The numbers of states using tests as a condition for high school graduation is on the rise with 26 states projected to use sets as a condition for graduation by 2003 and six states now using tests as a condition for grade promotion. High stakes testing programs are a product of the growing movement to improve public education by ensuring that schools more fully reflect and conform to the needs of business and industry and the criteria used to judge success and effectiveness in business and industry.

Toward this end, the new Abacas and other high stakes testing programs emphasize the importance of holding teachers and schools accountable for students learning as measured by student's performances on standardized tests. Bush's "No Child Left Behind" plan hopes to reform the modern educational system in America. The key objective of the President's plan is to close the educational deficit between private and public schooling, Anglo and minorities.

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Bush hopes to accomplish this goal by raising the standards in public schools, and increasing the accountability of those schools, districts, and states for the success of the students. Annual assessments in reading and math will be the prime measurement of this success. Those schools that succeed in improving education and minimizing deficits will be rewarded with federal onuses, but schools that fail to meet the standards will lose federal funding, and possibly be forced to shut down.

Bush's plan to bolster the educational system has good intentions and reachable goals, but the plan relies too heavily on linguistic and mathematical achievement testing to measure success. Reform efforts such as no child left behind, race to the top and the common core state standards are being nitpicked for their effectiveness as a whole towards students and teachers. In fact, "slightly more than one-third of Americans have ever heard of the common core; mongo Americans with children in public schools, fewer than half recognized the core. Even among those who were somewhat 'knowledgeable" of the core, the opposing views of the proposed standards made it clear that increased awareness of these standards is essential to the publics understanding. In the opening of "The Theory of Multiple Intelligences," Gardner uses a story that demonstrates his belief on the effectiveness of standardized testing. Two children take a standardized test to measure what Gardner refers to as a traditional type of intelligence, or "the ability to answer items on tests of intelligence. One child scores well, while the other scores only average marks.

As the test predicted, the child that scored well had a successful school career, where the average child had a typical school career. Later in life however, the average child has "become a highly successful mechanical engineer," where the above-average student found only eventual mediocre success as a mid- level bank manager. (Gardner classifies the engineer who has "risen to a position of prominence in both the community of engineers and civic groups in his community" as successful, but the mid-level bank manager as "ordinary'.

Gardner seems to define success through a high sense of achievement, economic status and some contribution to the community. For the remainder of the essay these criteria will serve to define success. ) Gardner uses this story to reveal that while standardized intelligence tests measuring linguistic and mathematical ability may predict school- success, they do not offer an accurate prediction of success in life. Since nearly twenty years, education in the United States has been strongly impacted by "standards movement".

Linked proximally to evaluation and insatiability, standard- eased reforms, not like most other educational systems like open education, behavioral goals, and least ability, has gained ground in an extremely severe and all- encompassing manner. Right from parents to policy-makers, there is an ardent countrywide support to use standards as the base for improving schools. As per Collins Cobbled dictionary, "a standard is a stage of quality or achievement, particularly a stage which is considered to be good enough.

It is something used to calculate or approximate the quality or degree of something, for instance, the degree of superiority of a piece of work. In the sphere of education, a standard is a word that describes a growing body of knowledge and set of expertise which is the foundation for quality education. They put across what every student must know and be capable to perform, however do not state pedagogy. (Why have a standards-based curriculum, and what are the implications for the teaching-learning-assessment process? The quintessence of a "standard" is to depict a level of knowledge or performance that is necessary for some reason. For instance, there is a standard fixed by the telephone companies relating to the manner operators communicate with the customers, by the State Government to deliver driving licenses, a intensity of accuracy is necessary for building autos, and a set of unambiguous strategy for assessing gymnastics, diving, and ice skating. In an identical manner, teachers employ objectives of the students to find out what will be imparted, and as a criterion for making grades for student's work.

Each of these "standards" has two parts: an account of what will be recognized or performed, and a suggestion of quality of its performance. In education, these two magnitudes have been pointed as content tankard and performance standards, and they point out to fairly diverse concepts, each having a separate set of connotation. In standard-based education, the syllabus and units of study are distinctly delineated, comprehended by the teachers and students and conveyed to every employee, families and the community.

Standard-based education system will promote fair play, foster learning of students and strengthen insatiability. Establishing standards is a vital and efficient learning instrument as they state distinct prospect of what every student must have an understanding and capable of ongoing with the language. They can be supportive to various populations like the state, districts and school, teachers, student and parents. Establishing a national standard lets to setting aside for identical chance for every student. To start with every student is evaluated against the same standards.

In the absence of a universal standard and every teacher establishing his or her independent standard, the expectation of the school on their student will be diverse. As there will be no element for comparison, instruction as well as assessment cannot be unswerving. Secondly, in the event of establishing a national standard, it is obvious what the students will be learning at various stages of their education. Examination provided by the state can assess the development of the student towards achievement of the standard.

The students who are failing in achieving the standards can be given preliminary, efficient help. (Why have a standards-based curriculum and what are the implications for the teaching- learning-assessment process? ) Standards set students to fix particular objectives with understanding of the particular prospect and norms for success. This lets to set objectives that are attainable. The evenness of a standard based procedure currently opens opportunities to individuals.

Customized learning methods, learning at one's independent speed, identification of the specific learning that requires to happen, aids in describing the manner in which and what students are required to be aware and be capable to perform to attain the age suitable standard, as observed by several remarks. The transition to standards-based evaluation aids in building a culture of success in which every student can attain a satisfactory standard. In case of students, standard established apparent performance prospects, aiding them to empowered what they are required to do so as to fulfill the standards.

These works lets the students to exhibit their knowledge, including the norm for evaluation. In conclusion standardized tests make sense, Just as final exams tell us whether a student understands solid geometry, graduation tests tell us if a student has grasped enough high school work to Justify a diploma. Just as a mid-term exam would show whether students have absorbed the first principles of the class their taking at the time of the exam. Therefore politicians seem to love the tests: In pursuit of accountability and high standards, they have required an increasing number of tests at many stages of K-12 education.