When I have a question or concern about this course, I should contact Prof. Smith (select best answer)
Any of the above
Information regarding how to contact Prof. Smith can be found on (choose all appropriate answers)
the website for the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures
on our Blackboard site
I affirm that I have read the syllabus and asked questions about anything I did not understand.
I understand that my successful completion of this course depends on
all of the above, as well as my viewing of related lectures and videos
In the introduction to our primary text, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition, Jack Zipes compares the fairy tale genre to
a biological species because it has benefitted from cross-fertilization of ideas and incremental evolution.
What is the relationship between the oral tradition (of fairy tales) and the literary fairy tale?
The exact origins of the literary fairy tale are uncertain and the relationship between oral traditions and the literary fairy tale isn't always clear. We know, for example, that literary fairy tales borrow motifs and plot characteristics from orally told tales from antiquity up to the 14th and 15th centuries and that the literary genre we now call the literary fairy tale gained traction in 16th-century Europe.
When did the literary fairy tale genre come into being in western Europe and what country is especially known for its development in the 17th century?
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in late seventeenth-century France when writers openly advocated for its relevance and merit as a genre
What two French writers had their collections of fairy tales published in 1697?
Charles Perrault and Marie-Catherine d'Aulnoy
Zipes argues that the literary fairy tale genre reached an equilibrium in the __________________ century with the Grimm brothers' fairy tale collections because they produced such a vast, stable work. This body of work helps us study the literary fairy tale genre before them and gives a point of reference to study how the genre has branched off since then.
The Grimms are well known because they were so creative and created their stories from scratch.
According to Bruno Bettelheim, who was influenced by Sigmund Freud's writings, fairy tales differ from dreams in that
answers a and c
According to Bettelheim, myths and fairy tales differ in several respects:
all of the above
Bettelheim implies that fairy tales are ideal reading or listening material for children
for all of the reasons above
According to Zipes, fairy tales can often be seen as commenting on the production and exercise of power.
When did tales of wonder begin to viewed as heretical, dangerous or sacrilegious?
with the rise of the Christian Church in Europe and the solidification of its power
Who coined the term conte de fée?
Mme d'Aulnoy, in the 17th century
Why, according to Zipes, did it become popular to associate tales of wonder and folktales with women storytellers?
in order to discredit the tales as unreliable and/or to diminish their impact and meaning
Why is the "literary tradition of the fairy tale" often associated with men?
because men were the ones being educated formally and publicly to read and write
What was a goal of de Beaumont's collection of stories in which her "Beauty and the Beast" appeared in 1757?
to instruct young girls how to behave in society
The Grimm brothers published their initial collection of fairy tales in
1. Though born in the late 18th century, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm made a name for themselves through their work in the _______________ century.
"Germany" did not exist as a unified nation state during the Grimms' lifetimes. That would not happen until 1871 under Bismarck.
In addition, French forces occupied the Grimms' homeland in 1806 and did not leave until Napoleon's defeat in 1813.
4. The lack of political unity in, and sometimes foreign occupation of, "Germany" during the late 18th / early 19th century is important to keep in mind because many writers such as the Grimms were keenly interested in making German speakers
aware of their shared cultural traditions, including their folk poetry, folk songs and myths
5. Heavily influenced by J. G. Herder and others, the Grimm brothers were interested in all types of folklore because they believed it gave insight into
who a people are. They believed that folk poetry was a dynamic expression of a people's character, identity, history and beliefs.
Aside from their work on fairy tales, the Grimm brothers worked together or individually on other projects of lasting importance (check all that apply):
-Deutsches Wörterbuch (a German dictionary project similar in scope and breadth to the Oxford English Dictionary)
-Deutsche Grammatik (a linguistic history of Germanic languages)
-Deutsche Mythologie (a work on Germanic mythology)
-Deutsche Sagen (a collection of German legends)
7. "Göttingen Seven" refers to
the Grimm brothers and five other professors who were fired from their jobs because they wrote a letter of protest to the King of Hanover because he repealed the 1833 constitution. It's an example of the Grimms' commitment to making their society freer.
