Introduction The below are the possible factors that might affect how quickly a sugar cube dissolves in water temperature of water/liquid water being shaken water being stirred the sugar lump being loose amount of sugar in the cube In this experiment, I will be investigating if the change in water temperature (independent variable) would affect the time it takes for sugar to dissolve (dependent variable). Aim The aim of this experiment is to find out if the water’s temperature would affect the time it takes for sugar to dissolve.

To do that, we would investigate the time it takes for the a sugar cube to become flat in the bottom of a beaker. Hypothesis I think that the warmer the water is, the faster the sugar cube will dissolve in water. According to the Particle Theory, the warmer the water is, the more space there will be between the water particles because they move quicker. Apparatus Glass beaker x1 Plastic beaker x1 Hot water 575ml Tap water 325ml Thermometer x1 Timer x1 Ice cubes x2 Sugar cubes x9 Below are the apparatus for the equipment used. Method We will: Try 9 different temperatures

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Time how long it takes for sugar to become flat on the bottom of the beaker Mix tap water, hot water and ice to get different temperatures Step Fill 150ml of tap water into a beaker and measure temperature with a thermometer Drop a sugar cube into water and start timing until the sugar cube is flat on the bottom Record the time Repeat steps 1-3 but with a different combination of hot water, tap water and ice until there is one for every 10°C starting from 10°C to 80°C Fair Testing To conduct fair testing, the controlled variables should be kept constant throughout the whole experiment We can control variables by using the same: 1. Thermometer

Not all thermometers are the same, and not all of them are accurate so suing the same thermometer all the way would give the most reasonable and accurate results 2. Sugar cube size The size of the sugar cubes are important because the time it takes for a 200 gram sugar cube to dissolve is different from the time it takes for a 100 gram sugar cube to dissolve 3. Same amount of water Using the same amount of water because putting 2 ice cubes into 1 liter of water and putting 2 ice cubes into 150ml would result in a different temperature because there would be less ice to go around. . The same person We should use the same person for dropping the sugar and timing to minimize reaction time and to avoid dropping the sugar cube into the water accidentally Data Collection My result was: Table of results1st trial2nd trial3rd trial4th trial5th trial6th trial7th trial8th trial9th trial Volume150ml tap150ml hot100ml hot 50ml tap50ml hot 100ml tap150ml hot125ml hot 25ml tap150ml hot150ml tap 2 ice cubes150ml tap Temperature21°C81°C55°C39°C45°C67°C77°C8°C28°C Time 11 mins38 secs3 mins4:37 mins3:30 mins1:25 mins56 mins5:39 mins5:35 mins

Data processing Conclusion Based on the results from the experiment, the temperature of water does affect the time it takes for sugar to dissolve, the line of best fit also shows the same results. The results I got showed that the warmer the water, the faster sugar dissolves. The results mostly proved my hypothesis correct, which is the warmer the water the quicker sugar will dissolve in it because there would be more space between each particle. There were 2 exceptions for my results, one of them being the trial at 21°C, it showed hat it took 11 minutes for sugar to dissolve, but when I retried it, it only took 5:35 minutes. The other was the trial at 8°C, the time it took was almost the same as the time it took for 26°C. I think my results are not reliable because in this experiment I only measured the time it took for sugar to appear flat on the bottom of the beaker, but instead, I should have waited for the sugar to completely dissolve for the most accurate answer. Evaluation Possible errors in this experiment are . Not waiting until the sugar is fully dissolved 2. The temperature of the water returning back to room temperature 3. Water not mixed If I were to do the experiment again, we should first try to mix the water in the beaker so that the temperature of the water inside the beaker would be equal, if I didn’t mix it, the hot water would stay at the top and the cold would sink down to the bottom, we should at least mix the water for 15 seconds to get a more accurate temperature of the water.

Second, we could try to wait until the whole sugar cube is dissolved into the water, although it might take a very long time, it would be a more accurate way for conducting the experiment. Third, we could try to keep the temperature of the water the same throughout the whole experiment, when we put 100°C water into a beaker, the temperature would quickly drop down maybe 10°C in a minute or so.

So if we had a machine that would keep a consistent temperature the whole time, we could get a more accurate result. In order to investigate this problem fully with better, more accurate and dependable results, we could repeat this experiment 2-3 times then compare the results. We could also get a camera with very high memory and record the full process which requires the sugar cube to fully dissolve into the water. I think that these ideas would help us a lot in gathering the correct answer.