Capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B

The more someone is dependent on you, the more power you have over that person

Getting people to do things they normally would not do
What Creates Dependency?
• The resource is important
• Scarcity of resources
• Nonsubstitutability of
Sources of Power
- Leads to attitude change• Personal Qualities*
- (Charisma/Referent, Effort/Track Record,
Authenticity/Commitment, Confidence)
• Access to Resources (Information, People)

Used by those who feel week
• Control of Resources (Rewards, Punishments/Coercive^)
• Position (Legitimate^, Criticality/Relevance, Centrality, Visibility, Flexibility)

Charismatic Leadership Behaviors
• Articulates overarching goal-vision
• Communicates high performance expectations
• Exhibits confidence and enthusiasm in the ability of followers
to meet expectations
• Empathizes with the needs of their followers
• Uses whole body when speaking-paces, sits on desk edge,
leans toward, eye contact, relaxed posture, and animated face
• Captivating and engaging voice tone
Track Record: How Power is Built Over One's Career
Fit/learning Opportunity
-; Stretch assignments, Network of Relationships
-; Expertise
-; Track Record/Credibility
-; Stretch Assignments (Criticality, Flexibility, Visibility), Network grows Centrality Increases -; Expertise -;Track Record/Credibility
-; Stretch Assignments (criticality, Flexibility, Visibility), Network grows Centrality Increases
Track Record: How Power is Built Over One's Career
Tips For Effective Networking
• Include several levels of the organization in your network
• Increase opportunities by including customers and suppliers in
your network
• Have network ties to own group and the dominant group in the
• Have network contacts that extend beyond required work-related
interactionsImportant! Effective
networking involves an
exchange relationship

Managers and Power
A manager's need for power ought to be
greater than the need to be liked
High need for power = concern
for influencing people
The most effective managers =
power + high inhibition
Power goal = make subordinates
feel strong rather than weak
Transforming Power into Influence
• Power is a necessary
precondition of influence
• Influential people have power,
but not all powerful people
have influence
Tools that Increase Influence
• Expertise, confidence and/or authority (nonverbal cues* etc.,
language, statistics)
• Appealing to emotions (Vivid images, emotions, stories, personal
experiences, metaphors)
• Liking and rapport (Attractive, similar, familiar, ingratiating,
empathetic, mirroring, communication style)
• Scarcity (desire what is limited)
• Social proof (the norm)
• Reciprocity (exchange; door in face)
• Commitment and consistency (foot in door; saying yes)
Informal Authority Influence
• Dress
• Assertive tone of voice
• Air of confidence
• Height, formal dress, lower voice, gray hair
• Statistics
• Direct eye contact
• Emphatic gestures
Effectiveness of Influence Tactics
• Rational persuasion
• Emotional/
• Consultation
• Exchange*
Note: All more effective with interest-based approach -
what's in it for them?EFFECTIVE
• Ingratiating/
liking tactics
• Coalition formation

• Authority
• Pressure

FYI: Preferred Power Tactics by
Influence Direction
Upward Influence
- Rational persuasionDownward Influence
- Rational persuasion
- Inspirational Appeals
- Pressure
- Consultation
- Ingratiation
- Exchange
- Legitimacy

Lateral Influence
- Rational Persuasion
- Consultation
- Ingratiation
- Exchange
- Legitimacy
- Personal Appeals
- Coalitions

Influence Without Authority—
currencies for exchange relationships
Task—gets things done
• Resources
• Support
• KnowledgePosition—enhance status
• Advancement
• Recognition
• Visibility
• Reputation
• Network
• Belonging

Inspiration—provides meaning
• Vision
• Opportunity for Excellence

Relational—enhance relationships
• Personal Support
• Understanding and Listening

Personal—enhance self
• Affirming worth
• Challenges (skills)
• Involvement (ownership)
• Gratitude

Summary: Behavioral Guidelines for
Improving your Influence
• Enhance personal power by improving
your expertise, personal attraction,
effort and confidence
• Increase position power by improving your centrality,
flexibility, visibility, and relevance
• Use logic/reason, emotional appeals, consultation
and reciprocity to influence; consider ingratiation and
coalition strategies where appropriate
How to Win Over Others?
• Establish rapport and build trust* - get to know them
before you ask them for their cooperation
• Show you care about their interests and needs - don't
approach the other based on what you need; listen and
acknowledge their needs first
• Identify common interests - don't sell the other why it is
good for them, let them come to the conclusion on their ownYou cannot force anyone to accept anything
you say. You can only help people to persuade

