GIS users can perform queries regarding geographic data such as find the desired location. With GIS, integration of databases with mapping systems is possible, through which users can calculate and store spatial relationships between different features. With GIS, users can computerize the map-making process, using the readily available access to geospatial information. The GIS system is also able to transform geographical data to information through the analysis and modeling using specialized techniques designed for processing spatial data.

Geographic information systems

Geographic information systems have the ability to access spatial data remotely. Therefore, users from any geographic location can access requested spatial data from a remote location. In the same way, users can monitor the progress of events remotely such as in fleet management or traffic management. Another vital function of the GIS is to keep track of spatial data. The user can monitor spatial data progressively. The GIS also stores spatial data and can retrieve the requested spatial data efficiently. Through spatial analysis and modeling using specialized techniques designed for processing spatial data, users can predict patterns and distribution of spatial phenomena.

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GIS enables addition of computerized functions to spatial data (Dunham & Alpert, 2015). GIS allows the recording of data relating to specific phenomena in a timely fashion. The system also enables users to integrate different database systems and thus track changes in phenomena. It simplifies the analysis of spatial phenomena since previous and current data can be easily correlated (Camacho-Collado & Liberatore, 2015). GIS has numerous applications for instance; it can find use in the criminal justice system to identify criminal activity and identify solutions to these problems (Stroshine, 2015).

The GIS is different from the traditional mapping systems because it can perform spatial mapping more quickly, producing accurate and clear maps. Another major difference is that GIS has the capability to detect changes in spatial phenomena. Furthermore, users would have the ability to access information concerning such changes, thereby preventing catastrophes in the case of danger.  

Moreover, GIS can map these detected changes on spatial phenomena. GIS stores this data, hence, allowing the user to track changes. GIS calculates and stores relationships between different features in the database, which produce the required data.

GIS mapping

Traditional mapping systems had many shortcomings; most of which the development of GIS has overcome (Stroshine, 2015). Map making was, for instance, a very slow and tedious process in the past. Changes in spatial phenomena were hard to trace and map successfully (Weisburd & McEwen, 2015). GIS has helped overcome most of these problems by performing efficient location of places, and mobile vessels. GIS benefits the community by improving security through the identification of criminal activities in real-time by monitoring property and their spatial surrounding.

Community members can identify available amenities and resources in their localities remotely without the need to move physically. Police officers in patrol also rely on GIS, in case they need to report criminal activities or cases of emergency. Health risks in the environment as well evident-based planning is made possible using GIS.

GIS in the criminal justice system has been helpful in the remote identification of criminal problem while providing spatial solutions through data analysis and monitoring. GIS can find use in mapping crime hotspots in addition to monitoring criminal activities, offering management support to other crime related databases, through provision of additional information.

GIS can be used to integrate crime related databases thereby creating a more detailed and evidence-based criminal database. Law enforcement tracking programs are enhanced through monitoring and tracking capabilities provide by GIS. Using GIS, response to criminal activity is timely, proving the improved efficiency through real-time responses. The criminal justice systems can make use of GIS to monitor probationers as well as parolees, through tracking and monitoring geographical movements of said persons. GIS can provide accurate analysis, which can find use in relating demographic, as well as, geographic data to crime patterns, offering the much-needed insight to curb criminal activities. 

As mentioned earlier, GIS enables law enforcers to manage criminal related databases and monitor criminal activities remotely. This enables them to provide local with security that is more effective by enhancing patrols and surveillance. Probationers and parolees can also be monitored effectively while in the community (Stroshine, 2015).

References:

Dunham, R. G., & Alpert, G. P. (2015). Critical issues in policing: Contemporary readings. Waveland Press.

Camacho-Collados, M., & Liberatore, F. (2015). A decision support system for predictive police patrolling. Decision Support Systems, 75, 25-37.

Helbing, D.,, D. L., & McEwen, T. (2015). Introduction: Crime mapping and crime prevention. Available at SSRN 2629850.

Brockmann, D., Chadefaux, T., Donnay, K., Blanke, U., Woolley-Meza, O., ... & Perc, M. (2015). Saving human lives: what complexity science and information systems can contribute. Journal of statistical physics, 158(3), 735-781.

Stroshine, M. S. (2015). Technological innovations in policing. Critical Issues in Policing: Contemporary Readings, 911, 229