8. The Grimms were approximately _______ old when they started working on their fairy tale collection.
9. Romanticism is a literary, intellectual and artistic movement roughly of the late 18th to mid 19th century in Europe. In contrast to the Enlightenments, which emphasized an individual's exercise of reason as a means by which to understand and interface with nature and mankind's place in it, Romanticism emphasized ______________ as key.
10. Taking four orally told versions of "Cinderella" from four different dialects of German and editing them down into one version to be printed into a collection of stories has ramifications for the story and tradition. For example, it: (circle all that apply)
all of the above
The Grimms' second volume (1815) was more successful because
a and b but not c
12. Despite the work they invested in the second volume, popular success didn't come until a smaller edition in 1825. This smaller edition enjoyed popular success because it
Contained illustrations and was geared toward children.
13. How did the Grimms regard their revision and expansion of the fairy tale material?
They believed the fairy tales had a stable essence and that their revisions and editions were simply part of an ever changing, ever growing tradition
The Grimms weren't the first to collect and disseminate fairy tales. Why is their collection so highly regarded when compared to those that came before them?
because their collection contains such a rich variety and diversity of tales
The Grimms did occasionally tone down the violence in their fairy tales. When?
when friends or colleagues asked them to
The Grimms were keen to redact stories or situations with overt or implied __________. "Rapunzel" is a perfect example
The Grimms valued scholarly reviews of their work more than their collections' financial success. That said, they did appreciate the revenue they received because they needed it, especially in their early career.
The Grimms were born in Hanau and are buried in Berlin
19. The Grimms studied law in Marburg, where they met Clemens Brentano, a well-known German Romantic who influenced them.
20. The Matt Damon / Heath Ledger film "The Brothers Grimm" is not even close to being historically accurate. It is not recommended as part of this course.
The "Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns" was a debate in late 17th-century France
Between authors who wanted to model French literature on works and traditions from antiquity (the Ancients) and those authors who wanted to create French literature more reflective of their own time, a literature that incorporated pagan beliefs, magical elements and fantastical material. These "Moderns" were supportive of fairy tales.
The "Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns" is important for understanding
all of the above
Unlike "Germany" at the time, 17th-century France had a king, a central court, and a recognized "standard" language (the French spoken at court).
Despite their different time periods and societal climates in which they worked, the Grimm brothers and Perrault were deeply interested in advancing their respective languages and literatures (French literature in Perrault's case, German literature in the Grimm brothers' case).
In "The Struggle for Meaning," Bruno Bettelheim says that meaning
A B and C
In "The Struggle for Meaning," Bruno Bettelheim argues that fairy tales help children in particular find meaning in life because modern books
are too shallow
Perrault's version of "Cinderella" is noteworthy for many reasons, including
all of the above
Cinderella's behavior at the end of Perrault's "Cinderella"
all of the above
The Grimms' version of Cinderella is
The Grimms' version of "Cinderella"
begins notably with the passing of Cinderella's mother and her admonition that Cinderella should be "pious" and the "Lord" will look after her
As in Perrault's version of "Cinderella", the father in the Grimms' version of "Cinderella" does not appear as strong as he should be as patriarch of the house as he allows Cinderella to be mistreated.
When the father in the Grimms' version of "Cinderella" asks what he can bring the daughters home from his trip, Cinderella asks for
The first twig that brushes against his hat.
The item that Cinderella's father brings her home in the Grimms' version can be seen to represent _______________, not just because of what it is and stands for sometimes in Germanic folklore, but also because it touches the father's head (and thus establishes a connection between it and the mind).
The white bird or dove that descends and inhabits the tree at the grave of Cinderella's mother (Grimms' version) can be seen to
all of the above
The Grimms' version of cinderella ends with
pigeons pecking the sisters eyes out
The ending of the Grimms' version of "Cinderella" is important because it signals the existence of divine justice. Humans' actions are ultimately judged by a higher being.
Both versions of "Cinderella" that we read this week can be seen as
All of the above
The repetition and grouping of items in a series (often in threes, with the last item slightly amended) gives a printed tale the feel of an orally told tale, as repetition of plot items helps speakers and readers remember the tale and thus to share it with others. A famous example of this in the Grimms' version is "Rook di goo, rook di goo!
