London Company
This company was granted a southern tract from Cape Fear to Long Island. Discovery, Godspeed, captain Newport. 5 months to get to North America.
Plymouth Company
Establish a colony on the coast of Maine. Maine has a fishing ground nearby, so good trade and food with Native Americans.
Jamestown
This place was a complete failure, it had a high death rate, no gold or precious gems, no crops or animals. People were giving up.
Powhatan
Leader of local native americans by Jamestown. Confederation of dozens of tribes. They aren't happy about the English, and are always aggressive towards them.
Malaria
Killed many people in Jamestown because of swampland. Mosquito bite deprives your body of oxygen, makes you very tired. This leaves many dead, or incapable of working.
Captain John Smith
Leader of Jamestown, allows colony to make it through the first year. Very good at surviving, killing, and organizing people. Gets captured by Powhatan, but Pokohontis spares him.
Thomas West (Third Baron de la Warr)
He gains control of an area of North American and creates a system of orginization, taxation, land distrubution, and supplies all things the colony needs to expand.
Counterblast to Tobacco
James I attacks the used of tobacco, and claims it is like the black pit of hades. However, he later on accepts it because it makes him money.
John Rolfe
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
headright system
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.
Companies
Companies were prohibited from establishing any settlements within one hundred miles of any existing settlements founded by the other company.
Virginia Company
Claims all Virginia Grants, including all of USA. Virginia survives only becuase of Tobacco, Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
Tobacco
Saved Virginia Company. Highly profitable. Makes people wealthy, but destroys land. George Washington finds out that tobacco is a stupid way of living. Even though your making money, you are not making food.
James I
Disliked smoking and protested against it, but liked it when it made him money.
Pocahontas
a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)
1619
Violent storm, Dutch ship shows up holding cargo and twenty or so Africans who were robbed from a Spanish ship . The captain exchanges slaves for food, and heads off.
Native American Agriculture in Virginia
They were able to plant it and have a passive food supply of maize or beans and other crops.
The Calverts
1st Lord Baltimore George Calvert (Elizabethan Age) Given land grant which will become Baltimore. Create colony for presecuted catholics. 2nd Lord Baltimore Cecil Calvert (Puritan Era) 3rd Lord Baltimore Charles Calvert
St.Mary's
First colony set up by Calverts in Maryland
Act of Concerning Religion
Cecil Calvert had endeavored to seperate church and state in the colony. Freemen approved this "Act Concerning Religion", which said that anyone who believes in Jesus will not be harmed, molested, etc. One religion per colony. This proved that governent and religion can exist without being intertwined.
Sir William Berkley
Governor of Jamestown. Gains monopoly on fur trade from Native Americans.
Nathaniel Bacon
Wants some of the furtrade wealth. Starts a rebellion that goes very well and kicks out Jamestown govenor and takes some of Jamestown.
Puritan Separatists
Oliver Cromwell Leads a Puritan movement that will gain control over governent of England. They establish their own parlament and army and cut of The Son of Jame's I'd head. Conqured Northern Ireland.
Pilgrims
Came from England. Move to Holland, and do very well. They are concerned that the 2nd generation in their time will speak Dutch.
Mayflower Compact
Who ever signs this agrees to create whatever laws are neccesary, whatever positions are necessary, and we all agree to follow the decisions of the group. Also, laws may be added or removed.
Squanto
Native American of the Wampanoag tribe of what is now Massachusetts. Also known as Tisquantum, he proved an invaluable friend to white settlers in New England. He was captured and sold as a slave in Spain but escaped. He discovered that his people had been destroyed by a plague. He then helped starving Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony to survive by teaching them to fish and plant corn. Treaty of Plymouth
Samoset
Native American leader and friend of the early colonists. He was the first to sell land to the Pilgrims (1625).
William Bradford
His remarkable ability to manage men and affairs was a large factor in the success of the Plymouth Colony.
Commonwealth
a self governing political unit
Shareholders
original members of company hold all power known as "Freemen" "Freemen make up the membership of the General Court, the lawmaking body.
Massachusets Bay Colony
A colony of primarily puritans (calvanists). It was not a colony dedicated to religious freedom. City upon a hill, boston area.
1631
A new law esablished requirements for freemen. a. all Puritan men who belonged to a church b. when population grew too large, each town selected two representatives to the General Court.
Congregationalism
In England, Puritans thought themselves as members of the Anglican Church In Massachusetts, ministers elected by a congregation- a body of church members.
Role of Minister
a. Teach,preach,pray,administer b. limited power
Role of Congregation
a. final authority on church decisions b. holds power over membership c. in charge of church discipline.
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Thomas Hooker
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government. He believed all the men should have a voice and a vote.
Constitution
Written document that states who is incharge and the series of laws set
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
First Constitution written in America - limited the governor's power in Connecticut, allowed non church members to vote. "The foundation of authority is laid in the free consent of the people."
