- Groups for soldiers during WWI
- Moral development groups
-role of family and family constellation
-collective counseling: early form of group
-family councils: means to get input from all members of the family on how to resolve problems and improve family relations
-AA was founded-thought peers helping each other would work better than professionals
-Al-Anon-for people who have significant others with drinking problems
-more group guidance in schools
-psychoanalytic group analysis (Burrow)- study how social forces affect behavior
-stressed biological as well as interactive principles of group behavior
-Moreno invented the psychodrama
-people act out issues in theater settings
-audience acts out main character's peers
-studied what went on in groups-group dynamics and leadership
-field theory-emphasizes the interaction between individuals and their environments. Based on Gestalt psychology-the group is a hole that is different from and greater than the parts that comprise it.
-Studied what made good group leadership.
-He was instrumental in establishing a workshop on intergroup relationships that lead to the formation of national training labs (NTL), and the growth of the basic skills training (BST)- which later became training groups (T-Groups).
-Emphasized here and now orientation to the environment.
-he first applied the concept of feedback to group work.
-John Bell: treated families as if all members were strangers using Adler's techniques for family counseling.
-Group vocabulary developed
-Japanese "total quality group"-focus on problem solving related to consumer satisfaction and quality issues and business, later influencing American industry
-People were feeling alone in society
-focus on personal awareness and connectedness
Marathon groups: fatigue leads to a breakdown of defenses and increased truthfulness, resulting in self growth
-Rogers-encounter groups (personal growth groups or sensitivity groups)
-by exposing emotions, it would help one become more aware
-sensitivity group: focus on awareness of own and others' emotional experiences and behavior
-however, during this time, many well-intentioned, but ill qualified people established groups with no clear ideas about how to run them. This set the group movement back considerably.
-Perls-like (role play, empty chair) (p. 358-9)
-increase in number and quality of fieldwork studies by sociologists
-movement of the psychoanalytic treatment into the group domain and the discovery of several dynamics that operate in group psychotherapy.
-Four basic assumptions of gestalt groups:
1. Principal of holism (integration)-emotional debris (unfinished business) from the past needs to be integrated into the self in order for a person to be complete.
2. Principle of awareness-people are free to choose only when they are self-aware (in touch with their existence and what that means)
-focus on present
3. Principle of figure/ground
-figure: experiences that are most important
-background: experiences less pressing
-healthy people take care of most important needs first.
4. Principle of polarities-people must express both sides of a conflict in order to fully integrate the experience.
-only experience they had was their own experience in groups
-groupthink- emphasizes the detrimental power that groups may exert over their members to conform.
-Association for Specialists in Group Work (AS GW) created
-Psychoeducational groups with kids in schools
-Yalom-curative factors within groups and leadership styles
-developmental group counseling-teaches basic life skills
-more emphasis on specialty groups (bulimia, sexual abuse, depression)
-Romano and Sullivan (1998 and 2000) simulated groups
-encounter groups-Rogers approach to group work. Encounter groups are often known as personal growth groups because the emphasis of these groups is on personal development. Emphasis is placed on the exploration of intrapsychic and interpersonal issues, and a feeling of community and connectedness is promoted.
-Also developed "field theory" emphasizing the interaction between individuals and their environments, and is based on a gestalt psychology.
-Discovered that group discussions are superior to individual instruction in changing people's ideas and behaviors.
-The first to apply the concept of "feedback" to group work.
-envision themselves as experts and believe they understand the dynamics and are best able to explain group and individual behavior
-interpret, give advice, and generally direct the movement of the group. In group work, most often resembles instructing and controlling
-direct action, it are protected by structure and function from self disclosing
-tend to be rigid and conventional in their beliefs
-usually results in a leader centered group (see class notes or p. 55 of Gladding for a diagram)
-in extreme cases, can demand obedience and conformity, or can be manipulative or charismatic
-chaos can erupt when leader is absent
-more groups centered and less directive
-trust group members to develop their own potential and that of other group members
-facilitators rather than directors
-cooperate, collaborate, and share responsibilities with the group
-more humanistic and phenomenological
-group members can interact openly
-fosters trust and calculated risk-taking
-can also be called "theory Y leaders"
-see p. 56 of Gladding for a diagram of this leadership style
-"developed the guru within"
-leaders in name only
-do not provide any structure or direction, so members are left with the responsibility of leading
-group centered perspective
-disadvantages: group may be slow to develop agendas and achieve goals
-may be the result of an experienced leaders or leaders who want to avoid making hard decisions and thereby increase their popularity
-also called "theory Z leaders"-a facilitator who encourages group members to participate in the group and trust that individual and collective goals will be accomplished through interaction
-uses of modeling (relating to others, etc.)
