Short Answer
1. Define prevention. Provide an example of a behavior that helps prevent
physical illness. Indicate reasons why prevention is difficult to do in

Prevention is the best problem-solving solution. It is a risk-factor
reduction behavior that can prevent stress and other health problems. For
example, if lung cancer is painful for a patient and stressful to one's
mind, the best solution to eliminate the potential pain and stress is to
prevent smoking. Prevention is hard to do in practice because Type A people
has less prevention behaviors, which Type A people is numerous. Another
aspect is that many people don't have the idea to prevent the specific
risk; after they are ill, they think back or blame why they hasn't prevent
such risk. Especially for smoking, the addictive nicotine prevents the
smokers from preventing the potential risk. Therefore, prevention is
difficult to do in practice.

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2. Describe the Type A behavior syndrome and its impact on health. Would
you describe yourself as having this syndrome? Explain.

Type A behavioral pattern is a complex pattern of behaviors and emotions
that includes excessive emphasis on competition, aggression, impatience,
and hostility. Type A people are often dissatisfied with some central
aspect of their lives, are highly competitive and ambitious, and often are
loners. The hostility increases the risk of coronary heart disease. I have
this syndrome because I always feel extremely nervous in many things; even
call someone that I don't know by phone to ask for some information will
make me nervous.

3. Define burnout. Be sure to describe its syndromes and the conditions
that seem to cause it.

Burnout is the syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and
reduced personal accomplishment, often experienced by workers in high-
stress jobs. Sometimes the person that has burnout feels bad about
him/herself and worry that he/she is failures. Burnout is correlated with
greater absenteeism and turnover, impaired job performance, poor relations
with coworkers, family problems, and poor personal health. It is caused by
high stressing jobs, or the high-stress working environment, such as the
medical workers in the hospital, or an officer that is threatened by
organizational downsizing, job restructuring, or employees' morale and

4. Define stress. How is stress related to the process of cognitive
Stress is the pattern of specific and nonspecific responses an organism
makes to stimulus events that disturb its equilibrium and tax or exceed its
ability to cope. The stimulus events include a large variety of external
and internal conditions, which are stressors. Cognitive appraisal of the
stress situation interacts with the stressor and the physical, social, and
personal resources available for dealing with the stressor. Individuals
respond to threats on various levels-physiological,behavioral,
emotional, and cognitive.

5. Describe the "fight-or-flight" syndrome. Be sure to include physical
changes that occur and factors that trigger this syndrome.

Fight-or-flight response is a sequence of internal activities triggered
when an organism is faced with a threat. It prepares the body for combat
and struggle or for running away to safety. The hypothalamus functions when
there is an "emergency" - when the threat comes - to control the autonomic
nervous system, and activate the pituitary gland. The main factors that
trigger the fight-or-flight syndrome are the threats and stresses; the both
factors make up a situation that the person has to fight, or fleet when it
is over the person's capability. The body will change its state to be ready
to fight or fleet, and the main characteristics are that breathing is
faster and deeper, the heart beat rate increases, blood vessels constrict,
and blood pressure rises. The facial expressions may show strong emotions
and the digestion stops because of the muscle control by the brain.

6. Describe the general adaptation syndrome. Be sure to include the stages
of this syndrome and the physical and behavioral changes that occur in
each stage.

The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is the pattern of nonspecific
adaptational physiological mechanisms that occurs in response to continuing
threat by almost any serious stressor. There are three stages of GAS -
alarm reaction, which is a brief period of bodily arousal that prepare the
body for vigorous activity; resistance, a state of moderate arousal after a
prolonged stressor, in which the organism can endure and resist further
debilitating effects of prolonged stressors; and exhaustion, a period if
the stressor is sufficiently long-lasting or intense, in which the body's
resources become depleted and the organism will become ill, or even die.

7. Identify and briefly describe the major sources of stress that people