Factors that Influence Political
Individual factors
- high self-monitors
- internal locus of control
- high mach personality
- organizational investment
- perceived job alternatives
- expectations of successOrganizational Factors
- reallocation of resources
- promotion of opportunities
- low trust
- role ambiguity
- unclear performance evaluation system
- Zero-sum reward practices
- Democratic decision making
- high performance pressures
- self-serving senior managers

Political Behavior
low -; high

Favorable Outcomes
- rewards
- averted punishments

*Political behavior: Activities that are not required as part of one's formal role in the organization, but attempt to influence the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization

Factors that Influence Political Behavior*
Reactions to High Level of Politics

Perceptions of organization politics

-> decreased job satisfaction
-> increased anxiety and stress
-> increased turnover
- reduced performance

Reactions to High Level of Politics
Leadership Effectiveness
• Depends on the characteristics of the leader, the follower
and the situation
• The leader sets the vision and articulates the vision—
managers implement the vision
Leadership is the process of influencing others
toward the achievement of shared
goals—not just a person or position
Leaders and Managers
Leaders Job
- establish organization vision
-> formulate strategy for implementing visionManager's Job
- implement organization strategy

Leaders vs. Managers
(Walt vs. Roy Disney)
• Innovate
• Develop
• Inspire
• Long-term view
• Ask what and why
• Originate
• Challenge the status quoManagers
• Administer
• Maintain
• Control
• Short-term view
• Ask how and when
• Initiate
• Accept the status quo


Drive - Desire for achievement; ambition; high energy; tenacity; initiative

Honesty and integrity- Trustworthy; reliable; open

Leadership motivation - Desire to exercise influence over others to reach shared goals

Self?confidence - Trust in own abilities

Cognitive ability -Intelligence; ability to interpret large amounts of information

Knowledge of the business -Knowledge of industry, relevant technical matters

Creativity -Originality

Flexibility -Ability to adapt to trends of followers and requirements of

*Traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of
leadership than actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders.

Leadership Traits and Big Five
Essential Leadership Traits
• Extroversion
• Conscientiousness
• Openness
• Emotional Intelligence*Trait theory assumes that leadership is inherent, so we must identify the
leader based on his or her traits

Behavioral Leadership Ohio State Studies
*Behavioral theory assumes that leadership is a skill set and can be taught to anyone,
so we must identify the proper behaviors to teach potential leaders
Behavioral Leadership Ohio State Studies
Contingency Theories*: LPC Model
*Contingency theories consider the environment in which the
leader exists in addition to traits and behavior
Contingency Theories*: LPC Model
Situational Leadership Theory
Situational Leadership Theory
Path Goal Model of Leadership
Path Goal Model of Leadership
FYI: Path-Goal Application
- when employees have:
- high role ambiguity
- have low abilities
- external locus of controlSupportive:
when tasks are:
- boring and repetitive
- stressful

- employees have high abilities
- the decision is relevant to employees
- employees have high internal locus of control

when employees have:
- high abilities
- high achievement

FYI: Path-Goal Application
Leadership: Transactional,
Transformational, and Authentic
• Guides or
motivates their
followers in the
direction of
• Clarifies roles
and tasks
• Uses contingent
• Inspires followers to
transcend their own
self-interests for the
good of the
• Pays attention to
individual followers
and helps develop
• Empowers, coaches
and advises
• Encourages and

• Builds Trust
• Sharing
• Encourages open
• Sticks to their
ideals (values)



• Your success is linked to your boss's -you either succeed together
or fail together
• You can best meet your needs by ensuring the boss meets his/her
• A difficult, unproductive working relationship with your boss is one
of the greatest sources of stress in the workplace

Managing your boss: consciously working with your superior
to obtain the best possible results for you, your boss, and
your company

