Geocentric Theory
during the middle ages, most scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe. This theory was developed by Aristotle, and later expanded by Ptolemy
Scientific Revolution
many scholars developed new theories and replaced old assumptions. As a result, they launched a change in European thought and a new way of thinking of the natural world. These theories were based upon careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs.
Nick Copernicus
A polish cleric and astronomer who studied planetary movements. He developed the heliocentric theory and knew that many would reject it. To avoid ridicule, he waited until 1543, his death year, to publish ON THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES
Heliocentric Theory
A theory developed by Nick Copernicus. He reasoned that the stars, earth, and the other planets revolved around the sun
Johannes Kepler
Tycho Brahe's assistant, who concluded that certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion. His laws proved Copernicus's basic ideas
Galileo Galilei
An astronomer who published STARRY MESSENGER. In his book, he announced that Jupiter had four moons & that the sun had dark spots. He also noted that the earth's moon had a rough, uneven surface. This shattered Aristotles theory that the moon and stars were made of perfect substance. His theories frightened the ideas of Catholics and Protestants b/c they went against church teaching and authority. He remained silent but continued his studies. Another book: DIALOGUE CONCERNING THE TWO CHIEF WORLD SYSTEMS
Scientific Method
a logical procedure for gathering and testing items
Francis Bacon
an English statesman and writer who had a passionate interest in science. He believed that by better understanding the world, scientists would generate practical knowledge that would improve people's lives In his writings, he attacked medieval scholars for relying too heavily on the conclusions of Aristotle and other ancient thinkers. He urged scientists to experiment and then draw conclusions. This approach is known as EMPIRICISM, or experimental method.
Rene Descarte
He believed that scientists needed to reject old assumptions and teachings. He believed that everything should be doubted until proved by mathematics and logic. He knew for certain that he existed, " I think, therefore, I am"
Issac Newton
his great discovery was that the same force ruled motion of the planets and all matter on earth and in space. The key idea that linked motion in the heavens with motion on the earth was the law of universal gravitations. According to this law, every object in the universe attracts every other object. These idea were all published in his work, THE MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY
a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems. This spurred by the new ways of the Scientific Revolution, after scholars and philosophers began to reevaluate old notions about other aspects of society
Thomas Hobbes
in his book LEVIATHAN, he expressed his views on human. He believed that everyone was naturally selfish and wicked. Without governments to keep order, he believed that life would be horrible and short. He developed the idea of a social contract
Social Contract
Thomas Hobbes- this agreement was developed for people to escape a bleak life. Hobbes urged people to hand over their rights to a strong ruler, and in turn, receive law and order
John Locke
a philosopher who believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. He criticized absolute monarchy and favored the idea of self-government. He believed that all people are born free and equal, with three natural rights. The purpose of government is to protect these rights. If a government fails to do so, citizens have a right to overthrow it
Natural Rights
Locke believed everyone has 3 natural rights: life, liberty, and property. If the government deprived citizens of these, it could be overthrown
Social critics of the Enlightenment period in France. They believed that people could apply reason to all aspects of life: 1. reason 2.nature 3.happiness 4.progress 5.liberty
one of the most influential philoshophes. he used satire against his opponents and made frequent targets of the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government. B/c of his sharp tongue, he was imprisoned twice, and consequently, was exiled to England. He never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason,freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech.
an influential french writer who devoted himseld to the study of political liberty, he believed that Britain was the best governed and most politically balanced country of his own day.He belived in the separation of powers, the prevention of any individual or group gaining total control. ON THE SPIRIT OF LAWS
The Separation of Powers
a way to prevent any individual or group from gaining total control of the government
Jean Jacques Rousseau
he was passionately committed to individual freedom. He strongly disagreed with Enlightenment thinkers He believed that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness. He believed that the only good government was one that was freely formed by people and guided by the "general will" of society ( direct democracy). THE SOCIAL CONTRACT
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
He believed that laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes. He regularly criticized common abuses of justice. He stated that the degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime. He also believed that capital punishment should be abolished
Marie-Therese Geoffrin
she helped to finance the project of a leading philosophe, Denis Diederot.
Denis Diederot
he created a large set of books in which many contributed essays and articles, called the encyclopedia
a style characterized by a grand, ornate design. This style was most popular in European art during the 1600s and early 1700s i.e Versailles
the artistic style of the late 1700s. It was a simple and elegant that borrowed ideas from classical Greece and Rome
A lighter and more elegant style of music during the enlightenment
Johann Sebastian Bach
a composer from Germany
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
three of the greatest figures of the classical period in music
Enlightened Despots
"absolute rulers". These monarchs embraced the new ideas of the philosophes and embraced the new ideas and made reforms.includes: Frederick II of Prussia, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria, and Catherine the Great
Frederick II
King of Prussia, he committed himself to reforming Prussia. He granted many religious freedoms, reduced censorship, and improved education. He also reformed the justice system and abolished the use of torture. He believed serfdom was wrong, but did nothing to end it b/c he needed the support of wealthy landowners
Joseph II
most radical ruler of Austria. He introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press. He also supported freedom of worship, even for Protestants, Orthodox Christians, and Jews. His most radical reform was abolishing serfdom and ordered the peasants be paid for their labor with cash
Catherine the Great
ruler Russia. She received many letters from Voltaire.Based many of her reforms on the ideas on Montesquieu and Beccaria. allowed religious toleration and abolished capital punishment. limited reforms, but did little to improve life of the peasants. not really enlightened despots: crushed the rebellion of the serfs, and gave nobles complete power over serfs. expanded into Poland
Thomas Jefferson
the political leader that issued the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
a document, firmly based on the ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment. declares the colonies seperation
federal system
a system set up by the constitution in which power was divided between national and state governments
Bill of Rights
the ten amendments to the constitution. protected basic right of freedoms