Pax Romana
The "Roman Peace," that is, the state of comparative concord prevailing within the boundaries of the Roman Empire from the reign of Augustus (27 BCE - 14 CE) to that of Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 CE), enforced by Roman rule and military control.
A state that is not ruled by a hereditary leader (a monarchy) but by a person or persons appointed under the constitution.
The smallest units of the Roman army, each composed of some 100 foot-soldiers and commanded by a centurion. A legion was made up of 60 centuries. Centuries also formed political divisions of Roman citizens.
A junior official in ancient Rome. There were originally two, elected annually, but more were appointed as the empire expanded. Most were financial officials.
Under the Roman Republic, one of the two magistrates holding supreme civil and military authority. Nominated by the Senate and elected by the citizens in the Comitia Centuriata (popular assembly), the consuls held office for one year and each had power of veto over the other.
The head of a family or household in Roman law - always a male - and the only member to have full legal rights. The paterfamilias had absolute power over his family, which extended to life and death.
"Bread and Circuses"
A new method of coping with class conflict developed. Rome bribed the poor, many of them former soldiers from its armies with a dole of free bread. In return, they were encouraged to spend their time in public religion festivities, raced, the theater, and gladiatorial contests of great cruelty.
In ancient Rome, the name was originally applied to the consul as leader of an army. In 366 BCE a further praetor was elected with special responsibility for the administration of justice in Rome, with the right of military command. Further praetors were subsequently appointed to administer the increasing number of provinces.
An unofficial coalition between Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus was formed in 60 BCE. After Caesar's murder in 44 BCE, a triumvirate that included his heir Octavian (later Augustus), Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus was appointed to maintain public order.
a theme was originally a military unit stationed in one of the provinces of the Byzantine Empire, but it later applied to the large military districts that formed buffer zones in the areas most vulnerable to Muslim invasion.
An "image-breaker", or a person who rejects the veneration of icons, on the ground that the practice is idolatrous.
In ancient Rome, a plebeian officer elected by the plebeians and charged to protect their lives and properties, with a right of veto against legislative proposals of the Senate.
A citizen of ancient Rome who was not a member of the priviledged patrician class. From the later Republican period, the term plebeian implied low social class.
The supporters of a doctrine in the early Christian Church that held that the incarnate Christ possessed a single, wholly divine nature. They opposed the orthodox view that Christ had a double nature, one divine and one human, and emphasized his divinity at the expense of his capacity to experience real human suffering.