• Learn everything you can about your boss- check your
assumptions and clarify expectations
• Find out what would further your boss's success and help
deliver it
• Adapt your work style and habits to those of the boss; do
not expect the boss to adapt to yours
• Find out what your boss's goals and objectives at work are
• Make yourself indispensable by learning what your boss needs to know
• Be a good listener - rather than arguing, help your boss explore issues by
asking probing, open-ended, but supportive questions
• Keep your boss informed about what is going on
• Communicate with your boss in the manner he or she prefers
• Manage your own performance - initiate regular reviews on how you are
doing and make sure your work is visible. Don't assume your boss knows
everything you are doing.DONT'S ___________________
• Expose the boss to surprises - if there is bad news, you must
deliver it yourself
• Go over the boss's head to a more superior manager except
in very rare situations
• Be defensive when criticized - instead focus on the facts
• Criticize your boss inside or outside of the organization;
never assume anything you say will remain confidential

Summary: Checklist for managing
your boss
Understand your boss and his or her context:
• Goals and objectives
• Strengths, weaknesses, blind spots
• Preferred work styleAssess yourself and your needs:
• Strengths and weaknesses
• Personal style

Develop and maintain a relationship that:
• Fits both your needs and styles
• Is characterized by mutual expectations
• Keeps your boss informed
• Is based on dependability and honesty
• Selectively uses your boss's time and resources

3 C's of Managing Your Boss
Compassion: An empathic understanding of your boss, his/her
environment, personal style
- Must know yourself and your own strengths, weaknesses, preferences
and personal styleCultivation: Developing mutual expectations and
communication style that fits both party's needs
- Keep boss informed, help boss succeed, reduce complications in life

Credibility: Trustworthy source of information and performance
- Be a team player, never bad mouth, go the extra mile

The Five Stages of Group Development
1. Forming
- Members feel much uncertainty about the group's purpose, structure, and
leadership; complete when think of selves as part of a group
2. Storming
- Lots of conflict between members of the group; complete when clear
hierarchy of leadership in place
3. Norming
- Members have developed close relationships and cohesiveness;
complete when have common expectations
4. Performing
- The group is finally fully functional
5. Adjourning
- In temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities
rather than performance
Punctuated-Equilibrium Model: An Alternative Model for Group Formation
Temporary groups with deadlines don't follow the five-stage model;
they go through transitions between inertia and activity—at the halfway point, they experience an increase in productivity.-Sequence of Actions-
-Setting group direction
-First phase of inertia
-Half-way point transition
-Major changes
-Second phase of inertia
-Accelerated activity

Punctuated-Equilibrium Model: An Alternative Model for Group Formation
Group Properties
- roles
- norms
- status
- cohesiveness
- size
Group Property 1: Roles*
Role Perception
- an individual's view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation
(internship programs help prepare for his/her role in an organization)Psychological Contract
- an unwritten agreement that sets out mutual expectations of what management expect from employees and vice versa
(violations of the contract lead to low productivity, high theft and high turnover)

Role Conflict
- employees experience significant stress when their work and family roles conflict

Zimbardo's Prison Experiement
- showed how quickly people learn new roles and are affected by their expectations

Roles- a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit

Group Property 2: Norms*

Norms- acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group's members

Classes of Norms
Performance norms - level of acceptable work
Appearance norms - what to wear
Social arrangement norms - friendships
Allocation of resources norms - assignments of jobs and material

Hawthorne Studies (an examination on the effects of norms on worker behavior)
Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting individual behavior
and output (no rate busters or chislers!)
Norms enforced through sarcasm, name-calling, ridicule, and even
punches to the arms of violators

Deviant Workplace Behavior*

Deviant workplace behavior - Workplace incivility that threatens the well-being of the organization

Norms encourage conformity to the reference group—the group to which one would like to belong
Group norms can encourage deviance Simply belonging to a group increases the likelihood of

Types of Deviant Workplace Behavior:
Production - working speed and leaving early Property - damage and stealing from organization Political - favoritism and negative gossip Personal Aggression - verbal abuse and stealing from co-workers

FYI: Norms-How They Develop

1. Precedents set over time (seating location of each group member around a table)

2. Carryovers from other situations (professional standards of conduct)

3. Explicit statements from others (working a certain way because you are told that's how we do it around here)

FYI: Norms-How They Develop
Group Property 3: Status*

*A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others

• What determines status?
- Power over others, ability to contribute to group goals, and personal
• Status and norms
- High-status members are less restrained by norms and pressure to conform;
are given more freedom to deviate from norms than others
• Status and group interaction
- High-status members are more assertive; large status differences limit diversity of ideas and creativity and may also result in deviant behavior
• Status and culture
Managers must understand who and what holds status when interacting with
people from another culture.

