Growth of minorities 1 Antoine Harris Running Head: Growth of Minorities Growth of Minorities and the Changing of America Workforce Antoine Harris Strayer University PAD530 Public Personnel Management May 30, 2009 To Dr. Orlando Rivero, D. B. A. Growth of minorities 2 Abstract: The following paper will review information on the changing workforce of America during the 20th century. The paper will specifically focus on what the workforce of America looked like in the 20th century and the role it had with minorities. The paper will also focus on eight problems the American workforce had faced during the 20th century.
Finally, the paper will also review the impact of affirmative actions on the workplace regarding minorities. Growth of minorities 3 In this paper you will learn about the problems faced during the 20th century. You will learn that each Company has their own difficulty to face and many are not sure how to tackle these troubles. Some have to try to combat a number of problems however have not been successful. Other companies have entirely ignored the harms and let the company continue running the way it has always ran.
The 20th century was know for it’s great shift in the way that vast numbers of people lived as a result of technological, medical, social, ideological, and political innovation. Terms like ideology, world war, genocide, and nuclear war entered common usage. The early 20 century was noted as a period of healing and reconstruction for the United States of America (Berge 1998). Rebuilding a country that was torn apart by a Civil War, this nation was forced to change the view that many Americans had about newly freed black slaves. During this particular time, the black population, as a whole, was going through turmoil due to this struggle.
In the first half of the century, the unemployment rate oscillated from a low of 1. 4 percent in 1918–1919 to a peak of 24. 9 percent in 1933 and then to another low of 1. 2 percent in 1944 (Harcourt Brace, 1937). Before and after the Great Depression, unemployment was largely a blue-collar affliction. Nearly two-thirds of the male factory workers in a sample of Middletown families interviewed by the Lynds had at least one spell of unemployment during the first nine months of 1924. None of the white-collar employees in the sample had that experience (Harcourt Brace, 1937) (see chart down below).
Growth of minorities 4 [pic] The American workforce was much better off at the end of the century than it was at the beginning The 20th century was also a great period for the American workers since wage increase, better benefits and working conditions improved over the course of the century (Fisk 2003). The job that most man was doing was being replaced by machines. Within the productions occupation many inventions and machines were being introduced and the labor for man was being replaced by machines. The services industry was the only industry that saw an increase in percentage. Ben J.
Wattenberg in his book “The First Measure Century An Illustrated Guide to Trends in America, 1900–2000” gives an extensive history of minorities in the 20th century. The book is about social change in the United States during the twentieth century. It relies on statistical trends to tell that awesome story. He lists, states, gives some highlights, main points, breaks, and lists down different periods as follows. In his research he found that only one out of twenty physicians, lawyers and engineer were female. He also found that during the 1940 that four thousand black physicians, one
Growth of Minorities 5 thousand black lawyers and three hundred black engineers in the entire country. After the civil right revolution of the 1960s it was a decrease black physicians in 1970 than in 1940, but three times as many lawyers and twelve times as many engineers however they still constituted less than 2 percent of their respective professions that help primarily black customer At the end of the century, the proportions of women and blacks among students preparing for medicine, law, and engineering were higher than among active practitioners.
As a result, the post-1970 trends were set to continue for many years to come. The sharp growth of Hispanic and Asian-American representation in the major professions, which occurred later than for women and blacks, will also persist far into the next century (Wattenberg 2000). [pic] Growth of minorities 6 Just as occupations stared to change companies began to see more females in their company. In 1900 women in the labor force only made up 19% with in this 19% of women were Lawyers and only 6% were Physicians. However, in 1999 the percentage of females in the workforce increased.
The numbers of women in the labor force consists of 60% and in the number 29% of the women are Lawyers and 24% are Physicians. Women have come long way from the start of the century. Changes in the Workforce Much has being written about the changing nature of the American workforce during the 20 century. Chong Kim , Dennis Emmett and Andrew Sikula in there book “Ethic and Behavior” focused on those changes . Global Competition In the article written by Chong Kim “Employee Relations Ethics and the Changing Nature of the American Workforce” from the book “Ethic and Behavior” she focused on those changes.
The first change is global competition. Global competition refers to the expansion of economies beyond national borders, in particular, the expansion of production by transnational corporations to many countries around the world (Kim 2001). The global economy includes the globalization of production, markets, finance, communications, and the labor force. Global competition is effecting on the US economy in several ways. First many of American companies moved to China because of cheap labor and more profit.
For example, companies, such as Nike, Reebok, and Liz Claiborne are just a few of the thousands of which find that they can generate hundreds of millions Growth of minorities 7 of dollars in business with out owning manufacturing facilities in the United States. They can contract out operations to firms in third world countries, employing much cheaper labor (Robbins, 1997). As a consequence, people living in America are losing jobs making it harder to get jobs as well. The Changing Skills of Work The next factor is changing skills of workers due to information systems technology.