There's blood in the shoe."
The Grimms' version indicates that we recognize true beauty only when we are attentive enough to look for it beyond and regardless of any societal markings such as clothing, jewelry, makeup, etc. A prime example of this occurs when Cinderella's beauty is acknowledged as she tries on the shoe.
When Bettelheim speaks of the "id", he is using a Freudian term that refers to our most basic drives and urges as animals, such as hunger, the need for sleep, and our libido. It and the related terms "ego" and "superego" are meant to help us think about how the human psyche works.
The color red is associated with blood in "Snow White." In the beginning, in particular, the Queen's pricking of her finger and subsequent bleeding onto the snow can be seen to symbolize the Queen's
Menstrual Cycle (& thus ability to have a baby)
The color black is a bit trickier. It is often seen as pointing to death, but its association with the wood frame here means it could also/instead point to fortitude, stability, and even resilience. Some cultures regard black soil as fertile, so it might mean that as well. Freya, the Norse (and thus Germanic) goddess of fertility and love, is described as riding a chariot pulled by cats. It's unclear to me, though, what color the cats were supposed to be. I always thought they were grey, because that's what I've read, but more recently I saw a reference to their being black, but that source wasn't entirely credible. Given that our hair generally grays or whitens as we age, black could simply point to youthfulness. As I said, color symbolism can be tricky.
The Queen is replaced by a "beautiful woman" who is nevertheless "proud and arrogant." Pride is one of the seven deadly sins. The seven deadly sins are
Pride, envy, gluttony, lust, anger, greed, sloth
The wicked queen consults her magic mirror often to hear if she is (or is not) the fairest in the land. Her fixation on being the fairest in the land is best described as
Though vanitas is an old concept, it becomes a popular trope in 17th-century paintings in the Netherlands. Many artworks then depict a still life with a skull and objects of beauty or human pursuits, such as books, flowers, an hourglass, etc. Such works are meant to convey the
the fleetingness or impermanence of the human body and of human pursuits
In wanting to always be the fairest in the land, the wicked queen tries to ignore the fact that our lives, and thus appearance, are characterized by our bodies'
The "apple" that the old woman offers Snow White can be seen to symbolize
The apple and its association with temptation in western literature comes from the "fruit" that Eve and Adam partake of in the Garden of Eden (Genesis). This "fruit" comes to be depicted most generally as an apple in artworks much later, especially in the Renaissance. A linguistic misunderstanding is likely also to blame. In Latin, mālum means "apple" whereas mălum means "an evil or a misfortune."
The lessons imparted to us by "Snow White" include (check all that apply):
a. choosing the right spouse, one you truly know, is incredibly important for everyone in the family, especially your kid(s) if you have one/them.
b. people, especially perhaps young people, make the wrong choices even after being warned, but making choices and suffering the consequences is part of the maturation process.
c. life is characterized by change -- whether it is one's appearance or maturation
d. appearance does not necessarily reflect being (one isn't always as one appears)
Bettelheim argues that the dwarfs represent ________________ and that Snow White's trying out each of the beds is indicative of her _____________________.
phalluses .... growing sexual experience/maturation
The Grimms' first version of "Snow White", published in 1812, had Snow White's mother serve as the evil one instead of a stepmother.
When Snow White is unconscious, the dwarfs comb her hair and put her in a transparent coffin.
The dwarfs' treatment of Snow White at the end of the Grimms' version can be interpreted as
the objectification of woman by and for male voyeurs.
Snow White's unconscious state can be seen as representing the time of development one experiences between childhood and adulthood -- as suggestive of puberty, in other words. She goes to sleep a girl and awakes a woman capable of marrying a prince.
It's important to note that the "wicked woman" also gives in to temptation as she just has to go see Snow White at her wedding to the prince. For her troubles, the "wicked woman" is made to ________________ until she dies.
dance in hot iron shoes
Anne Sexton is a 20th-century American poet who published poetic adaptations of select fairy tales in her book Transformations.