Group Property 4: Size
• Group size affects behavior
• Size:
- Twelve or more members is a "large" group
- Seven or fewer is a "small" group
Group Property 4: Size
Effects of Group Size on Group Dynamics
Effects of Group Size on Group Dynamics
Group Properties - Size
Social Loafing -
The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individuallyRingelmann's Rope Pull: greater levels of productivity but with diminishing returns as group size increases
- caused by either equity concerns or a diffusion of responsibility (free riders)

Group Properties - Size
Social Loafing: Another Look
Social Loafing: Another Look
Social Loafing: A Universal Phenomenon?
Certain cultures perform better in groups (i.e., china and israel)
Social Loafing: A Universal Phenomenon?
Overcoming Social Loafing
• Build in individual accountability
• Prevent social loafing by:
Setting group goals and establishing roles
Increasing intergroup competition
Using peer evaluation
Selecting highly motivated members
Distributing group rewards based on
individual effort
• Most often in Western (individualistic) cultures
Group Property 5: Cohesiveness*

*Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group

Increasing group cohesiveness:
Make the group smaller
Encourage agreement with group
Increase time members spend together
Increase group status and admission
Stimulate competition with other
Give rewards to the group, not
Physically isolate the group

Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity

Group Property 5: Cohesiveness*
Group Property 6: Diversity
Increased diversity leads to increased conflict
May cause early withdrawal and lowered morale
If the initial difficulties are overcome, diverse groups may perform
Group Decision Making
Group Strengths:
Generate more complete information and knowledge
Offer increased diversity of views and greater creativity
Increased acceptance of decisions
Generally more accurate (but not as accurate as the most
accurate group member)Group Weaknesses:
Time-consuming activity
Conformity pressures in the group Discussions can be dominated by a few members
A situation of ambiguous responsibility

Groupthink*: A Group Decision Making Problem
*A phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
Groupthink*: A Group Decision Making Problem
Groupthink: Another Look
• Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made
• Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts or who question the alternative favored by the majority
• Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings
• There appears to be an illusion of unanimityGroupshift (A special case of groupthink)
• Group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they hold, causing a shift to more conservative or more risky behavior.

Preventing Groupthink
• As a leader, avoid statements about your
preferred alternative; foster an open climate for discussion or use sub-groups
• Encourage the sharing of objections and critical evaluation; assign a
devil's advocate (explore the negative)
• Hold second chance meetings to allow members time to re-assess
• Avoid insulating the group from outside criticism
• Once consensus is reached, reexamine the next alternative,
comparing it to the chosen course of action
Differences between Groups and Teams
-A group interacts primarily to share information and to make
decisions to help each group member perform within his or
her area of responsibility
- No joint effort requiredTeam
Generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. The individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than
the sum of the individual inputs

Effects of Group Processes
Effects of Group Processes
Groups vs. Teams
Groups: are often described as two or more people with a reason to be together
e.g., fans cheering for Brazil at the World CupA team:, on the other hand, is interdependent, achieving a common goal, and see themselves as a social identity
e.g., Brazil's World Cup Soccer team

Groups vs. Teams
Types of Teams
- Problem-solving
- Self-managed
- Cross-functional
Building High Performance Teams
- Adequate resources, leadership and structure, trust, performance
evaluation and rewardsComposition
- Ability, personality, size, roles, diversity

Work Design
- Autonomy, skill variety, task identity, task significance

- Common purpose and specific goals ~ provides direction
- Team efficacy ~ team believes it can succeed
- Mental model ~share accurate beliefs about how the work gets done
- Conflict level ~task conflict, not relationship conflict
- Social loafing ~hold individual and team accountable

FYI: Key Roles On Teams
FYI: Key Roles On Teams
FYI: Symptoms of a Team Problem
• Poor atmosphere
side conversations a few dominate discussions
• Discussion jumps around
• Discussion of real feelings/ ideas after meeting
• Lack of information sharing
• Coalition formation
• Overly polite
• Conflict ignored or suppressed
• Quiet people ignored
Beware! Teams Aren't Always the Answer

Teams take more time and resources than does individual work.