Since the 20th century was considered the century with the most dynamic and productive centuries of all. The century stared off with inventions such as the escalator, migrated towards the atomic bomb and towards the end of the century DVD in 1995. With all these great inventions and technology it shifted the way companies did business. The workforce is moving from the manual skills to more industrial, machine power. Jobs that were popular before World War II such as the service industry are in great decline after the war.
Factories jobs where being eliminated and big time companies are having great lay-offs. The Declining Impact of Unions The next factor is the declining impact of union. Before the 1940’s unionism was very big among American workers however the changing conditions of the 1980s and 1990s undermined the position of organized labor, which now represented a shrinking share of the work force. According to the U. S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Statistics, more than one-third of employed people belonged to unions in 1945; union membership fell to 24. percent of the U. S. work force in 1979 and to 13. 9 percent in 1998. The reason for the decline in unions is several factors. More management are Growth of minorities 8 feeling the heat from foreign and domestic competition and are less willing to agree to union demands for higher wages and benefits. Companies are aggressive fighting union attempts to organize workers. Union’s strike doesn’t have the same impact since employers are more willing to hire strikebreakers when unions walk out. The shift to service industry employment has impact as well.
Since new jobs that are created in recent years hire more females, young people and part-time works are less interested to join a union. And more American industry has migrated to the southern and western parts of the United States regions that have a less of following than the northern or eastern regions. The biggest reason for the decline in unions is because there were a lot of union corruptions going on. The years of negative publicity about corruption in the big Teamsters Union and other unions have hurt the labor movement. These are just some of the reasons the decrease of unions has come across America.
The Effects of Continuous Improvement, Downsizing and reengineering Many companies make small efforts to improve their productions by using several methods or technique such as downsizing and reengineering. The driving force behind organizational downsizing is cost reductions and this is generally accomplished through the reduction of number of employees. Another reason for downsizing is to maximize shareholder wealth. Downsizing causes distrust, individualism and a lack of commitment on the part of the organization (Krishnan 1993).
Reengineering, perhaps better termed Business Process Reengineering (BPR) has become the 1990s change management method of choice. Reengineering is when a Growth of minorities 9 company redesigning an organization’s core work processes to accomplish very rapid improvements. Such redesigns focus primarily on lowering operating and support costs, improving service delivery time and response levels, increasing product and service quality levels, and enhancing employee involvement in reaching organizational goals (Hyde 2000) Reengineering happens when over 70% of the organization’s work is changed.
This includes work that questions “how” the process is as well as the “what” of the services and products to be reengineered. The Growing Issue of Part-Time Employees Part-time employees have increased dramatically over the past years. One big question facing many business owners is when to hire full-time staff members or part-time employees, independent contractors or partnering with other small businesses. Many companies are hiring part-time employees. Hiring a part-time employee usually means for the company do not have to offer full-time rights or benefits.
Downsizing also helps with the increases of part-time worker. Downsizing mirrors the growth of contingent labor or part-time worker. During huge laid off number of permanent workers are being replaced with part-time and temporary employees. The Widening Income Disparity Gap Many factors have contributed to the increase in income inequality. Emmett states that “The middle class is shrinking and many are becoming underemployed and disadvantaged (Emmett 2001) What has happened is that favored highly skilled' highly paid workers over low- and middle-income workers.
The decline of many domestic Growth of minorities 10 manufacturing industries, exacerbated by increasing international competition, has led to a decline in the number of well-paying manufacturing jobs for low-skilled workers ( Larin 1998). Low-paying service-sector jobs have been replacing higher-paying manufacturing jobs. Meanwhile, technological innovations such as the increasing use of computers have intensified the demand for highly skilled workers and diminished the demand for lower-skilled workers (Larin 1998). Early Retirement Programs
In general, when we hear the term downsizing, we tend to think of layoffs. Early retirement programs represent another popular method of reducing the workforce of an organization. In fact, early-retirement programs have mushroomed during the 1990s, showing up at some of the best-known names in corporate North America including Polaroid, Unisys Corp. , IBM, Sears, General Motors (Hawthorne, 1993). Many companies believe that if they set in early retirement they can get rid of their veteran employees by hiring younger new employees and pay them half as less.
When early retirement programs are used as a downsizing tool, we are really referring to early retirement incentives programs. Many organizations have regular, on-going early retirement plans aimed at achieving long term cost savings where employees can retire before the age of 65 without any impairment of their benefits; early retirement incentives, on the other hand, are generally offered for a limited time to a select group of employees. Incentives are used to achieve immediate, short run savings in payroll related costs (Koeppen et al. , 1990). The United States has been slow to recognize that early Growth of minorities 11 etirement programs often do more long-term organizational harm than good (Cohen 1994) However the younger, new employees may not know or have the expertise of the veteran employees, therefore the organizations expertise, wisdom and knowledge is gone out the door Telecommunications and Virtue Employees Telecommuting is here to stay. According to a New York-based research firm, 7. 6 million Americans are telecommuting and the number is rising every year (Dimickele 2000). By the 21st century, an estimated 15 million Americans will be telecommuting -- almost 10 percent of the workforce (Dimickele).
