Dynastic Cycle
The theory that Chinese dynasties go through a predictable cycle, from early vigor and growth to subsequent decline as administrators become lax and well-off find ways to avoid paying taxes, cutting state revenues.
Paper Money
Legal currency issued on paper; it developed in China as a convenient alternative to metal coins.
A tool developed in Song times to aid in navigation at sea; it consisted of a magnetic needle that would point north in a small protective case.
Examination System
A system of selecting officials based on competitive written examinations.
Movable Type
A system of printing in which one piece of type was used for each unique character.
The revival of Confucian thinking that began in the eleventh century.
A women contracted to a man as a secondary spouse; although subordinate to the wife, her sons were considered legitimate heirs.
Foot Binding
The practice of binding the feet of girls with long strips of cloth to keep them from growing large.
Esoteric Buddhism
A sect of Buddhism that maintains that the secrets of enlightenment have been secretly transmitted from the Buddha and can be accessed through initiation into the mandalas, mudras, and mantras.
Literally, the Way of the Warrior," this was the code of conduct by which samurai were expected to live.
Military Land Stewards
Officials placed in charge of overseeing estates.
Military Governors
Officials appointed to enforce the law in the provinces and oversee the samurai there.
A school of Buddhism that emphasized meditation and truths that could not be conveyed in words.
Japan's military dictatorship. Leaded by military dictator known as shogun. Later became a hereditary military dictatorship, and as it's power grew so did the power of the samurai.
Regional feudal lord who samurai swore allegiance too.
Form of ritual suicide by the slashing of one's belly. Only through this act could a disgraced samurai regain their honor. They were killed shortly after the initial cut to spare pain.
Members of a powerful military class in feudal Japan. Began as provincial warriors. Swore allegiance to daimyo. Samurai backed the power of the shogun of emperor. "Those who serve". Were a warrior class and were very skilled warriors. Devoted themselves to their craft and their clan.
Minamoto Yoritomo
Founder of Kamakura Shogunate. Quickly established himself as a political force and he founded the Kamakura Shogunate. Established the center of power in Japan at Kamakura.
Kamakura Shogunate
The samurai during this period had well defined roles and privilege status within Japanese culture. 1190s-1330s. Two mongol invasion in the 13th century weakened the power of the Kamakura Shogunate. They were weakened and people struggled for power. There was civil war during the 13th and 14th centuries. During Kaamkura shogunate samurai culture developed relationship with Zen Buddhism. Idea of religious salvation comes from within and belief of simplicity provided direction for the early code of samurai life.
Samurai Weaponry
Saw their weapons as an extension of themselves and their spirits. Samurai carried two swords, one short, and one long. They were skilled archers and superb horseman. Arrows were 7-10 feet long and had the range of 300+.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Unified Japan in 1615 after the civil war. Founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Tokugawa Shogunate
Founded in 1615. Under Tokugawa Shogunate Japan entered 250 years of peace and prosperity. During this shogunate samurai were also assisting in governing through civil means. Samurai culture during this period was heavily influenced by Confucian ideals. The fusion between Zen Buddhism and Confucianism helped to mold the samurai code of conduct called Bushido. By middle of the 19th century the Tokugawa regime became weak due to various factors. Biggest was Western influence on Japan.
Bushido and "Duality" of Samurai
Bushido meant "way of the warrior". Under the influences of Buddhist and Confucian thought, Bushido kept the warrior spirit alive fro samurai and stressed military skill and fearlessness in the face of an enemy. Also emphasized compassion, kindness, honesty, and family, filial piety. Strong devotion to community was extremely important. Bushido expressed Yin and Yang. This is the duality of the samurai. In battle honor is constant. Must not fear death.
Samurai and Peace (adapting of role)
the role of samurai changed during Tokugawa shogunate. Many samurai were forced to become members of the bureaucracy or take up a trade. Made income from the land-owners or daimyo that they swore allegiance to. Not all samurai could survive as warriors in a time of peace. As stipend from daimyo grew low, low level samurai grew frustrated at their lack of opportunity.
*Meiji Restoration
As Western powers moved in, the role of the emperor grew more powerful, and many samurai gave their support to the returning the emperor to power. This is known as the Meiji Restoration. Feudalism was officially abolished in 1871 and the power of the emperor was restored. The irony of Meiji Restoration is the samurai helped to restore the emperor to power, and in doing so, abolished their own way of life.
How did the Western demand for Eastern goods affect the life of Chinese citizens?
The economy became more organized and merchant became specialized to a certain trade. The economy the prospered and through this more jobs were created for peasants, raising the standard of living in China. Trade became quicker, better, and more organized in China.
What does the growth of Urban areas in China tell us about their civilization and culture? Explain.
This tells us they were advanced enough architecturally to make cities large enough to support a million people this also suggests that the Chinese had enough food and resources to sustain that many people, which shows how advanced they were. They also had to have jobs for these people and trade was essential.
How did Taizu come to power in China? How did he make sure he could retain power?
Taizu was a skilled and great general and through his troops he elevated himself to emperor. He made sure that he could retain his power by placing the armies under central government control. Had officials supervised and looker after so they couldn't repeat.
1. This general was the founder of the Song Dynasty
a.Taizu is the answer
2.The Samurai were
D.skilled warriors in Japan is the answer
3.Chinese historians in the past generally viewed Chinese history as
B.repeated cycles of dynastic growth, vigor, and decline is the answer
4. In the practice of concubines in China
C. The children from Concubine held equal status with their children.