Fundamental Articles of New Haven
established a Bible-based government even stricter than Massachusetts Bay.
Roger Williams
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs. If the church and government are connected, the church will become corrupted. One of his excerpts from "A Key into the language of America", states that Europeans and Native Americans are the same.
Providence Colony
formed by separatist Roger Williams to have religious freedom from the king. Open to all Christians and Jews in Rhode Island. Massachusets Bay wants to take over this providence.
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
John Wheelwright
led a group of dissidents from Massachusetts to the north in 1638. They founded the town of Exeter in New Hampshire. He supports his sister Anne Hutchinson. Establishes first permanent resisdency in Massuchetts and Maine.
John Eliot
Puritan who learned the Indians' language and began the task of converting them to Christianity. He translated the Bible into the Algonquin Indian language. It was the first bible printed in America.
The Pequot War
A war between English settlers in the Connecticut Valley and the Pequot Indians of the region. The natives were almost wiped out in the conflict. The English wanted more land so they were killing off the natives.
Captain John Mason
Granted land north of Massachusetts Bay colony that eventually became New Hampshire. He led a massacre at the Pequot for in Mystic, killing as many as 700 Indians in a single hour.
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion. 20% of New England population were killed.
Wampanoags & Metacomet
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The English Civil War
A war that broke out between the parliament supporters (roundheads) and the king's supporters (cavaliers). It ended with the execution of the king, Charles I. A new parlement is created and is made up of many non-nobles.
Roundheads
A group consisting of puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell; fought against the Cavaliers during the English civil war
Cavaliers
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649.
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator. He was a good leader. Provided for his men, good combat soldier.
Stuart Restoration
reestablishment of monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son of Charles I, after Cromwell's death. It temporarily ended England's troubles. King Charles II was restored to the throne.
Proprietary Colony
English colony in which the king gave land to proprietors (land owners) in exchange for a yearly payment
Royal Colony
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
Ashley Cooper
Earl of Shaftsbury, principal proprietor of the Carolinas: wanted a planned and well ordered community. With John Locke, drew up the Fundamental Constitution for Carolina in 1669—laid out a stratified society. Never implemented
Carolinas
1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.
Fundamental Constitution for Carolina
Written in copperation with John Locke. Designed to prevent the disorder prevalent in England. Create a manor system. Sefs will be bound to land . Very dumb. Could not pull this off.
Barbados
A lot of sugar and tobacco came from Barbados. Slave system was perfected here.
James Duke of York
brother of Charles II; took possession of the conquered Dutch province of New Netherland, renaming it NY, and conveyed ownership of the adjacent province of New Jersey to two of the Carolina proprietors.
Peter Stuyvesant
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664. After the surrender, he spent the remainder of his life on his farm of sixty-two-acres outside the city called Great Bouwerie.
Patroons
Landowners in the Dutch Colonies who ruled like a king over large areas of land.
John Berkely and Sir George Carteret
Political allies of James II Families long-time royal supporters. Awarded land-grant which becomes New Jersey. Hoped for profits never materialize. Return grant to the crown.
Anarchy
total absence of rule or government; confusion; disorder
William Penn
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
Charter of Liberties
a charter, signed by Penn, which established a representative assembly in Pennsylvania, and stated that the lower counties (Delaware) of the colony could establish their own representative assembly.
New Mexico
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Opechancanough
chief of native confederacy after brother Powhatan died, led efforts to defend Indian lands from European, 1644 led unsuccessful uprising -last time Powhatans challenged eastern regions of colony
Oglethorpe
English general, colonial administrator, and philanthropist, who founded the colony of Georgia (1732) as a refuge for persecuted European Protestants and unemployed English debtors.
Middle Grounds
Increase in population will naturally eliminate the truce between Native Americans. Virginia, Pennsylvania, George, NC,SC, New York State.
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Massachusetts General Court
A small number of shareholders in the company who held the power bestowed upon them by the original charter of 1629. this would expand into the General Court we know today which meets at Beacon Hill in Massachusetts
Edmund Andros
He was the royal governor of the Dominion of New England. Colonists resented his enforcement of the Navigation Acts and the attempt to abolish the colonial assembly.
The Glorious Revolution
The English Parliament drove out an absolute monarch and replaced him with two constitutional monarch's William and Mary
Francis Nicholson
A lieutenant governor of New York; helped Andros run the colony of New York through him.
Jacob Leisler
German immigrant who became governor of New York from 1688 to 1691 before being hanged for treason. He was later exonerated of all charges.
How did mercantilism effect the development of English colonies in the Americas?
American colonies will advance quickly and will produce raw materials. It created jobs because the need of raw materials. (Example: Wood requires cutters, transporters, etc).
Describe the purpose and succes of Spanish missionary activity in the Southwest and California and the relationship between Spanish colonials and Native Americans.
They established footholds to spread Spanish culture to Native Americans and Christian religion. It all depended on the missionaries and the progress and skills they had of converting.