Three tests to see if a team fits the situation:
Is the work complex and is there a need for different
perspectives - will it be better with the insights of more than one person?
Does the work require synergy (process gains greater than the
aggregate individuals)?
Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Decision Making
- pooling of resources
- different perspectives
- specialization of labor
- decision acceptanceDisadvantages
- waste time
- conformity pressure
- group conflict or domination
- ambiguous responsbiliity

Groups Decision Making: Complex vs. Simple Problems
Complex Problem
Groups Decision Making: Complex vs. Simple Problems
Five Steps for a Rational Problem Solving Process
Define and analyze the situation
Set objectives
Develop alternative courses of action
Identify obstacles and adverse consequences
Reach consensus decisions
Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model
1. Identify the problem
2. Establish decision criteria
3. Weigh decision criteria
4. Generate alternatives
5. Evaluate the alternatives
6. Choose the best alternatives
7. Implement the decision
8. Evaluate the decision
Example: Multi-Criteria Decision Making
Example: Multi-Criteria Decision Making
The Rationally Bounded Decision Maker
We suffer bounded rationality!
We have cognitive limitations which makes it impossible to assimilate and understand all information necessary to optimize a decision
Respond by reducing information to a level which can be readily understoodWe are satisficers —seeking the satisfactory solution rather than the optimal one
We apply our rationality only after having greatly simplified
the choices available.

Quick rules of thumb that reduce information processing demands on decision makers
Availability: Biasing Factors
-Ease of Recall
Availability Heuristic
Judging the frequency or likelihood of an event by how easily instances of the event come to mind
Representative Heuristic
Making a judgment based on the resemblance to a typical case while ignoring information about averages or prior probabilities
Gambler's Fallacy "Law of Small Numbers"
The belief that data collected by a randomprocess will look random; however, thesequence collected is too short (i.e., too smallof a sample) for the process to express
itself statistically
Representative: Biasing Factors
Not sensitive to statistical information Not sensitive to sample size Misconceptions of chance
Anchoring and Adjustment
Using an initial judgment as an anchor on which subsequent decisions are based
The Primacy Effect and Anchoring may
combine, for example if a list of possible sentences is given to a jury, they will be anchored by the first option
Anchoring and Adjustment: Biasing Factors
Low Confidence
Tendency to make
different decisions based on how a
problem is presented (gains vs. losses)
Prospect Theory: Attitudes Toward Gains and Losses
Prospect Theory: Attitudes Toward Gains and Losses
Framing Effects: An Empirical Demonstration
People seek risk when losing. Avoid risk when winning.
Framing Effects: An Empirical Demonstration
Framing: Biasing Factors
Choice of Reference Point
Transaction vs. Acquisition Utility
Continuing to commit additional resources to a seemingly failing endeavor based on the hope that there will be a positive change or to justify previously made decisions
Escalation: Biasing Factors
Perceptual biases (confirmation)
-Look for disconfirming evidenceJudgmental biases (loss from initial investment)
-Seek other reference points

Impression Management
-Reward for process not just outcome

-Examine why continuing actions

Remedies for Escalation
• Set limits on your involvement and commitment in
• Avoid looking to others
• Actively determine why you are continuing
• Remind yourself of ultimate costs involved
Confirmation Bias

The tendency to gather or accept information that confirms our initial beliefs while being critical of information that challenges them.

We are most prone to the confirmation bias when we believe we have good information and strongly believe in our opinions


The tendency to believe in your ability to be correct or accurate more often than is really true

When people say they are 100% sure of an outcome
they tend to be 70?85% correct
Most likely to occur outside our area of expertise
Those whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability
Fail to adequately consider risks or prepare a plan B

Improving Decision Making
Identify areas where your judgments may be biased
Examine the causes of the bias
Allow psychological distance
Two Major Forms of Workforce Diversity
Diversity Management=
- surface level diversity
- deep level diversity
Types of Diversity
Surface Level
(biological characteristics)
- gender
- race
- ethnicity
- age
- disabilityDeep Level
- tenure
- religion
- sexual orientation/gender identity
- physical ability
- intellectual ability
- marital status
- educational background
- union affiliation
- functional level/classification
- division unit/group
- work location

workforce diversity
- any characteristic that makes people different from one another

