4.3. Case 4: Jakarta; Indonesian Capital
The development of new cities anticipates resolving various challenges including pressure posed by population increases. Essentially, the development of new cities is also a product of demand for reducing large cities and enhancing economic development. However, the presumed bargain does not always hold. With the rising intensity of urban factories, challenges such as security, infrastructure, traffic and environmental degradation among others have been rising rapidly. Another case of new city development was the South Tangerang City, located of Indonesian Banten province which was precipitated by increased challenging environment of Jakarta City. The establishment of this city was considerate of economic aspects only. This implied that it ignored environmental and social implications of the establishment. Subsequently, the development of the city ignored defined controls for the implementation of the projects in ensuring sustainability of the city.
The assessment of sustainability of cities is principally systematic since their growth is leveraged by behavioral elements such as ecological, social and economic issues involved. However, the South Tangerang City was particularly developed in a bid to enhance economic activities with rapidly growing population in the capital of Jakarta. In particular, Jakarta is the Indonesian capital and the biggest metropolitan to the Southern region of Asia with a significantly large population growth and series of urban problems. The rise of Jakarta was a product of President Soekarno’s vision to establish it as one of the largest city possible.
The president of Indonesia gave this city his advanced symbolic new framework of 132 meters high state monument under Main Street alignment with spacious novel government, shopping plazas, hotels and recreational facilities of Senayan which were critical to the Asian sporting in 1962 and perhaps the largest most of Istiqlal among other distinguished features. These constructions progressed under the new orders coming into force in 1967. Through President Soekano’s regime, the country reaped a significant economic growth alongside reduced population of poor from 40 percent in 1976 to 11.2 percent in 1996. By mid-1990s, Jakarta was growing towards a global city class.
The global economic crisis hitting the globe in 1998/99 however resulted in decline in growth of the Jakarta City as a result of disrupted city operation leading the city shifting from a ‘global city’ to a large ‘city of crises. The crisis resulted into a fall of the domestic and foreign direct investments which implied a fall in the city development capacity. The sudden decline in the city productive capacity was critical in enhancing the suitability of the city for investments while the demand for office space among other investment opportunities declined dramatically. One of the fundamental causes of strong impact of the economic crisis was lack of fortified consideration of future possibilities of a crisis. In particular, the city was established principally on the vision of president Soekarno. Failure to invoke the desires of community of residents was particularly one of the main causes of shear loss of loyalty to streamline the operational capacity of the city amidst prevailing negative externalities. The foundation of a city is very critical to its sustainability. The ability to withstand external pressure is particularly anchored on the foundational potential of its establishment.
4.4. Case 4: Port Louis; Mauritius
Tourism in Mauritius has been one of the main economic pillars for a long period of time. Port Louis has been a major destination and a potential hub for visitors into the country seeking to visit beautiful sceneries among other tourist attractions. The development of city lives is essential for enhanced tourism in any country globally. Port Louis has played a significant role in the development of tourism sector of Mauritius. The city is organized in distinct Main Streets comprising of shopping areas, nightlife and market centers which culminates to the distinct alignment of the city business framework.
Mauritius is also renowned for its distinguished products including rich culture and natural heritage which is a significant aspect promoting the country’s tourism sector. The ethnic composition entails multi-racial, multi-lingual and multi-cultural composition. These ethnic mix results into the country’s new reference as a ‘cultural Carrefour’ while the natives have been have special expression of hospitality. Port Louis is also defined by cultural diversity which has also leveraged the city economy in general. The diverse Mauritius culture is the main booster of the country’s tourism and economic at large.
Port Louis also boasts of concrete ability for population management. Majority of tourists visiting Mauritius through Port Louis often find them in engrained in surprise visit of the city cultural artifacts as well as intermingling with the city residents. The city defined by diversity and hospitality offers a distinguished environment for tourists visiting the country. In the light of diverse population within the city and rural areas, Mauritius is a cross-road of several land plates. One of the main embodiment that strengthen the look of Port Louis is her stringent look positing its rich historical artifacts engrained among other places, the section sitting the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural organization and federal government entities.
The influence of international community has also found its share of effect in Port Louis. In particular, UNESCO has been focused towards enhancing peace globally. Subsequently, it has classified the Mauritius’ Le Morne as a place of high resistance to slavery while Ghat has been acclaimed to have strong practice of slavery, titles accruing from the coolie business. Due to high consideration of the country’s culture and historical artifacts, Port Louis shares a significant reflection of the countries rich culture through positioned artifacts indicating a series of the country’s renowned cultural diversity through art works. The organization of the city lifestyle and street arrangement makes it easy to map out different facets of the city distinct design. Ghana is similar to Mauritius in a number of ways. First, the country has virtually similarly diverse ethnic group though can hardly match out the Mauritius case.
Another critical aspect of the Mauritius culture that many city residents identify with is the Sega dance. Sega is one of the most interesting dances for any Mauritius residing within the city or beyond. In particular, the Mauritius locals are typically brought up with the dance, hence an integral part of their daily lives. Subsequently, the city which comprises of majority of locals have considered these element by setting asides dance halls and multiple night clubs that embrace the dance.
The origin of this dance is however credited with slavery, a historical occurrence in the country. The dance is also highly envied in several beaches of Mauritius which marks an integral part of the country’s history. The determination of a distinguished city cultural environment is an essential mix in considering competitive planning and design framework was an integral part of the Port Louis City and generation of a cohesive mentality in city development and choice of distinct designs. The development of Port Louis to its current state is critical in stimulating long-term growth. These instincts are critical to informing Kpone to undertake a comprehensive focus on its cultural framework that promotes long-term growth as an alternative city to the capital, Accra.