A hypermedia database is a computer retrieval system. The database allows the user to access texts, video and audio recordings and photographs. Files are stored according to subject. Hypermedia Database Hypermedia database comprises a set of Interconnected multimedia web pages. In this type of database, information is stored online and the data can be accessed by several users at a time. Hypermedia, an extension of the term hypertext, is a nonlinear medium of information which includes graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks.
This contrasts with the broader term multimedia, which may include non-interactive near presentations as well as hypermedia. It Is also related to the field of electronic literature. The term was first used In a 1965 article by Ted Nelson. The World Wide Web Is a classic example of hypermedia, whereas a non-Lancaster cinema presentation Is an example of standard multimedia due to the absence of hyperlinks. The first hypermedia work was, arguably, the Aspen Movie Map. Bill Atkinson HyperCard popularized hypermedia writing, while a variety of literary hypertext and hypertext works, fiction and nonfiction, demonstrated the promise of links.
Most odder hypermedia is delivered via electronic pages from a variety of systems including media players, web browsers, and stand-alone applications (I. E. , software that does not require network access). Audio hypermedia Is emerging with voice command devices and evolve browsing. Hypermedia applications Accessing information is basically different when using hypermedia than when using traditional database technology. Typical traditional database access is via direct inquiry using unique keys, or queries in the information database. In hypermedia, information access is handled through structuring the information.
Users access new information by following links from existing information to new information. Simply put, information in hypermedia databases has three typical features. Firstly, the information is not homogeneous. Different forms of information objects such as text, audio and pictures may be used alone or together, and information which Is semantically different Is tied together. Secondly, hypermedia systems have a high degree of user Interaction. Thirdly hypermedia Information Is structured. If the hyperbolas Is to be built from Information already possessing structure, this structure may be retained, if so desired.
Hypermedia may thus be employed to model existing same way as the original. Conversely, hypermedia may also be used to introduce new structure in the information. An author writing about a hypermedia topic may use whatever structure s/he desires. Hypermedia may thus also be used to structure information. Now let us examine some typical applications for hypermedia. To place this in context, we shall start by describing a system which probably would not lend itself to hypermedia. An example of a system less suited for hypermedia. An imaginary vehicle register consists of a number of items, with each item (object) presenting a vehicle.
Each object is structured identically, with a fixed number of fields describing the object's attributes. The content of the information database thus has a high degree of homogeneity. There is little relation between the individual objects, as a vehicle does not have a direct link to another vehicle. Inquiries may be made using vehicle registration numbers or owner names. Directing inquiries to particular vehicles is rarely necessary, the typical transaction is periodically processing the entire database. One such process may be periodical printing of summons for technical checks.
Such a system will not be able to utilities the special features offered by hypermedia. As mentioned above, hypermedia information databases are homogeneous, and the ability of hypermedia to connect different information objects is not very interesting in this case. Each object is independent on other objects, and there is no way the vehicle register can utilities hypermedia ability to structure information. Moreover, a vehicle register would have little need for user interaction. The next items show some application areas well-suited for hypermedia. This is an informal list, more formal definitions are given in Conklin (Conklin 87, p. ). Literature systems. Different types of literature require organizing the material, as well as references to other literature. Literature systems lend themselves well to the rich ways of structuring information afforded by hypermedia. Documents are kept together by means of organization links. This structure may be created by the author, or it may be the original structure of a document which has been converted from printed text to hypermedia. References to other parts of the document and to other documents are handled by reference links. This allows direct references to other documents, if the other document are in the hyperbolas.
A document featuring a literary analysis of Ibsen "The Wild Duck" may refer directly to scenes in the play if the play is in the hyperbolas. Those parts of the play referenced by the analysis document may thus appear to be integral parts of it though in reality the play is an independent document in the hyperbolas. Users often may make their own private notes by means of private reference links. Publishing. Compared to traditional printed information media, hypermedia has the advantage of being able to present other information than text and pictures. Information objects such as audio and film may be included in a document.
As this publishing is electronic, it will be easier to distribute than traditional printed matter. One concrete instance of a system used for publishing is The Peruses Project (Crane 91). This information base with hyperventilation contains information on ancient Greece. An advantage with hypermedia in this connection is that the price is substantially lower than that for printed material. Crane especially mentions the price of printing photographs, which is expensive to print but inexpensive in electronic media. Instruction systems. Move around at will in the information, hopefully learning while Jumping from node to node.
Motorcade's DID extension Road, Russell, Jensen, Rogers 89) is especially adapted for developing instruction systems. Such systems often place heavy demands on the hypertext, as merely browsing the system alone is insufficient. Instruction systems require the ability to guide the student through the material, creating recommended paths to follow. A simple way to add comments is also required. Problem-solving systems. This type of system is used for interrupt communication. When using hypermedia opportunities for allowing a number of users to access the same information set, a work group may seek solutions to different issues.
Discussions, document sharing, and the ability to let work-group members comment on the work of other members are typical features of such systems. An example of a concrete application may be the process of system development. One system especially intended for this use is globs (Conklin, Began 88). Idea tools. A number of experts have argued that the linear structure of traditional documents is inadequate for representing thinking and ideas. As hypermedia offers a non-linear structure, it may well be an appropriate tool for structuring thoughts and ideas. The Notepads system is intended as a personal idea tool.