-may avoid burnout
-shared specialized knowledge
-pragmatic considerations (missing due to illness)
-2 leader/too leader focused (not enough attention on group members)
-collusion between a leader and group members against the other leader
communication and planning
2. Deciding on a theoretical format
3. Weighting practical considerations
4. Publicizing the group
5. Screening in pretraining
6. Selecting group members
7. Selecting a group leader
2. Challenging myths and misconceptions: asking how they perceive the group developing and their concerns about being a member of it
3. Convey information: nature and limits of confidentiality, also group stages, roles, and the importance of balancing content and process. Talk about length of the group, what might happen, and importance of paying attention to nonverbal and verbal interactions (p. 90 Gladding).
-assess appropriateness of the group for a member, member also assesses appropriateness, do members goals fit the goals of the group?
-Assess persons commitment to the group, if they want to just come and see what it's like, compromise with them to come to at least four of the 10 sessions
-discuss confidentiality (one of the biggest issues in groups)
-give details like time, place, #of sessions, cost, etc.
-discuss leadership style
-what is expected of group members (again setting norms)
-handout guidelines: informed consent, attendance, self disclosure
-by end, establish whether person will join group or provide other resource they can use
-reasons to deselect: lack of commitment, problems too severe, psychotic, drugs, alcohol, mismatch of goals
-discuss if member is in therapy, has relationship with another professional
-if they are under 18, make sure to get parent/guardian consent or follow school policy.
2. Universality-others share the problem
3. Imparting information-suggesting information and not advising
4. Altruism-benefits are received when members help each other
5. Simulation of primary family group-members might look on facilitators as a significant person in their life-father or mother. This might happen in the case of unfinished business in the member's family.
6. Socializing techniques-members learn social skills and try out the skills in a safe setting
7. Imitative behavior-members learn by observing others
8. Interpersonal learning-the group serves as a social microcosm wherein the behavior of others in the group serves as an example for social behavior outside group setting
9. Cohesion-the sense of "we feeling"
10. Catharsis-members find an outlet for their feelings
11. Existential factors-helps members deal with feelings of isolation, freedom and allows them to live more authentic lives.
-(p. 220) seven reasons:
1. Increase comfort level
2. Provide leader with useful info
3. Generate discussion and focus the group
4. Shift the focus
5. Deepen the focus
6. Provide an opportunity for experiential learning
7. Provide fun and relaxation
-too much structure?
-Too much power for leader (group dependent on leader)
-hokey if it doesn't fit the purpose
-may fail if not enough preparation
-not enough processing
2. Implementation: materials and time limits
3. Process: dialogue about what was learned, feelings, applications, etc.
-did this change the group in any way for you?
2. Trust falls
3. Moral dilemmas
4. Touching exercises
-Protecting: safeguard members from unnecessary attacks by a group (e.g., struggles controlling her anger-leader tries to make sure she doesn't receive hostile responses from group).
-Blocking: intervene in group activity to stop counterproductive behavior (e.g. block rambling, storytelling, by confronting, intervening, or cutting off).
-Ensuring all members have opportunity to express themselves
-assigning tasks based on members strengths/sharing leadership toward goals.