Sexton's poem "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" focuses on
society's objectification of virginity and of women.
At the end of Sexton's "Snow White", one has the sense that Snow White
is vane and superficial like her stepmother.
It is important to note that Snow White is jostled awake when someone carrying her coffin trips; it isn't anything someone did on purpose. If we see her coma-like state as representing puberty, the unpredictability of her awakening suggests that one can't do anything to speed the transitional process of puberty along. It ends when it ends. We should keep this in mind when we discuss "Sleeping Beauty" later.
Hans Christian Andersen lived in the
19th century, mostly in Denmark
The theme of ________________, whether transpired or desired, occurs often in Hans Christian Andersen's works, probably because he experienced it himself. He was educated in a school for poor children, but he managed to improve his economic conditions through his engagement with the arts.
The famous statue of The Little Mermaid has its home at the harbor of Denmark's capital, ___________________.
The beginning of Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Mermaid" encourages us to consider the story in terms of ______________. One sees this emphasis already in the initial phrases "Far out" and "It [the ocean's water] goes down deeper."
The answer to question #4 is important because it sets the stage for the story's emphasis on _____________________.(The story meant here is Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Mermaid.")
Hans Christian Andersen's Little Mermaid tends a garden which she populates with objects of her fascination: "flowers as red as the_____________" and ________________.
"sun" and a marble statute of a boy
Andersen's Little Mermaid can obtain ________ only if she gains the love of a human being and that love is attested to by marriage.
an immortale soul
Andersen's Little Mermaid gets help from the sea witch. The Little Mermaid's acceptance of the sea witch's help and of the witch's terms reminds one of the literary/cultural motif of a pact with the devil. Generally, a pact with the devil requires one to give up his/her soul exchange for something. The Little Mermaid doesn't have one to give. Nevertheless, she seeks the witch's help for something she (The Little Mermaid) wouldn't normally be able to attain by herself--legs and a chance to win the love of a human being. One of the most famous examples of a pact with the devil occurs
in the Faust legend, between Faust and Mephistopheles. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) wrote perhaps the most famous version of this story
Andersen's Little Mermaid
refuses to stab the prince and is rewarded with her transformation into a daughter of the air.
Andersen's Little Mermaid can earn a soul at the end of the story
by her good deeds
When you think about it, Andersen's "The Little Mermaid" encourages good behavior among children because
a and c but b
Not surprisingly, Disney's film "The Little Mermaid" ends
with the marriage of Ariel and prince Eric.
In Disney's "The Little Mermaid," Ariel acts independently. Nevertheless, the lyrics of Ursula's "Poor Unfortunate Souls" and the depiction of Ariel and Ursula in the provided clip invite us to consider [choose all that apply]:
a. latent (or not so latent) sexism and misogyny in society.
b. ethnic and societal stereotypes that may influence the drawing of certain characters, such as Ursula.
c. the importance of having a voice in human interactions and its connection to one's identity.
d. the degree to which films promote and/or reflect notions of beauty and sexual attractiveness.
In the Grimms' "Rapunzel", a husband and wife want to have a child and the woman craves
type of lettuce
The husband and wife in the Grimms' "Rapunzel" live in an apartment that has a view of a neighbor's luscious garden, and therein grows the Rapunzel that the wife desires. The wife's initial desire for the Rapunzel can be explained as (choose all that apply):
a. resulting from a possible vitamin deficiency, such as a deficiency in folic acid.
b. symbolic of temptation and the dangers of coveting what others have.
c. as a pregnancy craving
The sorceress locks Rapunzel in a tower in the forest when she (Rapunzel) approaches an age associated with puberty.
The sorceress locks Rapunzel away in an apparent attempt to remove her from the temptations of the world. When you think about it, the fact that the prince finds Rapunzel and that they conceive twins together unbekownst to the sorceress suggests
a b and c
Rapunzel shows maturity and ingenuity by suggesting a plan to let herself down from the tower so she can accompany the prince, but immaturity when she reveals the secret of the princes' visits to Mother Gothel.
