroom Systems, everything seems to be in perfect condition, wherein students can work with much extra time to do some entertaining activities. With virtual classroom, it's needless to worry about the working crew, which includes the Janitors, security guards and other personnel that a standard "brick and mortar" school should maintain. Monitoring students' activity and interacting with them comes in handy because of virtual classroom.
It also makes the process of learning easy, with Just one click away, research material, study notes, and lectures are within the tip of the students' fingers. From "Teaching English Online ” What You Need to KnoW'(n. D. ) virtual classrooms usually vary on their own platform. You can actually stretch out these typical software (e. G Yahoo, Keep or MS Messenger) plus with a little effort, you can reach those walls of space and time without bending the quality-service. You have also to bear in mind, the equipment (e. G. Microphone or videodisc) that you will need in achieving the efficiency of teaching Just like a traditional class.
It's about reaching the reachable, using the usable and enriching the minds through exploring the essential and available technical resources. These software serve as third-party applications that play a vital role in communication. In learning a foreign language, Koreans face problems and difficulties in acquiring this branch of knowledge. There are a number of factors that affect Korean students' learning because the reality of gaining knowledge of another language is never easy. English language learning online becomes effective when learners connect the newly learned words to their native language.
Dong (2012, p. 30) quoted, "It is only when ELLS are engaged in connecting new words with what they know in their native language and their prior learning that academic vocabulary become meaningful and effective". Since most words are regional, some words in native English cannot be applied or cannot be translated directly into Korean. This cultural difference becomes a barrier for Korean students learning SSL as culture isn't learned through a text book but is experienced. Therefore, Koreans will find it difficult to understand and learn some native English words, idiomatic expressions, historical contexts, etc.
An article entitled "Korean Confucianism" (n. D. ) mentioned that Korean students, in contrast to English students, usually to express themselves in general and indirect ways, even when asked to communicate their ideas. The reason for this is because Koreans have been trained to think inclusively and express themselves indirectly in case they might offend others. This type of reserved attitude originates from Confucian thinking, wherein moderation is considered the ultimate virtue. With this, students usually have a difficult time supplying specific details when talking about things and events.
Relating this type of thinking with the Koreans' traditional ways, the value in which mentioning specific enumeration of material wealth is considered to be vulgar and uncivilized. As Koreans learn SSL, Choc (n. D. ) pointed the interference from their mother tongue becomes a challenge to be overcome. Because of what they already know naturally, this hinders their learning another language. An negative questions when communicating in English. When asking, "Didn't you like it? " English speakers will answer miss, I did" or "No, I didn't". In contrast to this, Koreans will answer, miss, I didn't like it," or "No, I liked it. This is how a Koreans cultural and natural way of thinking will affect their learning. In discourse, their use of positive and negative can confuse a speaker of English. SSL learning for Koreans becomes an enriching at the same time frustrating task as it introduces not only new words to the students but an entirely new alphabet as well. This becomes a big difficulty as the English alphabet has a lot of letters absent and even unheard of in the Korean alphabet (e. G. Letters C,F,Q,X and Z aren't included ). On this note, pronunciation becomes difficult and will usually affect many Korean English learners.
This becomes a serious problem, especially for adult learners. Adopted from "The Korean Alphabet: An Introduction", (n. D. ), one common error for Korean English learners is the renunciation of L and R. This becomes difficult because in the Korean alphabet- handgun, L and R are represented by one symbol-e. Also applying to this is the pronunciation of F, B and V because these too are represented or can be written and interpreted by one symbol in handgun which is-H. And at this fact, students find these sounds quite difficult to form and recognize in listening.
Another significant difficulty encountered by Korean learners of SSL is the fact that the grammar and sentence structure is entirely different. In English, the word order is subject-verb-object while n Korean the basic structure for sentences is subject-object-verb. With this, students will have quite a difficult time applying this new form of structure to everyday conversations in English as this was not what they've been used to all their lives. Minnie (2011) contended that verbs in Korea have neither conjugation nor inflection and verbs do not take '-s' in the third person singular in the present tense.
This becomes one of the most common mistakes for Korean English learners as they will miss inflected endings on verbs in writing and speaking, thus, they fail at ensuring object-verb agreement. Also, the Korean language completely omits the use of pronouns; therefore, students will find it hard to grasp the concept and idea of pronouns, not to mention remembering all the pronouns in the English language and applying it to discourse. Lack of the will to learn of the learner will also affect his acquisition of learning SSL. In general terms, learning will always depend on the student.
If the student lacks will, then even the best teachers will not get through to him. In learning, it takes patience and self-control, especially in learning a foreign language. Teaching online is a matchless involvement in a distinctive medium. Many of the skills and features of effective instruction in a classroom convert well to operative instruction online. At the risk of sounding fairly absurd- teaching online is very much similar and very much dissimilar, in classroom teaching. Many teachers and subject matters experts now transcends to the online teaching community.
The purposes are numerous and they are both advantageous for professionals, as well as for personal reasons. Among its several pitfalls, there are still some solid points which can pin down the disadvantages of online learning. Those who can't afford to pay exorbitant fee charged by institutions as well as the hassle from traveling Just to get a top-caliber quality education can realize their dreams without worrying about money and the stress caused by traveling. To quote to conduct classes with students from across multiple time zones, without having to travel. This is both beneficial to the teacher and also to the learner. Internet courses can afford prodigious opportunity to people in need in developing countries, also in developed countries too; they can increase student prospects and horizons. Internet lasses permit someone living hundreds of miles away from the nearest university, where roads and other meaner of access are meager, to learn from world class universities, Just through a satellite dish or telegraphed Wi-If system and public computers ATA library or community center, or at kiosks like those going up all over rural provinces in the Philippines.
Face-to-face instruction hassles associated by the traditional classrooms may be reduced because of online teaching. Servers retain chat sessions and newsgroup documentation provides indisputable records of class participation and for both volume and quality. These environments will assist in some more sensitive issues of classroom supervision. These domain, can act as an equalizer given to those people with less prevailing personalities inside a classroom full of dominating nature of disposition, thus keeping the self-esteem of the students.
Plus, online teaching will help teachers in having in-tact class records, maintaining a clean record that will serve as file holder for the evaluation of a learner's performance. Learning at your own comfort zone can sometimes help in integrating education. Quoted from "Online English Tutorial: The Best Way to Learn English Language" (n. . ), "As one is not required to follow rigid English language school timings and schedules, one can learn English language from the comfort of one's own home or office". Having stiff schedule can be a bit stressful sometimes, especially when you're pursuing other professional course.
In line with online teaching, the student can enjoy the luxury of having the freewill as to when to learn. This will incorporate voluntary learning, thus maximizing the possibilities to absorb the teachings arranged by the instructor. Although learning in the classroom the most traditional way to learn, there are mom disadvantages that can be encountered by a student. Especially in this case, where the English language is concerned, Koreans need to have an accurate knowledge on the course. Some texts deal with rhetoric's and most students' problem is the fact that sometimes, the different texts and paragraphs are not clearly differentiated.
This becomes extremely hard when a student is learning English as their second language. There are many problems a student can encounter, like, according to Friend (1972), "There are no lessons presenting 'how to lessons in (process) writing. " The English language isn't a subject that can be taken lightly. Other foreign students learning the language, like Filipinos, take years and years Just to master English. Even then after the many years of learning, some still can't grasp the concept of proper grammar and correct pronunciation of some words. This is because; the learning was done at a slow pace.
In Korea, English classes are conducted once or twice a week at forty minutes per meeting. This would mean that learning the course would take so much time to even get the basics to sink in to the minds of the students taking it. As Mira (n. D. ) quoted,