-emotional stimulation: confronting members, challenging, highly encouraging of risk-taking and self disclosure to an extreme, charismatic, authoritarian
-caring: emotional empathy, support, affection, person centered, Rogerian
-meaning attribution: explain them, clarifying, interpretive, worked from a cognitive framework of people changing
-executive function: overly focusing on setting limits, packing, suggesting procedures, managing time and how the group was run
-analysis found that caring and meaning attribution led to most positive group outcomes, emotional stimulators and executive function had curvilinear outcome
-too little emotional stimulation: board, not engaged
-too much emotional stimulation: anxious, unable to concentrate
-too little executive functioning: group flounders
-too much executive functioning: group feels controlled
1. Energizers: high in emotional stimulation, executive function, and caring. Energizers are the most charismatic. They tend to feel assured enough to take over for participants and assert firm control. I feel ready, willing, and able to guide participants forward, to "turn them on" to the task at hand.
2. Providers: high in caring and meaning attribution, moderate in emotional stimulation and executive function. Providers are individually focused leaders who give information and ideas about how to change. They exude a quality of enlightened paternalism or maternalism.
3. Social engineers: high in meaning attribution, low in emotional stimulation, varied in executive function. Social engineers are group-focused, concerned with how people relate to the system. These leaders are not "personal in style" like the providers, but they do exhibit relatively high levels of support and affection. They mainly offer the communication of support, and the spewing of the work of the group as a whole.
4. Impersonals: moderately high in emotional stimulation, low in caring, executive function, meaning attribution. In personals are distant, aggressive stimulators. They are, in a word, "impersonal."
5. Laissez-faire: low in emotional stimulation, caring (much like impersonals), and executive functions; moderate to high on meaning attribution. Laissez-faires our laid-back, showing minimal enthusiasm in any particular way. They tend to do their job, with some insight and ideas.
6. Managers: extremely high in executive function. Managers show unusual degrees of control over how, about what, and for how long group members interact with one another.
Leaders way to handle stage: joining-the process by which members connect with one another. Linking: process of connecting persons with one another by pointing out to them what they share in common. Cutting off: making sure new material is not introduced into the group too late to the session and preventing members from rambling. Drawing out: opposite of cutting off, asked the quiet folks to chime in.
2. Storming: conflict/characteristics: resistance, top/bottom, power, dominance, control, hostility, anger, transference, stability. Conflict ; anxiety when groups move from primary tension (awkwardness about being in a strange situation) to secondary tension (intragroup conflict). First stage of transition period. Group members start to compete with others to find their place in the group.
Leaders way to handle stage: conflict resolution skills, encourage group members to use I statements to avoid questioning one another. Process observer, a neutral third-party professional who observes the group and gives it feedback on its interpersonal and interactive processes. Leveling, members are encouraged to interact freely and evenly.
3. Norming: cohesion/characteristics: group identity, near/far, intimacy, productive, group closeness.
Leaders way to handle stage: leaders should support, empathize, facilitate, and use self-disclosure throughout the norming stage.
4. Performing: consolidation/characteristics: summarizing, transfer skills, loss/sadness, detaching, distancing, terminating, follow-up, evaluation.
Leaders way to handle stage: structured feedback, modeling, connective-helping group members relate feedback to a goal or behavior. Consensual validation (where leader uses other group members to give their reactions to feedback directed at a particular group member).
5. Adjourning: 4-12 week follow-up/characteristics: evaluation, wrapup, referrals. Problems with closing of groups include denial, acting as if an experience, such as a group will never end. Transference, the displacement of effect from one person to another or countertransference thought of as the leaders emotional responses to members that are a result of the leaders on needs or unresolved issues with significant others.
Leaders way to handle stage: give a summary as the leader, rounds written reactions, Journal letters, rating sheets, homework. Review and summarize the group experience with one another.
-enough time to work with members
-perceived commonality of experience (grief, loneliness, etc.)
-choosing people who would likely benefit from a group
-When a client can benefit from the feedback of different people
-focus on growing inter-personally
-commonality of experience (normalizing)
-Yalom's therapeutic factors
-people unwilling/unable to express feelings or tolerate anxiety
2. Planning too much-often results in superficial coverage of several important topics. It is important to focus on topics long enough so new learning and impact can occur.
3. Irrelevant/meaningless content-meetings should be relevant and valuable to most/all members so they do not lose interest or grow resentful.
