Isaac Singer transformed American society by
patenting a practical sewing machine that allowed for the mass production of textiles
In 1851 a journal editor wrote that this had become "the great agent of civilization and progress, the most powerful instrument for good the world has yet reached." What was he referring to?
the locomotive
Which of the following statements accurately describes railroads in the United States in 1860?
the United States had more track than the rest of the world combined
What impact did technological changes have on the American worker before the Civil War?
The purchasing power of the average worker rose
What medical development greatly advanced the image of surgeons and the success of healthcare in the decades before the Civil War?
The development of anesthesia
Transcendentalism was the belief that?
Each person should discover truth on their own
What was one of the changes that transformed American newspapers in the decades before the Civil war?
They began to print "human-interest" stories rather than just political and commercial news
Phineas T. Barnum was described as the father of mass entertainment in the U.S. because
all of these choices
In his 1837 address "The American Scholar," Ralph Waldo Emerson argued that Americans needed to
improve their literature by emulating European forms
How did the writings of Emerson, Thoreau, and Whitman differ from those of Hawthorne, Poe, and Melville?
Hawthorne, Poe, and Melville had a pessimistic view of the human condition
Which of these did physicians attribute to the cause and spread of epidemic diseases in the mid-nineteenth century?
Gases that arose from rotten vegetables and dead animals
Why did movements for rural cemeteries and urban parks develop during the antebellum period?
there was a fear that sprawling urban growth was destroying the spiritual healing that nature provided
What were the goals of the Hudson River school of painters?
They wanted to preserve a record of a disappearing wilderness
What was one of the purposes of the lyceum lectures?
They were designed to spread and popularize knowledge and self-improvement
What happened in New Orleans in 1832 and 1833?
An epidemic of yellow fever and cholera killed 1/5 of the population
While waging the American Revolution and running the government before 1787, how was Congress limited by the Articles of Confederation?
the articles did not give congress the authority to order states to comply with its requests
Which of the following was NOT an advantage that the British had over the Americans in the War for Independence?
Britain had a nearly unlimited ability to finance the war, no matter how long it dragged on
Which of the following was NOT one of Britain's difficulties during the War for Independence?
It had a large but ill-trained army
What happened at the Battle of Saratoga?
A British drive toward Albany was halted when General Burgoyne surrendered 5,800 troops to General Gates
Why was the Battle of Saratoga so significant to the American Revolution?
It convinced France to support the United States publicly
Which of the following battles forced the British government to commence peace negotiations with the Americans?
Why does Nathanial Greene have a reputation for success despite losing three major battles between March and September 1781?
He sapped British strength and forced General Cornwallis to abandon the backcountry and lead his troops into Virginia
Which of the following was NOT one of the terms of the Peace of Paris?
Loyalists were to be compensated for their property losses
How were blacks accounted for in the Constitution?
Slaves were counted as three-fifths of a person for tax and representation purposes
Which of the following was one of the ways the American Revolution affected African-Americans?
Most northern states took steps to weaken the institution of slavery and phase it out, while no state south Pennsylvania abolished slavery
Which piece of legislation created the basic unit of settlement in the territory north of the Ohio River?
Ordinance of 1785
Which of the following was NOT one of the conditions leading to Daniel Shay's Rebellion?
A slave uprising in a neighboring state
Which statement concerning the delegates to the Constitutional Convention is most accurate?
They tended to be wealthy lawyers in their thirties and forties
What was the key issue at the Constitutional Convention?
Whether or not slavery should be abolished
By 1784, what did all state constitutions include?
A bill of rights
Which of the following is an example of the growing complexity of American society after independence?
All of these choices
Why are the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions so significant to American history?
They made the claim that a state had the right to nullify federal laws if deemed unconstitutional
In terms of the nation's economy, Hamilton regarded debt as?
a good thing because it would tie those in debt to the nation's future success
In his farewell address, George Washington advised that the United States should
steer clear of party factionalism and avoid foreign entanglements
Who took the lead in establishing the Washington administration's domestic priorities?
Alexander Hamilton
What was the strongest argument against Hamilton's Bank of the United States?
The Constitution had given Congress no specific authorization to issue charters of incorporation
Which of the following departments was NOT part of George Washington's first cabinet?
Commerce Department
What was the significance of the Whiskey Rebellion?
All of these choices
How did the United States government respond to France's declaration of war on Britain in 1793?
It proclaimed neutrality
What did the Treaty of Greenville do?
It opened most of modern-day Ohio to white settlement and ended Indian hostilities there
What made Jay's Treaty controversial?
It arranged for withdrawal of British troops from American soil, and granted access to British West Indies markets but only by bargaining away US rights to load cargoes of sugar, molasses and coffee from the French during wartime
While Hamilton promoted factories as the key to the nation's economic future, Jefferson emphasized farming because
Jefferson saw factories as celebrating sub service and stifling the virtue that farm life cultivated
What role did newspapers play in American politics during the mid-and late 1790's
They expanded in number and circulation through fear mongering and character assassination, and were often libelous and irresponsible
What was the central charge that Republicans aimed at Federalists during the late 1790's?
