- the study of humans and our close biological relatives, the Primates
- the study of human cultural and biological variation, and evolution
- how did we get this variation?
What are the subfields of anthropology?
4) physical (biological) anthropology
What are the subfields of physical anthropology?
4) human biology
- study of human cultural adaptation
- human behavior and societies using a cross-cultural perspective meaning all over the world
- unlike sociology, looks at all cultures around the world and compare them rather than focus on one area at a time
- study of living people
- language origins
- the relationship between language and culture
- language, especially cultural and social, but not so much grammar wise
- how does environment affect communication?
- study of past human cultures through their material remains
- behaviors of past societies based on material remains (artifacts left behind by a society)
- differs from cultural because it studies the past
Physical (Biological) anthropology
- study of human (and non-human primate) biology, within a framework of evolution, and human bicultural variation
- humans as biological organisms in an evolutionary framework
- how do they vary and how did that variation come to be?
- subfield of physical anthropology
- Study of modern human genetic and phenotypic (physical) variation (biocultural variation)
- variations, adaptations, genetics, physical differences
- adaptation to an environment usually creates a body type
- proportions and skin are a result of habitat
- Study of our close biological relatives, the Primates
- non-human primates' anatomy, genetics, behavior, ecology
- Jane Goodall
- by studying primates we can see what's unique only to humans or traits we share
- identification of human remains
- study of how an individual died
- related to osteology and paleopathology
- help identify skeletal remins in mass disasters or other situations where a human body has been found
- Bill Bass and John Jefferson
- the study of ancient disease
- the study of disease and trauma in ancient skeletal populations
- research tells us about the lives of individuals and populations in the past
- yields information regarding the history of certain disease processes
- investigate the prevalence of trauma, certain infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, and other conditions that may leave evidence in the bone
- the study of anatomical and behavioral human evolution as revealed in the fossil record
- Study of primate and human evolution
- the study of behavioral and anatomical human evolution as revealed in the fossil record
- human evolution
- main evidence is fossils of ancestors
- how did we evolve?
- Hominins: modern humans and their bipedal (upright walking) ancestors
- the study of skeleton
- only way anthropologists could study immediate ancestors
How do we study our extinct ancestors?
- archaeology (tools, trash, etc.)
- analogy to living primates (including humans)
- aDNA (ancient DNA)
- comparing humans to our close relatives
What is science?
- a method of discovery that results in a body of knowledge
- process of explaining natural phenomena using direct observation and experimentation
- empirical method
- asks: How? What? Why?
4) data collection (test the hypothesis with experiment)
5) evaluate the hypothesis
- identifying a research problem and then gathering information to solve it
- informed supposition about the relationship between two variables
- proposed explanation
- must be testable using empirical date
- any factor or property of a phenomenon (object, event) that may have different values
- only after repeated tests which confirm or are consistent with the hypothesis does a hypothesis graduate to this