Some Hidden Aspects of Diversity
Cognitive—how we approach problems Discipline—different knowledge; different
Cultural—norms of interaction and
Multiple identities—woman, engineer,
mother, project leader...which one do others see?
The Case for Diversity
Increases pool of talent
Diverse teams produce better results Helps understand customer if reflects the
The Case for Diversity
Prejudice vs. Discrimination
Prejudice vs. Discrimination
Forms of Discrimination
Discriminatory Policies
-Actions that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal
rewards (e.g., older workers targeted for layoffs b/c highly paid w/ high benefits)
-Overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific
groups (e.g., swastika marked on a Jewish person's workstation)Mockery/Insults
-(Jokes or negative stereotypes (e.g., Arab-Americans asked if
they were a terrorist)

- Exclusions from job opportunities, social events, discussions
or mentoring (e.g., Women assigned tasks that don't lead to promotion)

- Disrespectful treatment—acting aggressively, interrupting or
ignoring (e.g., Women being ignored at a meeting)

Sexual Harassment
- Unwanted sexual advances; verbal or physical conduct of a
sexual nature that creates a hostile or offensive work environment (e.g., bringing strippers into the office for celebrations

Management of Diversity
The set of activities involved in integrating nontraditional employees into the work force and using their diversity to the firm's competitive advantage
Factors for Successful Diversity Management
- Diversity Focused Policies; Legal Framework
- Regular Monitoring ; Evaluation
- Available Training and Resources for Program Implementation
- Clear Reward System and Accountability
- Personal Development for All Workers
- Clear and Consistent Personnel Decisions
- Attracting and, Selecting Diverse Employees
- Support from Top Levels; Convey advantages of diversity
- Diversity Focused Policies; Legal Framework
Potential Problems with Diversity Training
Emotional tension is heightened - Talking about prejudices is likely to make people feel uneasy. Training needs to be conducted in a
"safe", comfortable environment.Possibility of polarization
- Avoid discussions that have yes or no answers, (e.g., "should gays be allowed in the military?"). Instead, encourage consideration of a broad range of options.

Some people may have personal "axes" to grind - Training sessions should not provide platforms for
people who want to vent abut past problems. Facilitators should keep the group on target.

Personal attacks may occur - Strong opinions on diversity issues may box people into corners. Treat everyone with respect and dignity.

Reactions to training will be varied - Some may welcome the training; whereas others may resent having to go through it. Addressing these feelings
would be made a part of training sessions.

White males tend to be blamed

Timing may be problematic. - Avoid adding to stress by not scheduling sessions during periods in which other sensitive events (e.g., layoffs, contract negotiations) are occurring.

Reasons for training may be Disingenuous - Diversity training works best when it is part of a
strategic effort on the part of management to change policies so as to make a more "inclusive" organization. However, training conducted because "everyone's doing it" is likely to fail -- and maybe even backfire.

Feeling Excluded Exercise
Recall a time when you have felt uncomfortable or targeted because of
your demographic status (race, ethnicity, gender, religion, etc.) Briefly described the situation, how you felt, reacted, etc.
Think about when you deliberately or accidently did something that
made someone else feel excluded or targeted because of their demographic status. Briefly described the situation, what precipitated the event, how you felt, how other reacted, etc.
Develop a brief list of what behaviors lead people to feel targeted or
excluded. Be specific.
Create a list of principles for how you can avoid excluding or targeting
people in the future. Be specific.
Communication: The #1 Source of Conflict in Organizations
The Communication Process
The Communication Process
Typical barriers to effective communication
Filtering (choice of words)
Overload (too much information for receiver to process)
Timing (receiver not ready to hear message)
Channel Misusage (using email instead of face to face)RECEIVER:
Emotions (affect interpretation)
Perceptions (credible or reliable source)

Language Irritators
Language Irritators
Utilizing Appropriate CommunicationChannels
Utilizing Appropriate CommunicationChannels
Problems with Email
Messages are easily and commonly misinterpreted
Not appropriate for sending negative messages
Overused and overloading on readers Removes inhibitions and can cause inflammatory emotional
Not private: may be forwarded to anyone and monitored by
Making a Positive Impact with Your Email
Clear identity in your email address
Meaningful subject line
Only one screen of information—pick up the phone if more
Make easy to read quickly with bullet points or spacing
Don't assume privacy and meet in person for negative newsReceiver
Meet in person or call if receive an ambiguous or negative email
Do not forward a negative message to colleagues!