4. Not allowing enough time for the group to have any significant meaning-include exercises and activities that obviously allow members to gain meaningful experiences from the group sessions. Members should learn something, gain personal insights, or accomplish a designated task.
5. Inappropriate exercises-exercises for which members are not ready, such as discussing sexual concerns in the first few meetings.
6. Too many exercises-prevents members from having enough time to process and learn from the exercises, thereby robbing them of much of the value of the exercises. Members may not feel welcome to exchange reactions feelings and thoughts because they will need to busy with exercises.
7. Poor planning of time-consider appropriateness of time for activities or exercise. It's easier with experience
8. Poor planning of the flow of the session-planning topics or exercises that are not related to each other. Arranging fun exercises next to discussion of death (awkward).
9. Not planning an interesting beginning-don't allow negative comments to service in the beginning. Find something interesting, maybe leave a few minutes at the end of the session to air their complaints.
10. Allowing too much time for warm up-leaves less time for meaningful, productive work. Imperative that the leader plan the group so that the most time you spent on the most important issues.
11. Not allowing enough time for warm up-member is usually need some time to get focused, but groups very in the leadership a lot whatever time is needed for them.
12. Vague plans-subjects too big without any direction. Plan how to cover the topic and give thought to possible spinoffs (theme of anger: anger at parents, self talk and anger, ways to cope with anger).
13. Lack of flexibility-don't be a drill sergeant, go with the flow especially when you see the members are not benefiting from the initial plan.
-Go around in a circle and make sure everyone has opportunity to share
-first person to talk usually models how others respond
-be careful: sometimes people zoned out because anxiety arises thinking about what to say
-girl who would zone out
-try to change the perspective of the person
-redirect conversation to create agendas/goals
-making direct suggestions and seeing how the members think about it
-linking: noting similarities between members
-blocking: keeping the focus of the group by keeping the members from running away with their grief
-block blonde girl from talking about her molestation by her grandpa
-delegation: assigning tasks to members
-had Sonia find another member she wanted to support her
-add another woman looked to see if other members had something to say?
-had all members give feedback to the guy about why he may be childish
-had guy tell everyone what he liked about them
1. To draw out a member, group members are often more likely to speak if the group leader is making eye contact with them. Can also break eye contact with members who have been talking to long in order to get them to stop talking.
2. To communicate messages to group members, as to signal to members that they will be given a chance to speak next.
Nonverbal behaviors: very important to keep track of as group leaders.
1. Often more revealing of a participant's emotional reaction to statements made by other group members than what they say later.
2. Can communicate how group members are enjoying the group, as a member who keeps their arms folded may be angry with the group.
Important to acknowledge nonverbal behaviors in group members and to process these with the group.
-admit new members at any time
-the group may not evolve through the stages because members are at different stages
-often, time is wasted trying to introduce new members
-do not admit new members after the first session
-can be time-limited and goal oriented
-better for counseling/therapy groups; help to build trust/comfort as group evolves
-can be bad when group is getting stale and new members may add new life
-rely on interdependency between group members
-focus is on therapy by the group not in the group.
It is also important to steer clear of any exercises that had a sexual nature. For example, massaging is a common form of touching that is associated with relaxation, but it is also associated with sexual activity. Any group exercises that involve physical contact that could be interpreted as sexual often serve no purpose, may frighten some group members, and may trigger inappropriate arousal between two group members.
horizontal: process-oriented questions (how do you feel? Thoughts/feelings around the issues/events)
-multiple perspectives on individual issues
-members learning from one another's processing
-belonging, cohesion, trust
-other members may feel left out (attrition)
-vulnerability (involves self-disclosure to many people, etc.)