Rapunzel and the prince both suffer when their relationship is revealed:
Rapunzel is taken to a desolate location and the prince must wander around the forest blinded because he pierced his eyes on thorns.
Despite their suffering, Rapunzel and the prince experience a happy end.
Perrault's "Sleeping Beauty" blends Christian motifs and magical elements, a common practice among fairy tales of his and the Grimms' time periods.
In considering Perrault's "Sleeping Beauty", we shouldn't forget that he was writing in late 17th century, for a court culture, and that he had been embroiled in the literary/cultural dispute now known as "The Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns."
In Perrault's "Sleeping Beauty", all of the fairies "that could be found" were invited to the christening. __________ fairies were invited.
In Perrault's "Sleeping Beauty," one fairy was overlooked and not invited to the christening. This oversight suggests
The imperfection of human knowledge. We can't know or find everything, try as we might.
The king's edict forbids spindles and spinning in Perrault's "Sleeping Beauty" because he
he wishes to avoid the prophesied misfortune.
The failure of the king's edict in Perrault's "Sleeping Beauty" emphasizes
the limits of regal, human, and even parental control.
The king's ultimate inability to avoid "misfortune" in Perrault's "Sleeping Beauty" shouldn't come as a huge surprise, because fortune can't be controlled by any one person. The ancient notion of Fortuna speaks to this point. The Roman goddess of fortune, Fortuna, was often discussed and portrayed in artwork, especially in the middle ages. There, Fortuna embodies
the fickleness or capriciousness of fortune and fate.
One way of depicting the concept of Fortuna was to show or discuss her ______________________, which most people only know nowadays in terms of the game show hosted in part by South Carolina native Vanna White.
wheel of fortune
In Perrault's "Sleeping Beauty", the prince
c. gets the girl because he happens to come along at the right time.
Bettelheim sees the princess's 100 years of sleep as symbolic of adolescence in general and of sexual maturation in particular, especially as it relates to the onset of menstruation.
In Perrault's "Sleeping Beauty," the prince appears to have to mature into his role as husband. This can be seen by
A and B
Perrault's "Sleeping Beauty" seems to suggest ____________________________. You see this with the awakening of the princess, the arrival of the prince, but even early on when the king and queen are described as trying everything to have a child, including making pilgrimages, "and nothing succeeded. At length, however, the queen became pregnant."
that things happen when they are ready to happen. They don't so much depend on us. (We can't effect results as often and as much as we think.)
With respect to Grimms' "Brier Rose" (and indeed other fairy tales such as "The Frog King"), frogs have been seen as symbolic
all of the above
Among other things, the Grimms' "Brier Rose" points at worst to parental negligence or at least to their being remiss in their duties as parents and as king/queen. They
a and b
In regard to "Brier Rose," Bettelheim sees the key in the lock, the tower, and even the princess's path up to the top of the tower as
symbolic of sexual maturation
In Perrault's "Bluebeard," the younger daughter begins to look past the man's bluebeard and the fact that no one knows what happened to his other wives because
he throws lavish parties for her and her friends
In Perrault's "Bluebeard," the young wife's using of the small key to open the storeroom against her husband's wishes has been typically interpreted as (choose all that apply)
a. depicting (female) curiosity and the dangers of it (like with Lot's wife, Pandora)
b. portraying the temptation to know, to expand a human's knowledge base (reminiscent of Adam and Eve, though that does NOT mean that the husband should be seen as a God figure)
c. female sexual enlightenment and exploration against the mandate of, here, the man (patriarch)
d. depicting the advantages and disadvantages of humans' quest for more (self) knowledge
Perrault's "Bluebeard" also gives us an example of a bad or, at least, inconsiderate host, as the young wife forsakes her company by way of a back staircase in order to go open the forbidden door. Hospitality and being a good host were important in French court culture. On a positive note, though, this same action could be seen as indicating that the woman is an independent thinker willing to forsake the "herd" mentality of society in order to find out more about herself and her predicament.
In the Grimms' "The Robber Bridegroom," the girl neglects to listen to
her own intuition and the bird in the cage.
The robber's guilt is revealed by
the severed finger with the ring