T/F- It is possible for a single case of a disease to represent an epidemic
T/F-The history of epidemiology originated as early as classical antiquity.
T/F-Robert Koch developed four postulates to demonstrate the association between a microorganism and a disease.
True or False? The Tuskegee study exemplified a research project that violated ethical standards for research.
True or False? Working during the Renaissance, Paracelsus was one of the founders of the field of toxicology.
All of the above: health education, Health Care Administration, Environmental health
Epidemiologic methods can be applied to which of the following public health-related fields:
Illness due to a specific disease or health condition is known as:
Health service use
Operations research illustrates which of the following uses of epidemiology:
The ancient Greek who contributed to epidemiology by departing from superstitious reasons for disease outbreaks was:
The probability that an event will occur—an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or by a certain age—is known as
True or False? Alexander Fleming discovered the antimicrobial properties of Penicillium notatum.
True or False? Epidemiology can help solve a variety of today's health-related problems, ranging from smoking to youth violence.
Black Death
Which of the following disease outbreaks occurred between 1346 and 1352 and claimed up to one-third of the population of Europe:
All of the above: Distribution, population focus, and quantification
Which of the following is considered a key characteristic of epidemiology?
True or False? Comparisons among populations that differ in size cannot be accomplished directly by using frequency or prevalence data.
All of the following are considered ratios except?
Bar Graphs, line graphs, and pie charts
Epidemiologists can plot data and present it graphically through:
(A/B) x 100,000
If A equals the number of deaths in 2009 and B equals the population at the midpoint of 2009 and C equals the number of persons aged 15-24, then the crude death rate per 100,000 population would be:
True or False? Lifetime prevalence refers to all cases of a disease diagnosed at any time during a person's lifetime.
True or False? Rates can be expressed in terms of any unit size of population that is convenient.
When the incidence rate of a disease increases, the prevalence will:
Decreasing in incidence, and improved cure rates of diseases
Which factors can decrease an observed prevalence?
Birth certificates
Studies of the effects of exposure to teratogens have used data from:
A centralized database for collection of information about diseases such as cancer is known as:
True or False? AIDS is an example of a nationally notifiable disease.
True or False? Birth statistics include statistics on both live births and fetal deaths.
True or False? Life expectancy refers to the number of years that a person is expected to live, at any particular year.
True or False? The medical examiner or coroner completes and signs the death certificate if the cause of death was an accident, suicide, or homicide, or if the attending physician is unavailable.
True or False? The major deficiency of reportable and notifiable data for epidemiologic research purposes is the possible incompleteness of population coverage.
True or False? The maternal mortality rate encompasses maternal deaths that result from causes associated with pregnancy.
True or False? Three factors that affect the quality of epidemiologic data are: availability, completeness, and the nature of the data
All of the above: Evaluating health services, Conducting additional research, Targeting interventions
Descriptive epidemiology provides information for:
Health disparities
Differences in the occurrence of diseases and adverse health conditions in the population are known as:
Lung and bronchus cancer
For both males and females, what type of cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality?
Spatial Clustering
The term that indicates cases of disease that occur in a specific geographic region is:
True or False? The causes of morbidity and mortality differ according to the stage of life a person is in.
True or False? Those who occupy the lowest SES positions have excesses of morbidity and mortality from various causes.
All of the above: Climate, access to health care, and cultural factors.
Variations in infectious and chronic diseases from one country to another may be attributed to:
Secular Trends
Gradual changes in the frequency of diseases over long periods
A &B only: Socioeconomic status and race
In epidemiology, person variables include:
True or False? Cross-sectional studies measure relationships between diseases and other variables at a particular time.
Temporal clustering
Health events that are related in time reflect:
Cyclic Trends
Increases and decreases in the frequency of a disease within a year or over a period of several years are known as:
All of the Above: Income level, Occupation type, and Education level
What factors may be considered when measuring socioeconomic status?
Total number of deaths in the community
The crude death rate for a given community includes
Two-variable table
A table that classifies data on two variables such as age and sex is termed:
The age of hospital patients upon admission would most appropriately be displayed in a/n:
Line graph
Trends and survival curves are often displayed in a:
Scatter diagram
A graphic technique in which one continuous variable is plotted on the x-axis and a paired second continuous variable is displayed on the y-axis:
1.96/1,000 (476,927 x 100,000 / 243,394,693= 1.96 / 1,000)
There were 476,927 cancer deaths in the United States in 19xx. The total number of deaths was 2,576,842. The estimated mid-year population in 19xx was 243,394,693. What is the cause specific death rate per 1,000?
Total number of c-sections
When computing the C-section rate, the numerator is:
Construct validity
In measurement, the ability of an instrument to measure the property of interest is termed:
The extent to which a measuring instrument provides approximately the same results on repeated measures:
internal consistency
The extent to which items on a measuring instrument are homogeneous is termed:
internal consistency
Two evaluators rated the accuracy of diagnoses and procedures coded by Marge Smith. This type of measurement is called
identify every case in which the property of interest is truly present
The sensitivity of a screening test is its ability to:
excludes cases where the property of interest is truly absent
The specificity of a screening test is its ability to:
In which of the following measures of central tendency do one-half of the observations fall above and one-half of the observations fall below?
You are conducting a t-test for two independent sample means. Sample one contains 22 observations and sample 2 contains 30 observations. The number of degrees of freedom for the two sample t-test is:
Z-test for two populations
If population parameters are known, and the sample is sufficiently large, which of the following tests would be most appropriate to test the difference between two population proportions?
Reject the null hypothesis
The average charge for Dr. Sparenocost's patients is $10,034, and the average charge for Dr. Spendtheleast's patients is $6,158.53. A test was conducted to determine if the average charge for the patients of these two physicians was significantly different. The calculated value of the test statistic is 3.144 and the critical value of the test statistic is 2.021. In this case:
two-tailed test
The average charge for Dr. Sparenocost's patients is $10,034, and the average charge for Dr. Spendtheleast's patients is $6,158.53. A test was conducted to determine if the average charge for the patients of these two physicians was significantly different. In this case we would be conducting a:
µ1 > µ2
We want to determine if Critical Care Hospital's ALOS (µ1) for DRG XXX is significantly greater than the national ALOS (µ2) for DRG XXX. The alternative hypothesis would be stated as:
Paired t-test
We want to compare the average weight of patients before and after a specialty diet is administered. We expect the weight to decrease after administration of the diet. Which of the following tests should be conducted to determine if the average weight for each patient is less at the conclusion of the diet?
µ1 ne µ2
The average charge for Dr. Sparenocost's (µ1) patients is $10,034, and the average charge for Dr. Spendtheleast's (µ2)patients is $6,158.53. We want to conduct a test to determine if the average charge for the patients of these two physicians is significantly different. The alternative hypothesis is:
a mean of zero and a distribution that is symmetrical about the mean
Which of the following characteristics are common to both the z-distribution and the t-distribution?
You are conducting a one-sample t-test; the sample contains 30 observations. The number of degrees of freedom for the one-sample t-test is
One-sample t-test
The hospital administrator wants to know if the average charge for Medicare patients at Critical Care Hospital is significantly different from the national average charge for Medicare patients. Which of the following tests should be conducted to answer this question?