-unequal floor time
-not taking advantage of the setting
-attention span; keep sessions shorter
-kids are naturally in groups as opposed to adults
-children tend to respond better to nonverbal therapy because of limited vocabulary
-teachable moments: specific times when children are ready and able to learn
groups for children are usually:
-guidance and psychoeducation (learning new skills) or
-counseling and psychotherapy (rectifying of resolving problematic behaviors)
-because guidance in psychoeducation groups focus on learning new skills, group counseling offers a safe place to gain feedback and practice situations with peers
regardless of group type the emphasis is on children's health development
nondevelopmental factors: encompass less predictable qualities, such as the nature of the problem, the suddenness of its appearance, its severity, and the present coping skills of children and their families
problems centered groups: set up to focus on one particular concern, e.g. coping with stress
growth centered groups: focus on the personal and social development of students
awareness of group members worldview:
diversity-appropriate intervention strategies:
disadvantages: needs developed verbal skills, needs developed awareness, long process, little focus on present, gender bias
disadvantages: those with severe disabilities need more structure, no rules for selection of members, may not lead anywhere
disadvantages: traditionally focuses on the individual, direct and confrontational, borderline members may worsen
disadvantages: needs developed verbal skills, limited applicability outside of counseling setting; utilizes maturity, life experiences and close supervision; doesn't deal with specific behaviors
disabilities: doesn't acknowledge past, doesn't deal with emotions, doesn't acknowledge traits
behavioral: very logical, enjoy less introspection, enjoying more hands-on work
-patients and flexibility (pace is slower and goals are more limited)
-inquiring but not intrusive
-ability to overcome preset notions about elderly and how they experience the world
-understanding how mental disorders affect elderly
-understanding general process of aging
-understanding when to self disclose
-awareness of common themes (loss and loneliness, relationships with adult children) page 311 Gladding
-director: guides the protagonist in use of psycho dramatic methods to help that person explore his or her problem
-actors: play parts of other important people or objects in the play; called auxiliaries and can play protagonist double or even pieces of furniture
-audience: others present during the psychodrama; give feedback regarding what they felt, saw or heard during the psychodrama page 373 Gladding
2) establishing goals
3) setting objectives
4) selecting content
5) designing experiential activities
utilizing all of these steps will ensure purposeful and meaningful all comes
-dual relationship of members: especially important in closed systems e.g. schools, workplaces
-dual relationships of group leaders: athletic coach, individual counselor
-relationships outside of group: friendships, dating, coworkers
-competencies and training of workers: specialized training in group theory, group dynamics, and group skills/interventions; multicultural competencies; group workers know thyself
-group dropouts: impact on group members; impact on group dynamics and process
-selection of group members: pre-group interview; advertising; involuntary group members
-termination of group: closure; referral
-evaluation of group experience: group member evaluation and facilitator evaluation
ACPA reprimands 60 hours in a group
-Group Generalist Model: trainer models leader behavior for the total group; group is broken down into subgroups and each subgroup member practices leading a small group discussion; after each discussion there is a process phase; subgroup critiques the leaders behavior; following practice by each trainee the total group shares observations and conclusions about the activity
-Educational and Developmental Procedure: content; decision-making; eventual leadership style; dual process pages 75-76 Gladding
2) Implementation: materials and time limits
3) Process: dialogue about what was learned, feelings, applications, etc. e.g. did this change the group in any way for you? ; How can I translate outside of the group?
Precautions: think about age and maturity of group members for certain exercises
2) movement exercises: changing seats, milling around, values continuing
3) dyads and triads
5) using creative props
6) arts and crafts
7) fantasy exercises
8) common reading exercises: people read a passage, poem, etc. and then discuss
9)feedback exercises: adjectives checklist, talk about the members, etc.
