Tenochtitlán is what Mexican city today?
Mexico City
What Spaniard invaded the Incan heartland?
The Spanish who came to the Americas to conquer were known as the
A resistance to a disease is a(n)
Which of the following diseases was NOT one of the particularly devastating ones for Native Americans?
A war fought between groups of people in the same nation is a(n)
civil war.
Both Cortés and Pizarro encountered
rival Spanish factions.
How did the Aztecs treat conquered peoples?
They sacrificed many of them.
How did Malinche help Cortés?
She translated for him.
What happened after Inca leader Atahualpa was kidnapped by the Spanish?
The Inca paid a ransom and he was killed anyway.
Who urged the importation of workers from Africa and later regretted it?
Bartolomé de Las Casa
Portugal claimed Brazil through the
Treaty of Tordesillas.
Representatives in the Americas who ruled in the Spanish king's name were
The West Indies became profitable through the production of
sugar cane.
The right to land and Native American labor that was granted to a conquistador was a(n)
Pirates who had the approval of European governments were known as
At the top of Spanish colonial society were people born in Spain, called
The Spanish lawmaking body for the colonies was the
Council of the Indies
Workers forced to work off a debt were known as
American-born descendants of Spanish settlers were
What are conquistadors?
What was the capital of the Aztec Empire?
What does compel mean?
to force
What is a civil war?
a civil war is fought between groups of people in the same nation
What were the people of Native American and European descent called?
what were the people of African and European descent called?
The first French permanent settlement in Canada was
Income from all kinds of taxes are
The southern colonies relied on what for profits?
cash crops such as tobacco
At the end of the Seven Years' War, France gave Britain what lands in North America?
Canada and lands east of the Mississippi River
The French first crossed the Atlantic to Canada for
The French called Canada
New France
British dominance in North America was ensured by the
Treaty of Paris
The war between Britain and France during the 1700s was called the
French and Indian War
English navigators searched the northeast coast of North America for a
northwest passage to Asia
The Pilgrims made a __________, or agreement, before coming ashore.
Where did the Pilgrims land?
Plymouth Massachusetts
Who were the Pilgrims?
English Protestants who rejected the Church of England
Where did the English build their first colony?
Jamestown, VA
What does prevail mean?
to triumph
What officially ended the worldwide war in 1763?
Treaty of Paris
What did the Treaty of Paris ensure?
British dominance in North America
What Venetian navigator found rich fishing grounds off Newfoundland, which he claimed for England?
John Cabot
Who established the first French settlement in Quebec?
Samuel de Champlain
Who discovered the St. Lawrence River?
Jacques Cartier
What was the encomienda system?
a system in which the Spanish had the right to demand labor from Native Americas
What was the role of the Church in colonial education?
The Church fostered the creation of universities in the colonies to provide for the education of priests
What was Brazil's economy based on?
The cutting and exportation of brazilwood, plantation agriculture, and cattle ranching
Why did French settlers abandon farming in favor of fur trapping and trading?
They found farming difficult in the cold climate and much less profitable than trapping and trading
What were the reasons the English colonies were established?
As commercial ventures for profit and as havens from persecution
Why was the French and Indian War fought?
it was fought to determine which country, either France or Britain, would have dominance over North America
New England developed what industry to benefit form the Atlantic trade network?
Because of the number of deaths aboard slave ships, they were known as
floating coffins
Most African slaves were taken from
inland villages
How many enslaved Africans are believed to have reached the Americas?
11 million
The stretch in the trade network from Africa to the Americas was called the
Middle Passage
Revolts by crew or captives on a boat are called
What Massachusetts' port city grew wealthy from trade with Europe?
What African wrote a narrative about the slave trade in English in 1789?
Olaudah Equiano
Molasses was often turned into what for shipment to Europe?
Trade routes linking Europe, Africa, and the Americas were called
triangular trade.
Describe the triangular trade route.
On the first leg, merchant ships brought European goods to Africa. In Africa, the merchants traded these goods for slaves. On the second leg, known as the Middle Passage, the slaves were transported to the Americas. There the enslaved Africans were exchanged for sugar, molasses and other products manufactured. On the final leg, merchants carried sugar, molasses, cotton, and other American goods such as furs, salt fish, and rum made from molasses. The goods were shipped to Europe, where they were traded at a profit for the European commodities that merchants needed to return to Europe.
What does commodity mean?
anything bought and sold
What does restrained mean?
to keep under control
How did enslaved Africans resist captivity?
by trying to escape, overcoming their captors, or killing themselves
How did the slave trade affect Africans?
millions of Africans were enslaved and killed, destroying lives and disrupting societies
The system used to bypass the guilds in Europe was the __________ system.
Countries that established foreign trading monopolies were following the policy of
Why were potatoes such an important crop in Europe?
They were easy to grow and store
Inflation in Europe was fueled by the importation of what?
silver and gold
The nomadic peoples of western North America benefited greatly from the European importation of
An increase in overall prices is called
An economic system in which most businesses are privately owned is called
Taxes on imported goods are
The people who take on financial risk to make profits are known as
Which group did not profit from mercantilist societies?
What was the vast global exchange that would profoundly affect the world started by Columbus known as?
Columbian Exchange
What does dispersal mean?
to scatter
What is inflation?
A rise in prices that is linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available
What characteristics must a society have in order for capitalism to be possible?
must allow individuals to take risks to make a profit; it must also have money for investment
What is it called when rising prices are coupled with inflation?
price revolution
What effect did European exploration have on Native American populations?
It decimated the Native American population through deadly diseases, killing, and brutalization of Indian workers