There is not one precise definition of intelligence. But, the idea of intelligence can be seen as a cluster of mental abilities that has the ability to obtain and use knowledge, exhibit problem-solving skills, and to excel at a variety of tasks (Shirker & Levy, 2010). Intelligence is a necessary factor that allows one to adapt to one's environment.
But outside of the dominion of cultural context, intelligence cannot be really explained; this is because questions on intelligence tests that are scored often o not have the same meaning in every culture (Shirker & Levy, 2010). Howard Gardener's theory proposed his own view of intelligence in which he claimed that seven intelligences work independently but concurrently, completing one another. The PASS theory, a basis for the Cognitive Assessment System, features three functional units.
Both these theories have a significant impact within psychology and smooth out the loose ends of extensive cross-cultural cracks in calculating tools. Theory of Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner offered an alternative understanding of intelligence, which added o the traditional definition; it incorporated three-dimensional relations, mathematics, music, linguistic ability, and interpersonal knowledge (Kaufman, 2013). Gardner (1989), defined intelligence as "the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting" (P. 4). His definition acknowledged mathematical and verbal skills.
Gardener's theory outlines seven intelligences; linguistic, logical/mathematical, spatial, bodily, musical, interpersonal, and two personal intelligences of social feelings and intentions of others. According to the theory of multiple intelligences, the intelligences work simultaneously, accompanying one another while an individual learns, develops, improves, and masters life skills. Gardner argued for the cultural and biological basis by emphasizing the outcomes of neurological research, which maintenances knowledge as a result of basic function capability and changes.
Gardner not only had his biological origin for multiple intelligences, he also believes that culture plays an important role in the development of intelligence than traditionally acknowledged Gardner, 1983). Some cultures value and preserve certain types of intelligences, especially if they help with the improvement and maintenance of a culture. The more discipline. A particular intelligence can be very much developed due to a culture's value, while others may not develop or develop hardly at all (Gardner, 1983).
PASS Theory The PASS theory of intelligence proposes that cognition is organized in three functional units that are applied widely to IQ tests. According to Lira's idea of this model, PASS stands for Planning, Attention-Arousal, and Simultaneous and Successive model of processing (Kaufman, 2013). According to this model, the first functional unit's Job is to focus and sustain attention. The second function is the attention process, which maintains alertness and arousal levels, and warrants focus on important stimuli.
The final functional unit accepts and stores information with consecutive and concurrent processing. PASS theory challenges what is the foundation of all cognitive processes; G-based theories. G-based theories of human intelligence say that "human intellectual functioning is best described as a unitary class" (Dash & Abbott, 1995). The challenge comes from the fact that g-theory believes that neurophysiology research that establishes the brain is made up of diverse codependent organisms (Dash & Abbott, 1995).
The PASS theory seeks to explain intelligence in a more dynamically appropriate sense and to overcome gaps from the traditional IQ test. IQ tests are based on outdoes theories that rely on correlations between the IQ scores, but not taking into consideration that intelligence is evolving and unsolicited. Intelligence Testing The reason that traditional IQ testing is not reliable is because they are built on he concept that intelligence is mainly methodical and fixed. Gardner believed in calculating intellectual tendencies at an early age because he did not believe intelligences are permanent (Morgan, 1996).
As cultures vary, they reach intelligence at different levels and they may see certain skills and knowledge of more value than others (Kaufman, 2013). Gardener's theory is flexible to the dissimilarities in intelligences cross-culturally and is genuine in measuring intelligence (Morgan, 1996). The PASS theory emphasizes on developments, rather than intelligence and ability helps with being familiar cross-culturally, and is rather reasonable as oppose to general IQ testing (Dash & Abbott, 1995).
General IQ testing and similar tests stress the importance of language and mathematical abilities,; this is not exactly accurate cross-cultural measurement (Kaufman, 2013). Conclusion The unfairness of intelligence testing is submerged. The measurements of these tests are reliable, but only to a small fraction of the population cross-culturally. Both theories mentioned smooth out the bumps of widespread gaps in effective assuring tools when it comes to cross-cultural population. Different cultures cannot be effectively measured by traditional IQ and similar psychological tests.