10) trust exercises
11) experiential exercises
12) moral dilemma exercises
13) group decision exercises
14) touching exercises
when looking at particular topics: parent/child relationships do sentence completion or a word or phrase around. Leader could then use role-play exercises to imitate communication problems
I still hope (installation of hope)
I'm part of information (imparting information): gaining information about healthy living
Imitative behavior: modeling positive behaviors from other members
Interpersonal learning: learning to interact with others
Corrective recapitulation of primary
Catharsis: expressing feelings never expressed before
Group cohesiveness (glue): closeness among members
Existential factors: accepting responsibility for one's life
Socialization techniques development: learning social skills
-Developed by Jo Lutz and Harry Ingrams
-Open Arena (public): things people are willing to share, less threatening e.g. demographics occupation
-Blind Spot: nonverbal tendencies e.g. fidgeting, body orders, bad breath
-Façade (private): history of mental health, feelings/emotions
-Unknown (unconscious): chemical imbalances, health issues, subconscious/repressed feelings, connections between past and present
-Façade: self disclosure (in order to obtain cohesion, trust)
-Unknown: transference issues (e.g. recapitulation of family members) can be discussed within the group
-Blind spot: unknown by self, known by others
-Façade: known by self, unknown by others
-Unknown: unknown by self, unknown by others
2) challenge myths and misconceptions: asking how they perceive the group developing and their concerns about being a member of it
3) convey information: nature and limits of confidentiality, group stages, roles, and the importance of balancing content and process. Talk about links of the group, what might happen, and importance of paying attention to nonverbal and verbal interactions.
-Groups for soldiers during World War I
-moral development groups
-role of family and family constellation
-collective counseling: early form of group
-family councils: means to get input from all members of the family on how to resolve problems and improve family relationships
-AA was founded: thought to yours helping each other would work better than professionals
-Al-Anon: for people who have significant others with drinking problems, more group guidance in schools
-psychoanalytic group analysis (Burrow): study how social forces affecting behavior, stressed biological as well as interactive principles of group behavior
-Moreno invented the psychodrama: people act out issues in theater settings, facilitator: director, audience acts out main characters peers
-John Bell: treated families as if all members were strangers using Adler's techniques for family counseling
-group vocabulary developed
-Japanese "total quality group"-focus on problem solving related to consumer satisfaction and quality issues in business, later influencing American industry
-people were feeling alone in society
-focus on personal awareness and connectedness
-marathon groups: pixie leads to a breakdown of the basses and increased truth fullness, resulting in cell growth
-Rogers-encounter groups (personal growth groups or sensitivity groups), by exposing emotions it would help one become more aware, sensitivity group: focus on awareness of own and others' emotional experiences and behavior; however, during this time many well-intentioned but ill qualified people established groups with no clear ideas about how to run them which set the movement back considerably.
-Perls-role-play, empty chair page 358-9; increase in the number and quality of fieldwork studies by sociologists; movement of the psychoanalytic treatment into the group domain and the discovery of several dynamics that operate in group psychotherapy; rounds?; For basic assumptions of gestalt groups: 1) principle of holism (integration): emotional debris (unfinished business) from the past needs to be integrated into the cell in order for person to be complete 2) principle of awareness: people are free to choose only when they are self-aware (in touch with their existence and what that means), focus on present 3) principle of figure/ground: figure-experiences that are most important, background-experiences less pressing, healthy people take care of most important needs first 4) principles of polarities: people must express both sides of the conflict in order to fully integrate the experience
-only experience they had was their own experience groups
-groupthink: emphasizes the detrimental power that groups may exert over there members to conform
-psychoeducational groups with kids in schools
-Yalom: curative factors within group and leadership styles
-developmental group counseling-teaches basic life skills
-more emphasis on specialty groups
-Romano and Sullivan (1998 and 2000) simulated groups
-maintenance role: contributes to the social-emotional bonding of members and the group's overall well-being.
-blocking role: Essentially anti-group role.
-chronic talker (nervous, rambling habits)
-dominator (tries to control the group): speak to member privately and ask for cooperation
-distractor (seeking attention or avoiding to look at self): speak to member privately and ignore their comments/behaviors.
-Rescuing member: should encourage support, but discourage rescuing because crying member may benefit from crying and sitting with her pain; teach members the difference between helping/sharing and rescuing.
-Negative member (constantly disagrees/complains about members/group): speak to member privately and ask why they are being negative; identify positive group members and direct questions/comments to them to create positive tone in group; avoid eye contact with negative member so you do not draw member out.
-Resistant member (angry or forced to be in group): allow member to express their anger; talk to member in a dyad or privately; if member is resistant towards leader, let other members do the majority of the helping; help resistant member indirectly by modeling productive/positive behaviors with other members of the group