what types of violence did these children see in El Salvador during the war?
death, torture, disappearances
when did the civil war in el salvador start and end?
what is a guinda?
military raids on the villages
what is a placaso?
What is ORDEN and what was its purpose?
Organización Democratica Nacionalista; large paramilitary force created by the government to "keep order" in the country side
what is the FMLN?
Farabundo Marti National Liberation: guerrilla fighters
who were the death squads?
off-duty security officers who painted their faces black and went out at night to terrorize people suspected of being subversive
what was the terror at home?
the fighting was in their backyard. ex. Sniper and his brother picking fruit when the military started to bomb the area
what caused family dislocation and separation
conditions of the war. ex. Joker was separated from his mom for 7 years
what types of problems did these youth have crossing borders to the US?
financial, physical, and emotional cost; often get sick or die or get caught
why did these youth want to stay in el salvador?
they did not consider the US to be a land of promise
Who was Horatio Alger?
a fictional immigrant boy who through hard work pulled himself up by his own bootstraps and became immensely successful in banking
what problems did these youth have with family reunion in the US?
they had to face the task of mending bonds of trust
what is the meaning of aguantar?
to suffer in silence or to grin and bear it
what is a bicho?
a bug: can mean as cute as a bug or as ugly as a cockroach
these negative connotations are used by parents as a reflection of a lack of patience
What is confianza and why is it important?
trust: is is not something that you do, it is something that you have that can be taken away from you
How did psycho's mother react to his staying away from home for several nights?
did not protest
what is the double generation gap?
age and culture
what kind of parental supervision did Lil Silent have in LA?
none; only saw his mom on Sundays
what problems did these youth have at school?
it was not a safe place or a place for learning, they were bullied; learning barriers; language; cultural difference; did not fit in
where did Sniper meet his friend Johnny? What happened to Sniper at school after he joined the gang with Johnny?
met him at school; after he joined the gang, he got expelled
What is la Gloria Brincada?
the jump in
How did Joker react after his night of initiation?
he felt on top of the world but the next morning he began to have serious doubts
Why did Sniper join the gang?
not well thought out; he dressed, acted, and drank like a gang member so one day he just decided to get jumped in
What attracted Joker to the gang?
alcohol, drugs, cigarettes, guns, personal safety, friendship, parties, dating, etc.
what was the "tipping point" for Joker in his decision to join?
his desire for status and a surrogate family
did anyone try to dissuade Joker from joining the gang? Why?
the older, wiser members told Joker to stay in school
What material comforts are gang members seeking?
cars, girls, drugs, alcohol, clothes, guns
what are the six problem areas for joining a street gang?
what happened to Psycho's father?
killed by military when he was 2 years old
what does research suggest is the cause of the increase in women's participation in street gangs?
increasing economic marginalization
how did Lonely's death affect Angel?
sent her into a self-destructive, drug-riddled phase of her life
why did angel decide to join MS?
Loquita; social/familial reasons
what was Angel's attitude toward gangs before she joined?
she didn't like them
how did angel's father treat her?
he didn't answer/return calls, changed his phone, her letters returned unopened
what are females who join gangs running away from?
can a young woman get sexed into a street gang?
yes, but not many allow it because it can be turned around and called rape and it is the easy way of joining for females
who was Brenda Paz?
an informant for law enforcement
her homeboys found out and killed her showing us that it is not acceptable to rat out information on fellow gang members
Wat is the sexual double standard in gangs?
women who have multiple partners are sluts but men who have multiple partners are players
what are the rules about dating enemy gang members?
don't do it, but it happens anyways
what is the catch-22 for respect of homegirls?
if you want the respect of the homeboys you lose your femininity
what is the least acknowledged role of female gang members?
how did angel exit the gang?
she became addicted to crack
according to Trouble, why are salvadoran youth violent?
because they came from a country of war
what does más felón mean?
what does cora mean?
combines the meaning of heart, courage, and anger
meant one was willing to fight and take a beating, or get stabbed or shot
what does MS consider to be an enemy?
gang members of other cliques around them
Do gang members consider police to be their enemies?
how did loquita react to Demon's suicide?
sadness and anger
what are some of the reasons why people leave their gangs?
going to prison
joining other organizations (military or law enforcement)
leaving as the gang subdivides
how do most gang members exit the gang life?
what does calmado mean?
calming down or chilling out
what does de corazón mean?
the heart connection that they have with fellow gang members
what does mara salvatrucha mean?
watch out for us salvadoran folks
what is a stoner gang?
smoked together, hung out, potentially Satan worshipers
attitudes and activities were different than street gangs
more like party gangs
who perpetuates the stereotype of street gangs as large, violent, and highly organized?
are most gangs highly organized or disorganized?
what is the relationship between gang organization and level of crime?
higher the organization, the higher the level of crime
what are four examples of gang taboos?
don't back down from a fight, don't kill a baby, don't rat out fellow gang members, don't date enemy gang members
does a gang member's status increase if he accidentally kills a baby?
what is the most common activity of gang members?
what is the least common activity of gang members?