The Grammar translation method, or classical method started when people wanted to read literature written in the target language. Its focus was on grammatical rules, the memorization of vocabulary and of various declensions and conjugations, translations of texts, doing written exercises. Rules of grammar, not the language itself, are all important.
Verb declensions are set out tables, vocabulary lists to be learned, leading to translation from mother tongue into target language and vice-versa. There is little or no attention to pronunciation. The learner would acquire the skill of translating in writing from L2 to L1 and vice versa. Speaking the foreign language will play a very little part in the learning process.
Disadvantages There is little evidence to suggest that this faculty is transferable to other walks of life beyond the language classroom This method gives pupils the wrong idea of what language is and of the relationship between languages. Language is seen as a collection or words which are isolated and independent and there must be a corresponding word in the native tongue for each foreign word he learns Sad to assume that language is only acquired through translation skills In 5 year 'O' level courses, candidate faced over 1000 rules, together with exceptions; in preparation for examination based on translation.Worst effect of this method is on pupil's motivation. Because (s)he cannot succeed - leads to frustration, boredom and indiscipline. Even among more able pupils who may be able to achieve a higher level of success, there is feeling that this is all there is to language learning.
Not a rewarding or satisfying activity. Language learning should be fun and bring some joy and pride in achievement with it.The Audiolingual MethodIt is also called the Aural-Oral Method. This method is said to result in rapid acquisition of speaking and listening skills.
The audiolingual method drills students in the use of grammatical sentence patterns. When this method was developed it was thought that the way to acquire the sentence patterns of the second language was through conditioning or helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement. The Audiolingual Method is based on: Speaking and listening competence preceded reading and writing competence. The development of language skills is a matter of habit.Students practice particular patterns of language through structured dialogue and drill until response is automatic. The printed word must be kept away from the second language learner as long as possible.
There is dependence on imitation, memorization of set phrases, and overlearning. Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis taught one at a time. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills.There is little or no grammatical explanation. Grammar is inductive Great importance is attached to pronunciation.
. Success responses are immediately reinforced. Very little use of the mother tongue by teacher is permitted Dialogues are the basic form of materials in the Audiolingual method. The dialogue serves three functions: a) illustrates the target structure; b) illustrates the situation the structure may be used; c) provides cultural information for language use wherever possible. In this method, oral interaction was emphasized in pattern drills, and conversation practices.
Desuggestopedia The suggestive-desuggestive process allows students to go beyond previously held beliefs and self-limiting concepts concerning the learning process and learn great quantities of material with ease and enjoyment. There are two basic kinds of suggestion: direct and indirect.Direct suggestions are directed to conscious processes. An anti-suggestive emotional barrier which rejects anything likely to produce a feeling of lack of confidence or insecurity: “This anti-suggestive barrier proceeds from the set-up in every man.
” An anti-suggestive barrier of man's rational faculty which through reasoning rejects suggestions it judges unacceptable: `This barrier is the conscious critical thinking'. ”It is clear that the suggestive process is always a combination of suggestion and de-suggestion and is always at an unconscious or slightly conscious level.” Students can sense when we embody the values and attitudes we “talk about”. Intonation is strongly connected with the rest of the suggestive elements.“Learning is state of mind dependent”.
When varying your voice you “reach” different “states of mind”. The artistic organisation of the suggestopedic educational process creates conditions for concert pseudopassivity in the student. The concert pseudopassivity (concentrative psychorelaxation) overcomes the antisuggestive barriers, creating a condition of trust and infantilization in the student, who in a naturally calm state accompanied by a state of meditation without special autogenic training can absorb and work over a huge quantity of information.Music can be played as the students enter the room, and during the breaksMusic as a suggestive, relaxing medium. Lozanov researched a wide variety of means for presenting material to be learned which would facilitate the mentally relaxed, receptive state of mind he had found to be optimal for learning.
Music can become a powerful facilitator of holistic full-brain learning. For the second concert presentation of material Lozanov found that Baroque music was especially suited.