Statistics show that currently 15% of the American workforce is working from home. Research has shown that people who benefit from this are working parents, retirees and people who find it difficult to commute to work. Nontraditional work environments give skilled workers more choices and options to perform better. Many companies find they are able to save money by having employees work from home because they companies do not have to pay for office space that is no longer in use. Along with the office space come office supplies such as chairs, desks, computers and other office supplies.
Companies no longer have to purchase for these big ticket items since people are working from home. Affirmative Action The terms affirmative action prefer to policies that take race, ethnicity, or gender into consideration in an attempt to promote equal opportunity. The focus of such policies ranges from employment and education to public contracting and health programs. The Growth of minorities 12 drive towards affirmative action is two fold: to maximize diversity in all levels of society, along with its presumed benefits, and to redress perceived disadvantages due to obvious, institutional, or involuntary discrimination..
Affirmative action programs ensure that qualified minorities and women are included in the pool of potential candidates for skilled positions. For much of the 20th century, racial and ethnic minorities and women have confronted legal and social segregation. African Americans and Hispanic Americans were segregated into low wage jobs, usually agricultural. The first significant wave of progress in enhancing employment opportunities for African Americans and women came during the labor shortages of World War II .
However, racial separation continued, and African Americans were still segregated for the most part into low wage jobs into the 1960s until affirmative actions. Affirmative action programs generally achieve their set goals through several common practices called outreach programs. First, there are special recruiting programs where women and minorities will most likely be found. These special outreach programs often target black universities and female dominated educational facilities. A second outreach program involves special advertising.
Generally, this is also implemented in areas that are heavily populated by women and minorities similar to that of recruiting programs. Through outreach programs like the ones mentioned above, goals can be attained to achieve equity and representation without forgoing higher educated and skilled applicants. These programs can be justified because discrimination is still apparent in the United States today. Other examples of affirmative action attempted in the 1970s and 1980s included having Growth of minorities 13 “quotas”(percentages of represented groups) employed in public agencies and olleges. Critics of affirmative action argued that the resulting “reverse discrimination,” or action taken to provide opportunity only to underrepresent groups, was not a cure for social ills. Fixed quotas were finally declared illegal. Although the affirmative action seems to have had some impact, the degree to which that impact has caused lasting social change remains in question. The unemployment rate of blacks compared to whites is the same as it was in the early 1960s. Employment opportunities for black men have worsened, and a greater percentage of black men have given up on the work force.
Affirmative Action levels the playing field so people of color and all women have the chance to compete in education and in business. However white men hold 95% to 97% of the high-level corporate jobs according to the U. S department of Labor (The U. S. Department of Labor). And that's with affirmative action programs in place. Imagine how low figures would be without affirmative action Recommendations So how do some organizations tackle these problems and survive? Well some organizations have taken steps to look into their Human Resources department to see what kind of employees they are hiring.
Others have set out on job fairs to find the right candidates for positions. These are great ways to assist any company that is facing a work dilemma. Here are my recommendations for business facing problems within American workforce such as diversify your business. Companies diversify their business will be able to meet the expectations of clients as well as able to relate to the clients needs. Also Growth of minorities 14 by hiring minorities and women will give business a chance to show that they represent people just like them.
The next recommendation is to invest in your worker by offering tuition assistant to go to college or training. Companies should offer computer training or tuition assistant in order to maintain your competitive edge. . Your organization must constantly be educating your managers and employees at every level so that they acquire new knowledge and skills. Businesses that move ahead of the competition and stay there will be the ones that invests in their employees. The last suggestion avoid downsizing unless it is necessary. Many companies are downsizing because they believe it is more efficient for the organization..
However it takes a toil on the employees who has to do the jobs of three people. Employees are putting in more hours and are now looking for another job. So instead of downsizing or out sourcing offer the employees and opportunity to work from home to save money on inventory. Conclusion After researching the information on the growth of minorities in the work placed, I found that some progress has been made between the early and late 20th century due to affirmative action. However, those changes are still relatively minor compared to whites in the work place.
Companies of today need to comprehend that the way companies were run in the past has changed, as we better understand the roles minorities and value of minorities. Organizations must continuously examine strengths and weaknesses in Growth of minorities 15 policies related to minorities, as well as what changes they need to adapt in the current recession. More than ever need to do a self examination of their company to see the weakness as well as the strengths and see how hey can change during the rescission Growth of minorities 16 Bibliography: Appelbaum,Steven Eric Patton andBarbara Shapiro (2003)
The early retirement incentive program: a downsizing Strategy Journal of European Industrial Training Applebaum Herbert (1998) American work ethic and the changing work force Published by Greenwood Publishing Group Hyde Albert, Sharfritz Jay Defining Public Administration y M. Shafritz Published by Westview Press, 2000 Emmett, D, Kim, C,W, & Sr. Sikula A (2001) Employee relations ethics and the changing nature of American workforce Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, In Wattenberg, Ben (2000) “The First Measure Century An Illustrated Guide to Trends in America, 1900–2000”