Building Rapport Over Email
Build Rapport
• People who take time to get to know each other boost trust immediately
• Discuss non-negotiation-related topics (weather, current events)Highlight your similarities
• People who share similarities are more likely to overcome barriers posed by email

Personal disclosure
• Even superficial disclosures make others like you more ("I just started working on a new project)

Express positive emotions
• "I really like the work you did on..."

Other Electronic Communication
Social Networking Sites:
These are public spaces - anyone can see what you post Can be used for job application screening Avoid "overstimulating" your contactsBlogs:
Employees may post harmful information
Such comments may be cause for dismissal
No First Amendment rights protection
Can be against company policy to post in a blog during company
time and on company equipment/connections

Informal Communication Channels:
"The Rumor Mill"
Why important
Perceived by most employees as being accurate and reliable--86%
Where 75% of employees get their information first
Insightful to managers-what is important to employees, understand
morale, and anxietiesRumors result from:
Desire for information about important situations

Reducing rumors:
Explain decisions and behaviors that may appear inconsistent or
Openly discuss worst-case possibilities—they are almost never as
anxiety-provoking as the unspoken fantasy

Normative Communication Style
creates harmonious
relationships; attention to emotions,
values and fair deal
Communication BarriersBetween Men and Women
Men (Direct and Assertive) talk to:
Emphasize status, power, and independence
Offer solutions
Boast about their accomplishmentsWomen (Indirect and overly polite) talk to:
Establish connection and intimacy
Speak of problems to promote closeness
Express regret and restore balance to a conversation

Intonations: It's the Way You Say It!
Change your tone and you change your meaning:
Cultural Context and Communication
Cultural Context and Communication
Global Implications
- Cross-cultural factors increase communication difficulties
Cultural Barriers:
- Semantics: some words aren't translatable
-Word Connotations: some words imply multiple meanings beyond their definitions
- Tone Differences: the acceptable level of formality of language
- Differences in Tolerance for Conflict: Address directly or indirectlyCultural Context: The importance of social context to meaning
- Low-context cultures (like the U.S.) rely on words for meaning
- High-context cultures gain meaning from the whole situation

To reduce your chance of making a mistake in another culture, err on the side of caution by
Assuming differences until similarity is
Taking time to observe the situation from different perspectives rather than immediately interpreting or evaluating it from your own culture
Practicing empathy in communication by understanding the other person's values, experiences and frame of reference
Treating your interpretations as a working hypothesis and seek feedback
Nonverbal Communication:
Table Arrangements
Competition - sitting across
Nonverbal Communication: Table Arrangements
Nonverbal Communication:
Table Arrangements (long table)
Nonverbal Communication: Table Arrangements (long table)
The Head of the Table: A Good Location for Communication
The Head of the Table: A Good Location for Communication
The universal handshake
This is the handshake used by most leaders and corporate executives. The person delivering it will:
• Look you right in the eye • Fully engage your hand • Smile and pump your hand two or three times.
This handshake expresses that the person using it will be open, trustworthy and willing to listen.
The universal handshake
The Push Off
Interpreted as a stand-offish person without good "people" skills
The Push Off
The Pull-In
Perceived as controlling and manipulative
The Pull-In
Two-Hander, The Topper, and the Twiser

Two- Hander-Conveys insincerity and can instantly reduce trust

The Topper- Assets dominance over the other party

The Twister - ; Asserts dominance the other way

Two-Hander, The Topper, and the Twiser
The Finger Squeeze
Clasping down too soon; leaves both parties unsatisfied—note to always offer your whole hand
The Finger Squeeze
The Bone Crusher
Inappropriate use of hand pressure to convey strength; Try to match pressure by other party at an appropriate level
The Bone Crusher
The Palm Pinch
Never appropriate in business
The Palm Pinch
The Dead Fish
Conveys lack of energy and interest in the other
The Dead Fish
Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries
Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries
Signs of Poor Listening
• Learning about events too late
• Information must be repeated
• Always putting out fires
• Tasks given to others
• Increase in written
Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries (cont'd)
Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries (cont'd)
Summary and Application - Communications
The less employees are uncertain, the greater their satisfaction;
good communication reduces uncertainty!Communication is improved by:
-Choosing the correct channel
- Being a good listener - Using feedback

Potential for misunderstanding in electronic communication is
higher than for traditional modes

