In todays era, computer has become one of the basic needs for human beings. Computer which we used like every day was invented for solely one purpose i.e. for calculating numerical problems and mathematical calculations. The term computer is derived from Latin world called ‘computare’ which means to calculate. With the advancement of technologies, computer has become one of the powerful machines ever created. There are different environments or surroundings where computers are used. For example, people can communicate from one place to another place or from one country to another. Similarly, people can withdraw their money from the bank even living in another country.
Some of the areas or surroundings in which computers are used are as follows:
Science and technologies:
Computer has become one of major role in the in the science and technological area. Scientists can perform haphazard experiments like nuclear testing, radioactive experiments, space programmes etc. Similarly, they can keep their records of their experiments, journals etc that can be retrieve whenever they wanted. Also they can get information on various subjects like weather forecasting, earthquake, volcanic eruption etc.
A computer system has played a major role in field of medicine. Now doctors can perform critical operations like heart surgery and others due to advancement of medical instruments. Similarly, in pharmaceuticals, people working in these areas can keep the records in computer like manufacture date, date of supplies, and expiry date of medicines.
Task 2: explain the, hardware, software and peripheral components of a computer system.
As stated earlier, a computer is an electronic device. That means a computer consists of a wires, components that helps to run a computer. Basically, there are two parts or components that help to run a computer. They are:
Parts of computer
A physical component that helps to run a computer is called hardware. Simply saying, any parts of a computer which we can see, feel and touch is called hardware. The examples of hardware are as follows:
It is also one of the input devices. It is used for entering textual data that consist of alphabets, numbers, special characters etc. The following are the different types of keyboard:
105 keys: desktop keyboard
85 keys: laptop keyboard
It is a pointing device used to position cursor on screen. It has 3 buttons. They are:
There are mainly two types of mouse. They are as follows:
It has ball at its base that is use to roll over mouse pad.
It has LED base which emits light. This light is used to position cursor deflection. It does not require mouse pad.
It is the main component of CPU cabinet that houses the entire electronic component inside a computer.
A hard disc is a physical component that is used for storing data. A hard drive can store millions of data permanently i.e. the data will be stored even if the power is off.
RAM is known as Random Access Memory. It is also called volatile memory because it saves the data temporarily when the computer is on. When the computer is turned off, all the data that is stored or saved by RAM will be deleted.
Software is a set of instructions that helps to run the computer. Or a set of programs used as info systems is called software. Basically there are two types of computer. They are:
System software deals with the internal functions of a computer. It loads when a computer starts and is used for interaction with the hardware. Example: operating system, device drivers etc.
Operating system consists of programs that manage all operations of computer.
The main tasks performed by operating systems are as follows:
Booting is the process of starting the computer and loading operating system with system files. The system files are follows:
After checking the configurations of the systems and found ok operating system loads/ prepares desktop/laptop for user.
A computer requires security data stored in inside it. To provide assets to appropriate user authentication process (username, password) is followed. If incorrect password is found, user is denied assets. Files are protected by taking password for each file.
The computer files, programs, I/O devices etc. Can be shared by networking. Networking allows two or more than two computers to be connected to each other. Networking also allows sharing of interest connection for browsing web-pages.
Operating system executes different tasks. Each task means process. So, multiple processes are executed and each process request resources.
The software used for fulfilling the requirement of the user is called application software. It is used by computer user after computer finishes starting (booting). Example: MS-Office, tally, games etc. Application software are created to fulfil the requirement of a computer user needs.
The parts of the computer that helps in running a computer is called peripheral component. These types of component generally found inside or outside of casing cabinet of a computer. We can also say that the components or devices that provide input to the computer or receive output are called peripheral components. Some of the examples are as follows:
Task 3: compare different types of computer systems. Consider the today’s mini world uses different types of computer for different purposes, your first task is to identify and list different types of computer system based on working principles, size and brand. Then explain their available features, application areas and finally suggest which types of computer system would be suitable for above environments.
As stated earlier, a computer is a powerful machine ever created by humans. A computer can complete its task within fraction of seconds. The higher the power, the time taken is less. A computer is generally divided into four types on its basis:
On the basis of operations or work.
On the basis of size.
On the basis brand.
On the basis of function.
On the basis of operations or work:
On the basis on performing an operation or doing a work, computer has been categorised into three types. They are as follows:
These types of computers works in continuing ranges of values. The results given by these computers are approximate since they work continously in their related fields. It generally deals with the physical quantities like speed, pressure etc. The examples of analog computer are speedometer, sthethescope,barometer etc.
These type computers are usec in binary digits i.e. 0 and 1. It is genrally used as on and off operators. The results given by the digital computers are correct and are more reliable than analog computers. They are used in performing complex mathematical probles and engineering.
Hybrid computers are combined form of both analog and digital computers, hybrid computers