They had become a faction bent on enriching wealthy citizens and creating an aristocracy
What was the XYZ affair?
It was an effort by the French to get the United States to pay a bribe before they would negotiate
The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair that so enraged Americans and nearly precipitated a war occurred when which of these countries attacked a U.S. warship?
Who led American forces at Battle of New Orleans?
Andrew Jackson
Who did Thomas Jefferson believe were the most vigilant and virtuous people?
Educated Farmers
In President Jefferson's view, what did the Judiciary Act of 1801 demonstrate?
The Federalists were trying to make the judiciary their stronghold
In his final days in office, how did President John Adams attempt to extend his influence on the federal government after he was gone?
He appointed members of his Federalist party as new justices to the Supreme Court
What is the significance of the Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison?
The Supreme Court had the authority to determine the constitutionality of a law
The 1823 Monroe Doctrine argued that European countries
could no longer establish new colonies in the Western Hemisphere
President Jefferson's main reason authorizing the Lewis and Clark expedition was to
advance scientific knowledge
The main issue that led to the "Missouri Compromise" was
maintaining the balance between slave states and free states
What did the British rule of 1756 state?
Trade closed during times of peace could not be opened in time of war; otherwise, the British would stop it
How did Tecumseh try to stem the tide of white encroachment on Native American lands?
He sought to build a coalition of several tribes who could stand united in collectively owning and retaining the land
The war hawks were?
Republicans from the West and South who wanted more aggressive action and thought the government's policies were wrecking their economies
Where did William Henry Harrison's forces defeat the Shawnee Indians?
Battle of Tippecanoe
What did the Treaty of Ghent NOT do?
It ended British impressment of American sailors
Who helped Lewis and Clark on their expedition to the Pacific?
Which of the following was NOT one of the developments that took place in the United States after the War of 1812?
Slowing of economic growth
Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the Five Civilized Tribes?
They were Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Huron, and Seminoles
What was the purpose of the National Road?
to facilitate westward migration
In 1838, why did thousands of Cherokees move from the southwestern United States to Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma?
They were forced to move by the federal government
Which of the following is NOT true of the Cherokee Indians?
They supported the movement of Indians out of the South
The purpose of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was to
facilitate white settlement on Indian lands
Early American steamboats
became ornate and luxurious
What was the first major canal project in the United States?
The Erie Canal
What was one of the major changes that took place in American towns and cities between 1820 and 1860?
Towns grew rapidly, especially in the West
New England became America's first industrial region in part because it had
a surplus of young women to work in the mills
What led Richard Allen and other African Americans to establish their own Protestant denomination, the African Methodist Episcopal Church?
They were angered by the discrimination they faced in white-led churches
Charles Knowlton was frequently prosecuted because he
wrote a descriptive book describing feminine hygiene which violated obscenity laws
What did the intense antebellum criticism of lawyers, physicians, ministers, and other professionals indicate about America?
Americans were inclined to question authority
Which of the following changes in marriage patterns did NOT occur in the antebellum period?
Fewer couples had lengthy engagements
The doctrine of "separate spheres" suggested that many Antebellum Americans believed that
men were to dominate worldly pursuits, while women would gain power in the home via their moral influence
What was the dispute in the 1830s Nullification crisis?
South Carolina argued that a state had the right to override a federally-enacted tariff
During the antebellum period, the American political system
became more democratic
Why did President Jackson veto the bill that would have provided funding for a road in Kentucky?
He opposed federal funding of internal improvements that were purely local in character
Which section of the country tended to oppose tariffs?
One of the reasons why Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Bank of the United States was that it
was a private monopoly run by a privileged few
What is the difference between "hard money" and "soft money"?
hard money is specie like gold or silver, while soft money is paper
Which party was the main opposition to Andrew Jackson during his second term in office?
Whig party
Why was the 1824 presidential election unique?
John Quincy Adams was elected president by the House of Representatives
In the late 1830s and early 1840s, what group believed that the end of the world was imminent?
Why did temperance reformers make one of their main targets the moderate drinkers among the laboring classes?
Drinking interfered with the orderly and steady habits required by the new factory system
What made William Lloyd Garrison the most famous and controversial white abolitionist?
He called for the immediate emancipation of and full equality for all slaves
The Specie Circular required
that only specie be used to purchase public lands
How did attitudes toward poverty and crime change in the antebellum era?
New theories held that poor home environments, lack of discipline, and bad parenting were the cause of rising poverty and crime
Women held their first national women's rights convention in 1848 at
Seneca Falls, New York
Joseph Smith presented the Book of Mormon as
A record of ancient American Christians, translated from golden plates that had been buried near Palmyra, New York