There are many barriers to international communication that
must be overcome

Feedback: Why is it so Important
Helps to improve performance and
Clarify the supervisor's expectations
Increase morale
Develop teamworkA lack of good feedback can
Reduce confidence Cause conflict

Without feedback, mistakes go uncorrected and good
performance is not reinforced

Quiz: Answer These Four Question

*Mindset: a set of beliefs that determine one's behaviors, outlook and attitudes

Fixed Mindset - Your intelligence is something very basic about you that you can't change much

Fixed Mindset - You can learn new things, but you can't really change how intelligent you are

Growth mindset - No matter how much intelligence you have, you can
always change it quite a bit

Growth mindset - You can always substantially change how intelligent
you are

The Fixed Mindset Problem
People with a fixed mindset:
Avoid challenges because they want to make sure to
succeed and don't want to risk looking stupid
See feedback as criticism
Hide deficiencies instead of overcoming them
Put down more successful others and seek friends who will
shore up their self-esteem instead of challenge them to
Take Growth Mindset Action
Realize that intelligence is not fixed -it can be improved
through learningStretch yourself and stick with it even when the going
gets tough

React to failure by trying harder; failing is an opportunity
to learn

Seek and be receptive to feedback; love learning

Motivate yourself to look for ways to continue to

Giving Feedback: Be Timely
The most effective feedback is based on direct observation, never hearsay.
Give feedback as close to the event as possible so the person can reflect on the event and do something about it.
Give feedback in private to allow for face saving.
Check for understanding—encourage the employees to come up ideas for improvement
Giving Feedback: Be Focused
Be clear and specific
- Helps to avoid being misunderstood
-Decreases the opportunity for anxiety to arise
- Diminishes the potential for argumentsBe direct and factual but impersonal
- Avoid general comments which are hard to learn from
- Avoid using definitive words such as "all the time," "never," and

Focus on only a few behaviors
- Don't overwhelm
- Practice being a one minute supervisor

Giving Feedback: Own Your Message
Feedback is a perception and not the ultimate truth. To reflect this, use phrases such as:
"I noticed" - instead of "You did"
"I find your actions" - instead of "You are" "I feel" - instead of "You didn't"Use positive language "I think you could be even more effective if..."
-Don't be accusatory "That was unprofessional behavior..." vs. "How do you think the customer felt when..."
-Take ownership of message—don't blame others ("Others have said")
-Make sure your non-verbal cues match what you are saying

Giving Feedback: Balance
Balanced feedback has the greatest impact on changing behavior and improving performance:
Provide positive feedback as well as constructive criticism. You can always find something good to say, even if it is a small item.
Try to find occasions where you can give only positive feedback to offset
later constructive criticism during rough times.
Feedback Recipient: Questions for Clarification
Open-ended Questions
• How would you like...? • What do you think might
happen if...?
• What concerns you about
•What would you like toClarifying
• What makes that upsetting?
• How did you decide to...?
• When you say . . . what were you
referring to?

Exploring questions
• What concerns you about
• What are your expectations
• When you say . . . what were
you referring to?

Feedback Exercise
Remember to:
Identify current behaviors that you want to reinforce or redirect
Identify specific situation(s) where you observed these
Describe the impacts and consequences of the current
Identify alternative behaviors and actions for you, the employee,
and others to take
Evaluate Yourself
Was the feedback
specific and data based rather than general?
descriptive rather than evaluative?
directed toward controllable behaviors rather than
personality traits or characteristics?
intended to help, not punish?Did the feedback
seek the employee's response for an open and balanced
suggest rather than prescribe avenues for improvements?

Why Feedback May Not Be Effective
• Choice of language and tone
• Poor timing- to much of a delay or in front of others
• Giving too much information
• Not having a balance of positives with needs for improvement
Initiating Difficult Conversations
Structure the Conversation:
Acknowledgement Clarify-Problem Solve

Habits of Poor Listeners
• Calling the topic boring • Criticizing the speaker's delivery
• Orally or mentally interrupting to disagree or
thinking of counter-argument while the speaker
is still speaking
• Listening only for facts and ignoring emotion • Pretending to listen or thinking of other things
(e.g. ,lunch)
• Multi-tasking (e.g., looking at phone)
Intuitive communication style
look to the future and offer
creative solutions
Analytic communication style
Logical analysis; weigh pros
and cons
Factual communication style
Point out facts and details in
neutral way